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  • 1.
    Boysen, Marianne E.
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björneholm, Stina
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effect of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala on interactions between Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum in moist grain under restricted air supply2000In: Postharvest biology and technology, ISSN 0925-5214, E-ISSN 1873-2356, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penicillium roqueforti was recently reclassified into the three species P. roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum based on differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolites, e.g. mycotoxins. This is the first report on interaction between these closely related mould species under stress conditions. The yeast Pichia anomala (J121) inhibits growth of P. roqueforti in grain stored in malfunctioning airtight storage systems. The ability of P. anomala to inhibit all three species of the P. roqueforti group was examined in separate experiments as well as the competition between the three mould species when co-cultured with or without the yeast in non-sterile wheat grain (a(w) 0.95) under restricted air supply. Mould growth was analysed by dilution plating after 14 days and the individual colonies identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. When co-culturing the P. roqueforti group in wheat without P. anomala all three species were able to grow to the same extent. Also, when co-culturing all species of the P. roqueforti group together with P. anomala, the growth response of the three species was very similar. Al yeast levels of 10(4) CFU g(-1),grain a pronounced inhibition was observed and at 10(5) CFU g(-1) grain a fungicidal effect was detected, indicating a potentiated effect of P. anomala when co-culturing the three mould species.

  • 2.
    Petersson, Stina
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, SLU, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Nils
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, SLU, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pichia anomala as a biocontrol agent during storage of high-moisture feed grain under airtight conditions1999In: Postharvest biology and technology, ISSN 0925-5214, E-ISSN 1873-2356, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pichia anomala is antagonistic against a range of spoilage molds in vitro as well as against Penicillium roqueforti in high-moisture wheat during malfunctioning airtight storage in laboratory experiments. The use of Pichia anomala to improve the postharvest control of Penicillium roqueforti during airtight storage of feed grain was evaluated in outdoor silos. Inoculated and control winter wheat (cultivar Kosack) in 160-kg portions were stored at a water activity of 0.93 for 12 months in silos that were opened twice a week. During the first 2 months, inoculated Pichia anomala increased to about 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, while naturally occurring Pichia anomala in the treatments without inoculated yeast increased from 10(4) to 10(6) CFU/g. During the same period, CO2 concentrations increased to almost 70% and stabilized at 50-60%. During the coldest period, O-2 concentrations of <1% could be detected between samplings, whereas during the rest of the storage detectable O-2 levels were only found immediately after sampling. There were no clear differences in CO2 or O-2 levels between treatments. The inoculated Penicillium roqueforti did not grow during the storage period, probably owing to high numbers of Pichia anomala in combination with the high CO2 and low O-2 concentrations in the silos. In laboratory experiments, it was found that Pichia anomala survived long-term storage in airtight sealed test tubes better at 15 degrees C than at - 20 degrees C. The aerobic stability of moist wheat after 10 and 12 months of silo storage was clearly enhanced by an initial inoculation with Pichia anomala.

  • 3.
    Petersson, Stina
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Growth of Penicillium roqueforti, P-carneum, and P-paneum during malfunctioning airtight storage of high-moisture grain cultivars1999In: Postharvest biology and technology, ISSN 0925-5214, E-ISSN 1873-2356, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penicillium roqueforti is an important spoilage fungus in high-moisture grain stored under airtight conditions where a malfunctioning storage system allows air leakage. It has recently been proposed that P. roqueforti be divided into three different species: P. roqueforti, P. carneum, and P. paneum (Boysen, M., Skouboe, P., Frisvad, J., Rossen, L., 1996. Reclassification of the Penicillium roqueforti group into three species on the basis of molecular genetic and biochemical profiles. Microbiology 142, 541-549). Differences in susceptibility to infection with the three mold species among winter wheat, spring wheat, rye, and barley during airtight storage of high-moisture grain were evaluated using a variety of grain cultivars. To simulate air leakage into such a storage system, grain (0.96 water activity) was inoculated, packed in glass tubes with a restricted air supply and incubated at 25 degrees C for 14 days. Molds and yeasts were quantified as colony forming units (CFU) on selective media. Generally, there was no difference in infection ability between P. roqueforti, P. carneum and P. paneum. All of them reached about 10(6) CFU/g in barley and winter wheat. However, rye appeared to be resistant to infection. A comparison of different barley and spring wheat cultivars revealed that P. roqueforti, P. carneum and P. paneum grew less vigorously on the malt cultivars Maud and Mentor and the spring wheat cv. Dragon than on other cultivars. In addition, batch-related differences in resistance to mold growth were found for spring wheat cv. Dragon.

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