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  • 1.
    Huerta-García, Elizabeth
    et al.
    División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Comalcalco, Universidad Juárez Autónoma Tabasco, Comalcalco, Tabasco, México.
    Ramos-Godinez, María Del Pilar
    Departamento de Microscopía Electrónica, Ciudad de México, México .
    López-Saavedra, Alejandro
    Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Ciudad de México, México.
    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. of Environmental Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gómez-Crisóstomo, Nancy Patricia
    División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Comalcalco, Universidad Juárez Autónoma Tabasco, Comalcalco, Tabasco, México.
    Colín-Val, Zaira
    Departamento de Fisiología, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Ciudad de México, México.
    Sánchez-Barrera, Helen
    Departamento de Fisiología, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Ciudad de México, México.
    López-Marure, Rebeca
    Departamento de Fisiología, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Ciudad de México, México.
    Internalization of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Is Mediated by Actin-Dependent Reorganization and Clathrin- and Dynamin-Mediated Endocytosis in H9c2 Rat Cardiomyoblasts2019In: Chemical Research in Toxicology, ISSN 0893-228X, E-ISSN 1520-5010, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 578-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used for industrial and commercial applications. Once inside the body, they translocate into the bloodstream and reach different areas of the cardiovascular system including the heart, increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases; consequently, the investigation of their interaction with cardiac cells is required. We previously showed that TiO2 NPs are internalized by H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts, and here, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. TiO2 NPs internalization was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, time-lapse microscopy, and flow cytometry. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton were studied by phalloidin staining. Endocytic uptake mechanisms for nanoparticles were probed with chemical inhibitors, whereas clathrin and dynamin expression was measured by Western blot. Cellular uptake of TiO2 NPs occurred early after 30 min exposure, and large aggregates were observed after 1 h. Actin cytoskeleton reorganization included cell elongation plus lower density and stability of actin fibers. Cytochalasin-D inhibited TiO2 NPs uptake, indicating actin-mediated internalization. Dynamin and clathrin levels increased early after TiO2 NPs exposure, and their inhibition reduced nanoparticle uptake. Therefore, TiO2 NPs internalization by H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts involves actin cytoskeleton reorganization and clathrin/dynamin-mediated endocytosis.

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