In the present paper three algorithms are applied to a finite element model of two thermoelastic bodies in frictional wearing contact. All three algorithms utilize a modification of a Newton method for B-differentiable equations as non-linear equation solver. In the first algorithm the fully-coupled system of thermomechanical equations is solved directly using the modified method, while in the other two algorithms the equation system is decoupled in one mechanical part and another thermal part which are solved using an iterative strategy of Gauss–Seidel type. The two iterative algorithms differ in which order the parts are solved. The numerical performance of the algorithms are investigated for two two-dimensional examples. Based on these numerical results, the behaviour of the model is also discussed. It is found that the iterative approach where the thermal subproblem is solved first is slightly more efficient for both examples. Furthermore, it is shown numerically how the predicted wear gap is influenced by the bulk properties of the contacting bodies, in particular how it is influenced by thermal dilatation.

The present work concerns the numerical treatment of fretting in the interface between a body and a rigid foundation. Starting from a variational formulation of a fretting model given in a framework of continuum thermodynamics, an augmented Lagrangian formulation is derived by introducing finite element discretizations in space and a finite difference discretization in time. The augmented Lagrangian formulation is implemented and solved by a Newton method for the two-dimensional case.

3.

Strömberg, Niclas

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

Thermal stresses as a result from frictional heating must be considered when designing disc brakes, clutches or other rotating machine components with sliding contact conditions. The rotational symmetry of the disc in these kind of applications makes it possible to model these systems using an Eulerian approach instead of a Lagrangian framework. In this paper such an approach is developed and implemented. The disc is formulated in an Eulerian frame where the convective terms are defined by the angular velocity. By utilizing the Eulerian framework, a node-to-node formulation of the contact interface is obtained, producing most accurate frictional heat power solutions. The energy balance of the interface is postulated by introducing an interfacial temperature. Both frictional power and contact conductances are included in this energy balance. The contact problem is solved by a non-smooth Newton method. By adopting the augmented Lagrangian approach, this is done by rewriting Signorini’s contact conditions to an equivalent semi-smooth equation. The heat transfer in the disc is discretized by a Petrov–Galerkin approach, i.e. the numerical difficulties due to the non-symmetric convective matrix appearing in a pure Galerkin discretization is treated by following the streamline-upwind approach. In such manner a stabilization is obtained by adding artificial conduction along the streamlines. For each time step the thermo-elastic contact problem is first solved for the temperature field from the previous time step. Then, the heat transfer problem is solved for the corresponding frictional power. In such manner a temperature history is obtained sequentially via the trapezoidal rule. In particular the parameter is set such that both the Crank–Nicolson and the Galerkin methods are utilized. The method seems very promising. This is demonstrated by solving a two-dimensional benchmark as well as a real disc brake system in three dimensions.

In this paper an implicit method for frictional contact, impact and rolling is suggested. A nonclassical formulation of a two-dimensional hyperelastic body unilaterally constrained to rigid supports is proposed by following the ideas of Moreau and Jean. A total Lagrangian formulation of the system is given. The elastic properties are defined by coupling the second Piola–Kirchhoff stress to the Green–Lagrange strain via the Kirchhoff–St. Venant law. The equation of motion is written in the spirit of Moreau by using the mean value impulses introduced by Jean. The mean value impulses appear explicitly in the equation of motion. In such manner the treatment of nonconstant kinematic transformation matrices becomes straightforward. The rigid supports are described by smooth functions. By utilizing these functions and the mean value impulses, new contact/impact laws of Signorini and Coulomb type are formulated. The governing equations are solved by a nonsmooth Newton method. This is performed by following the augmented Lagrangian approach and deriving the consistent stiffness matrix as well as the contact stiffness matrices. Three two-dimensional examples are solved by the method: a contact problem, an impact problem and a rolling contact problem.