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  • 1.
    Binnington, Matthew J
    et al.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Lei, Ying D
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Pokiak, Lucky
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Pokiak, James
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Ostertag, Sonja K
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Loseto, Lisa L
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Chan, Hing M
    Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada .
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada .
    Huang, Haiyong
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1000-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For Canadian Arctic indigenous populations, marine mammal (MM) traditional foods (TFs) represent sources of both important nutrients and hazardous environmental contaminants. Food preparation is known to impact the nutrient and environmental contaminant content of processed items, yet the impacts of preparation on indigenous Arctic MM TFs remain poorly characterized. In order to determine how the various processes involved in preparing beluga blubber TFs affect their levels of nutrients and environmental contaminants, we collected blubber samples from 2 male beluga whales, aged 24 and 37 years, captured during the 2014 summer hunting season in Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, and processed them according to local TF preparation methods. We measured the levels of select nutrients [selenium (Se), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)] and contaminants [organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury (Hg)] in raw and prepared (boiled, roasted, aged) beluga blubber TFs. The impacts of beluga blubber TF preparation methods on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels were inconsistent, as the majority of processes either did not appear to influence concentrations or affected the two belugas differently. However, roasting and ageing beluga blubber consistently impacted certain compounds: roasting blubber increased concentrations of hydrophilic substances (Se and certain PFASs) through solvent depletion and deposited PAHs from cookfire smoke. The solid-liquid phase separation involved in ageing blubber depleted hydrophilic elements (Se, Hg) and some ionogenic PFASs from the lipid-rich liquid oil phase, while PUFA levels appeared to increase, and hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants were retained. Ageing blubber adjacent to in-use smokehouses also resulted in considerable PAH deposition to processed samples. Our findings demonstrated that contaminant concentration differences were greater between the two sets of whale samples, based on age differences, than they were within each set of whale samples, due to variable preparation methods. When considering means to minimize human contaminant exposure while maximizing nutrient intake, consumption of aged liquid from younger male whales would be preferred, based on possible PUFA enhancement and selective depletion of hydrophilic environmental contaminants in this food item.

  • 2.
    Bohlin, P.
    et al.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Audy, O.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Skrdliková, L.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Kukucka, Petr
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Pribylová, P.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Prokes, R.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Vojta, S.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Klánová, J.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Outdoor passive air monitoring of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs): a critical evaluation of performance and limitations of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks2014In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 433-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most commonly used passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. polyurethane foam (PUF) disk) is cheap, versatile, and capable of accumulating compounds present both in gas and particle phases. Its performance for particle associated compounds is however disputable. In this study, twelve sets of triplicate PUF-PAS were deployed outdoors for exposure periods of 1-12 weeks together with continuously operated active samplers, to characterize sampling efficiency and derive sampling rates (R-S) for compounds belonging to 7 SVOC classes (including particle associated compounds). PUF-PAS efficiently and consistently sampled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and eight novel brominated flame retardant (nBFR) compounds. Low accuracy and lack of sensitivity was observed for most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans PCDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (under the conditions of this study), with the exception of some congeners which may be used as qualitative markers for their respective classes. Application of compound specific R-S was found crucial for all compounds except PCBs. Sampling efficiency of the particle associated compounds was often low.

  • 3.
    Bohlin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Audy, Ondrej
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Skrdliková, Lenka
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Vojta, Simon
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Pribylová, Petra
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Prokes, Roman
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Cupr, Pavel
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in double-dome chambers to assess semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial indoor environments2014In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 2617-2626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor air pollution has been recognized as an important risk factor for human health, especially in areas where people tend to spend most of their time indoors. Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have primarily indoor sources and are present in orders of magnitude higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Despite this, awareness of SVOCs in indoor air and assessment of the link between indoor concentrations and human health have tagged behind those of outdoor air. This is partially related to challenges associated with indoor sampling of SVOCs. Passive air samplers (PASs), which are widely accepted in established outdoor air monitoring networks, have been used to fill the knowledge gaps on indoor SVOCs distribution. However, their applicability for indoor environments and the assessment of human health risks lack sufficient experimental data. To address this issue, we performed an indoor calibration study of polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS deployed in a double-dome chamber, covering both legacy and new SVOC classes. PUF-PAS and a continuous low-volume active air sampler (AAS) were co-deployed for a calibration period of twelve weeks. Based on the results from this evaluation, PUF-PAS in a double-bowl chamber is recommended for indoor sampling and health risk assessment of gas phase SVOCs, including novel brominated flame retardants (nBFR) providing sufficient exposure time is applied. Data for particle associated SVOCs suffered from significant uncertainties caused by low level of detection and low precision in this study. A more open chamber design for indoor studies may allow for higher sampling rates (R-s) and better performance for the particle associated SVOCs.

  • 4.
    Koch, Alina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Section for Organic Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates2019In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 1887-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) cause ubiquitous spread of PFASs in the environment. In this study, surface water and aquatic invertebrates at three Swedish sites impacted by PFAS point sources were characterized, using homologue, isomer and extractable organofluorine (EOF) profiling as well as estimation of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and mass discharge. Two sites were impacted by fire training (sites A and R) and the third by industrial runoff (site K). Mean Σ25PFASs concentration in water was 1920 ng L-1 at site R (n = 3), which was more than 20- and 10-fold higher than those from sites A and K, respectively. PFOS was the most predominant PFAS in all waters samples, constituting 29-79% of Σ25PFAS concentrations. Several branched isomers were detected and they substantially contributed to concentrations in surface water (e.g. 49-78% of ΣPFOS) and aquatic invertebrates (e.g. 15-28% of ΣPFOS). BAFs in the aquatic invertebrates indicated higher bioaccumulation for long chain PFASs and lower bioaccumulation for branched PFOS isomers compared to linear PFOS. EOF mass balance showed that Σ25target PFASs in water could explain up to 55% of EOF at site R. However, larger proportions of EOF (>92%) remained unknown in water from sites A and K. Mass discharges were for the first time estimated for EOF and revealed that high amounts of EOF (e.g. 8.2 g F day-1 at site A) could be transported by water to recipient water bodies relative to Σ25PFASs (e.g. 0.15 g day-1 at site A). Overall, we showed that composition profiling, BAFs and EOF mass balance can improve the characterization of PFASs around point sources.

  • 5.
    Parajulee, Abha
    et al.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Lei, Ying Duan
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Cao, Xiaoshu
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    McLagan, David S.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada .
    Mitchell, Carl P. J.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Comparing winter-time herbicide behavior and exports in urban, rural, and mixed-use watersheds2018In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 767-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of pesticides in streams in winter, five to six years following bans on their municipal use suggests that complicated transport behaviour, such as subsurface retention and/or accumulation of pesticides and its release during storms, could be important for understanding recovery time frames following bans or legislation that aim to reduce chemical inputs. We investigated late fall and winter dynamics of four herbicides in paired urban and rural watersheds in Toronto, Canada during rainfall and snowmelt. The range of average concentrations and loads of the sum of atrazine, metolachlor, 2,4-D and mecoprop overlapped in the two types of watersheds, with slightly higher average concentrations in the rural watershed. Relatively consistent herbicide concentration-discharge patterns (i. e. dilution) were observed in the urban sub-watersheds during rainfall, while concentration-discharge patterns were much more variable in the rural watershed. This suggests relatively uniform transport pathways across the urban sub-watersheds, compared to the rural watershed. Concentration-discharge patterns of the neutral herbicides atrazine and metolachlor were similar in both watersheds during snowmelt, though varying discharge patterns resulted in divergent timings of peak concentrations. In contrast, the acidic pesticides 2,4-D and mecoprop, which are primarily associated with urban uses, showed much more variable behavior across both watersheds and merit further investigation. Overall, this work highlights the need to consider pesticide dynamics throughout the year in order to more thoroughly assess the longterm efficacy of legislation governing their use.

  • 6.
    Song, Shanjun
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Liu, Runzeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Occurrence and removal of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in a wastewater treatment plant in China2014In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 1076-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BZT-UVs) have previously been found in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which might be potential sources of BZT-UVs to the surrounding environment. In this work, the occurrence and fate of seven emerging 2-hydroxyphenyl substituted BZT-UVs were investigated in a Chinese WWTP. This group of hydrophobic BZT-UVs possess log Kow values ranging from 4.31 to 7.67 which could be associated with their fate in WWTPs. Field samples including 24 h flow composites of influent, effluent and grab sludge samples from different treatment processes were collected and analyzed. Concentrations of BZT-UVs dissolved in aqueous-phases were in the range of 4.88±1.35 (UV-234) to 34.5±12.4 ng L-1 (UV-P) in the primary influent, while only UV-P and UV-328 were detected in the final effluent at concentrations of 10.5±6.59 and 2.74±1.73 ng L-1, respectively. Considering the amount of target BZT-UVs adsorbed to total suspended solids (TSS), the daily mass flux in the primary influent of the WWTP ranged from 22.3 g day(-1) (UV-P, 7.99%) to 74.0 g day-1 (UV-234, 26.5%). Total removal efficiency of the integrated treatment process ranged from 89.7% for UV-P to 99.7% for UV-234 suggesting nearly complete removal. Organic solid sedimentation in primary and secondary clarifiers was the dominant elimination route for BZT-UV analogues, which constituted 96.3% of the total removal efficiency. Advanced treatment (using ultraviolet disinfection) in this plant might further contribute to the high removal efficiencies (ranging from 19.6% to 77.3%).

  • 7.
    Wang, Pu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Zhang, Haidong
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Li, Yingming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Ren, Daiwei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Ssebugere, Patrick
    Department of Chemistry, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda .
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Temporal trends of PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in soils from an E-waste dismantling area in East China2013In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 1897-1903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in soils from an E-waste dismantling area in East China between 2005 and 2011. Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was employed for the sample analysis. PCB levels declined as expected, while PCDD/Fs generally remained at a constant level during the sampling period, and PBDE concentrations tended to be slightly lower after 2007 although the decline was not statistically significant. The congener profiles indicated that lowly-halogenated congeners of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accounted for the decreasing levels and relative proportions of the POPs, suggesting that they have been gradually eliminated from the field soil over the years. However, the concentration levels of some heavy congeners (e.g., CB-209, OCDD and OCDF) showed different trends from those of the lighter ones. The general tendencies of the three types of POPs in soils were consistent with those reported in other studies in this area. The results implied that the enhanced regulations and centralized dismantling action introduced in 2005 might exert a limited influence on these three types of POPs in soils during the sampling period.

  • 8.
    Zhou, Shouming
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Forbes, Matthew W
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Abbatt, Jonathan P D
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Epoxide formation from heterogeneous oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene with gas-phase ozone and indoor air2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1292-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of two classes of epoxide products from the heterogeneous reaction of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with gas-phase ozone was demonstrated. BaP was coated on a Pyrex glass tube and oxidized with different concentrations of ozone. After oxidation, the epoxide products were derivatized by N-acetylcystein (NAC) and then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results show that in addition to mono-epoxides, diol-epoxides were also formed. BaP exposed to genuine indoor air also produces mono- and diol-epoxides, having similar chromatograms to those produced by oxidation of BaP by low concentrations of ozone. Although it is well recognized that diol-epoxides are formed from BaP oxidation in the human body and that they exhibit carcinogenicity via formation of adducts with DNA, this is the first demonstration that such classes of compounds can be formed by abiotic heterogeneous oxidation.

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