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  • 1.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Tokyo Bay, Japan2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 266-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the environmental behaviour and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) found in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment. The sampling of the sediment was performed at two stations from Tokyo Bay, Japan, in 2008. In addition, a depth profile of seawater was collected at three water layers from both sampling stations. The ∑PFC concentrations ranged from 16.7 to 42.3 ng L-1 in the water column, from 6.4 to 15.1 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) in the SPM fraction and from 0.29 to 0.36 dw in surface sediment. The distribution of PFCs was found to depend on their physicochemical characteristics. While short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C < 7) were exclusively detected in the dissolved phase, longer-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 7), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) appeared to bind more strongly to particles. Results showed that the sorption of PFCs on SPM increases by 0.52-0.75 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that the sorption of PFSAs was 0.71-0.76 log units higher compared to the PFCA analogs. In addition, the sorption of PFCs was influenced by the organic carbon content. These data are essential for modelling the transport and environmental fate of PFCs.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 731-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K OC) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K OC=4.1±0.35cm 3g -1)>PFOS (3.7±0.56cm 3g -1)>PFOA (2.4±0.12cm 3g -1). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate.

  • 3.
    Baduel, Christine
    et al.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Corfield, John
    Brisbane Airport Corporation PTY Limited, Brisbane QLD, Australia.
    Gomez-Ramos, Maria-Jose
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia; Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CeiA3), Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Almeria, Almeria,Spain; European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruit and Vegetables, Almería, Spain.
    Discovery of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at a fire fighting training ground and preliminary investigation of their fate and mobility2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 185, p. 1030-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) have been released at fire training facilities for several decades resulting in the contamination of soil and groundwater by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). AFFF compositions are proprietary and may contain a broad range of PFASs for which the chemical structures and degradation products are not known. In this study, high resolution quadrupole-time-of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) in combination with data processing using filtering strategies was applied to characterize and elucidate the PFASs present in concrete extracts collected at a fire training ground after the historical use of various AFFF formulations. Twelve different fluorochemical classes, representing more than 60 chemicals, were detected and identified in the concrete extracts. Novel PFASs homologues, unmonitored before in environmental samples such as chlorinated PFSAs, ketone PFSAs, dichlorinated PFSAs and perfluoroalkane sulphonamides (FASAs) were detected in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the fire training ground. Their detection in the soil cores (from 0 to 2 m) give an insight on the potential mobility of these newly identified PFASs.

  • 4.
    Benisek, Martin
    et al.
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Mariani, Giulio
    Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, European Commission DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Suurkuusk, Gert
    Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, European Commission DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Gawlik, Bernd M.
    Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, European Commission DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Locoro, Giovanni
    Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, European Commission DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK, Canada; Department of Biology & Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Bláha, Ludek
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 122, p. 168-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(bio)) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQ(bio), (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22 mu g (TEQ(bio)) kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts.

  • 5.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dam, Maria
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hoydal, Katrin
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

  • 6.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P.
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale Vic, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    Office of Research and Development, NRMRL (E343-04), US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Emissions of PCDD and PCDF from combustion of forest fuels and sugarcane: A comparison between field measurements and simulations in a laboratory burn facility2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 1331-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field experiments vary by several orders of magnitude from <0.51 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1) to >1001 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental methods on the emission factor.

    A portable field sampler was used to measure PCDD/PCDF emissions from forest fires and the same fuel when burnt over a brick hearth to eliminate potential soil effects. A laboratory burn facility was used to sample emissions from the same fuels. There was very good agreement in emission factors to air (EF(Air)) for forest fuel (Duke Forest, NC) of 0.52 (range: 0.40-0.79), 0.59 (range: 0.18-1.2) and 0.75 (range: 0.27-1.2) mu g TEQ(WHO2005) (t fuel consumed)(-1) for the in-field, over a brick hearth, and burn facility experiments, respectively. Similarly, experiments with sugarcane showed very good agreement with EFAir of 1.1 (range: 0.40-2.2), 1.5 (range: 0.84-2.2) and 1.7 (range: 0.34-4.4) mu g TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) for in-field, over a brick hearth, open field and burn facility experiments respectively. Field sampling and laboratory simulations were in good agreement, and no significant changes in emissions of PCDD/PCDF could be attributed to fuel storage and transport to laboratory test facilities.

  • 7.
    Cao, Zhiguo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Tingting
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Deng, Shubo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Economic status as a determinant of national PCDD/PCDF releases and implications for PCDD/PCDF reduction2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from 68 countries/regions were investigated by correlating quantitative emissions with economic status of the nations. The national dioxin/furan inventories were developed using the PCDD/PCDF Standardized Toolldt, which presents the quantitative releases from ten major source groups to five release vectors. The correlation between intensity of PCDDIPCDF release and economic status was discussed and the influence of economic status on composition of five release vectors and ten source groups was studied. As PCDD/PCDF are mainly released from human activities to environmental matrices, release per person (RpP) and release per unit area (RpA) are defined to reflect release burden (Donor) and contamination burden (Receptor), respectively. Based on these two concepts, International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden is characterized by burden quotient (BQ) and a calculation model is established. The numbers of countries/regions with high, moderate and low International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden were 19,31 and 18, respectively. The information in this paper can be used for politicians to develop legislations to improve International PCDD/PCDF Reduction.

  • 8.
    Chen, Baowei
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Dandan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Methylation mechanism of tin(II) by methylcobalamin in aquatic systems2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 414-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The methylation reaction of tin(II) with methylcobalamin (CH(3)B(12)) in aquatic systems was modeled in the laboratory. The products were detected by a sensitive gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both monomethyltin (MMT) and dimethyltin (DMT) were found as methylation products. Three important effecting factors during the methylation reaction, salinity, pH and aerobic or anaerobic, were studied. The results showed that methyl group can be transferred from CH(3)B(12) to tin in aquatic solutions as a radical or carbonium, as well as a carbanion. Two explanations for the pH-dependency of the methylation reaction between tin(II) and CH(3)B(12) were proposed: pH-dependency of the equilibrium states of CH(3)B(12), and pH-dependency of inorganic tin(II) species whose reactivity vary with the redox potential in the solution. Salinity can influence the activity of the methyl donor, which cause changes in the methylation efficiency. Kinetic experiments showed that the methylation reaction was pseudo-first-order for CH(3)B(12).

  • 9. Dahlén, Johan
    et al.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ephraim, James
    Borén, Hans
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Determination of the molecular weight of fulvic acids by UV/VIS spectroscopy1999In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 783-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial least squares (PLS) modeling was applied to investigate number-average molecular weights (Mn) and weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of fulvic acids (FAs) in relation to the corresponding UVNIS spectra. The Mn and Mw values were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The impact of pH control, wavelength range and density as well as smoothing and derivation of spectra were tested. It was found that PLS models based on absorbance spectra can be a fast and powerful complement to existing techniques employed for determination of molecular weights of FAs. Control of pH of the FA solutions is important for the performance of the models. The models were also compared with the best univariate alternatives.

  • 10. Dahlén, Johan
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Determination of nitrate and other water quality parameters in groundwater from UV/Vis spectra employing partial least squares regression2000In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of UV/Vis spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) regression for the simultaneous prediction of nitrate and non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) in groundwaters was evaluated. A model of high quality was obtained using first order derivative spectra in the range 200–300 nm. Inclusion of non-UV-absorbing constituents in the modeling procedure, i.e., chloride, sulfate, fluoride, total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), alkalinity, pH and conductivity was also evaluated. This model seemed to be useful for prediction of chloride, TC, IC, alkalinity and conductivity, while its ability to predict sulfate, fluoride and pH was poor. In conclusion, application of PLS regression, which requires neither filtration of samples nor addition of chemicals, is a promising alternative for fast interpretation of geochemical patterns of groundwater quality.

  • 11.
    Dyke, P. H.
    et al.
    PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, Herefordshire, UK.
    Foan, C.
    The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, Berkshire, UK.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    PCB and PAH releases from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 469-480, article id PII S0045-6535(02)00627-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAR The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m(3).

  • 12.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Brunström, Björn
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Näf, Carina
    Inst. of Appl. Environ. Res. - ITM, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Levels of dioxin-like compounds in sewage sludge determined with a bioassay based on EROD induction in chicken embryo liver cultures1999In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 2327-2343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds was used to estimate levels in sewage sludge from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs). The sludge extracts were HPLC-separated into three fractions containing a) monoaromatic/aliphatic, b) diaromatic (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDDs/Fs]), and c) polyaromatic compounds (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]). The bioassay, which is based on EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) induction in cultured chicken embryo livers detected dioxin-like activity in all unfractionated extracts and in the di- and polyaromatic fractions of all sludge extracts, but not in the monoatomatic/aliphatic fractions. The levels ranged between 6 and 109 pg bio-TEQ/g sludge (d.w.). In sediment samples from rural lakes in Sweden, levels of about 5 pg bio-TEQ/g (d.w.) have been found. The polyaromatic fractions of the sludge samples were potent in the bioassay, probably due to various PAHs and other polyaromatics in the sludge. The levels of six PAHs that are screened for in the sludge at Swedish STPs accounted for only 3-10% of the observed EROD-induction by the polyaromatic fractions. Consequently, many other polyaromatic EROD-inducing compounds were present in the sludge. Inclusion of a biological test like the chicken embryo liver bioassay in the screening of sludge would improve the ability to detect the presence of bioactive dioxin-like compounds. A theoretical estimation of bio-TEQ concentrations in farm-soil following long-term application of sludge with bio-TEQ concentrations similar to those observed in this investigation indicated that the bio-TEQ levels in soil would increase very slowly over time. The chicken embryo liver bioassay proved useful in assessing levels of dioxin-like compounds in sewage sludge and it gives valuable complementary information to chemical analysis data.

  • 13.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Uptake of dioxin-like compounds from sewage sludge into various plant species: assessment of levels using a sensitive bioassay2000In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 40, no 9-11, p. 1189-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds was used to estimate uptake of dioxin-like compounds in carrots, oil seed rape seeds, zucchinis and cucumbers grown in soil amended with sewage sludge from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP), This sensitive bioassay is based on 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)-induction in cultured chicken embryo livers and reflects the combined biological effect of all dioxin-like compounds in a sample, including ones that seldom are analyzed. The bioassay detected low concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in all carrot, zucchini and cucumber samples, but did not detect any dioxin-like compounds in the rape seeds. In carrots the concentrations were increased up to seven times when grown in soil amended with high applications of some of the sludge samples, while others did not increase the concentrations compared to control. More realistic sludge applications only increased the concentrations slightly. The sludge-fertilized carrots contained the highest concentrations of the investigated plants (up to 14 pg bioassay-derived TCDD equivalents (bio-TEQs)/g d.w.). In the carrots, differences in uptake of dioxin-like compounds depended on the sludge origin, which may be due to more easily bioaccumulated dioxin-like compounds in some sludge samples, or other components that facilitated uptake into the carrots. In the cucumbers, a more than two-fold increase (from 0.2 to 0.5 pg bio-TEQs/g d.w.) was observed in specimens grown in sludge-amended soil when compared to controls, suggesting a small uptake from the roots to the shoots. No sludge-dependent increase in uptake was seen in the zucchini fruits. The bio-TEQ levels were generally low in the consumable above ground plant parts of the investigated species. However, the question if repeated sludge application results in a soil accumulation of dioxin-like compounds, thereby increasing the risk of plant uptake, remains to be investigated.

  • 14.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, no 9, p. S96-S108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Sources of PCDD/PCDF and impact on the environment1996In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PCDD/PCDF can be formed in a variety of industrial and thermal processes. Especially the combustion sources contribute to the ambient air levels. In addition to the well-investigated emissions from municipal waste incinerators dioxins were measured in the flue gases of other thermal emitters. It was found that some recycling plants can emit high concentrations of PCDD/PCDF. Ambient air concentrations monitored over several years have shown a clear seasonal trend with higher PCDD/PCDF levels in winter and lower concentrations during summer. Thus, results from short-term measurements cannot be used to calculate annual means for ambient air concentations or deposition rates. Dioxins, once concentrated in sewage sludge and compost can re-enter the environment when these ''reservoirs'' are applied onto agricultural and horticultural soils.

  • 17.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Cheung, C. K.
    Institute for Natural Resources and Waste Management, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, China.
    Wong, M. H.
    Institute for Natural Resources and Waste Management, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, China.
    PCDD/PCDF, chlorinated pesticides and PAH in Chinese teas2002In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 46, no 9-10, p. 1429-1433, article id PII S0045-6535(01)00264-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four samples of Chinese tea (two green teas, and two brick teas) were analyzed for their concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), chlorinated pesticides and PAH. The infusions prepared from these teas were also analyzed for PCDD/PCDF. The levels of DDT and its metabolites in tea leaves were within the safety limit of 0.2 mg/kg. Rather high levels of total PAH were obtained in brick tea (1048-1162 mg/kg), when compared with green tea (497-517 mg/kg). In terms of PCDD/PCDF, the concentrations of green tea and brick tea differed by a factor of 16, while the concentrations of all infusions were within a factor of 2. The dioxin concentrations in green tea leaves can be explained through uptake of atmospheric PCDD/PCDF. The higher concentrations in the brick tea leaves are due the longer exposure time, and to certain extent, the use of old leaves, branches and roots when making the tea, and additional components such as soil particulates through contamination. Certain Chinese populations drinking a large amount of brick tea (>31 per day) indicated that individuals of these populations consume more tea than Europeans or North Americans result in a comparably higher intake of PCDD/PCDF. Tea consumption can attribute to up to 10% of the TDI recommended by WHO (only PCDD/PCDF considered, no PCB analyzed).

  • 18.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K.
    Rutgers University, Cook College, New Brunswick, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Bonner, M.
    Bonner Analytical Testing Co., Hattiesburg, MS, USA .
    Howell, F.
    University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Biological Sciences, Hattiesburg, MS, USA .
    Willett, K.
    Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology, College Station, TX, USA .
    Safe, S.
    Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology, College Station, TX, USA .
    PCDD, PCDF, and PCB in farm-raised catfish from southeast United States - Concentrations, sources, and CYP1A induction1998In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 37, no 9-12, p. 1645-1656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine catfish fillets, three catfish nuggets, two feed samples, and one pond sediment were analyzed for PCDD, PCDF, and-PCB. Farm-raised catfish from Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas contained significant levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF. In addition, a large number of non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners were present in all samples. The catfish fillets and catfish nuggets also contained high concentrations of dioxin-like PCB, as well as a number of non-dioxin-like PCB. The TEQ based on PCDD and PCDF ranged from 9.5 to 43.0 pg/g lipid and the TEQ based on PCB ranged from 0.45 to 4.9 pg/g lipid for all catfish samples. The dioxin-like PCB contributed 4-16% to the total TEQ (PCDD/PCDF/PCB) for the catfish samples. The major source for the PCDD, PCDF, and PCB appears to be from feed and not from pond sediment. Immunoreactive CYP1A protein was elevated 2.5 fold in the pond-raised catfish compared to the aquarium-raised one. The results of this study suggest that the PCDD/PCDF are more important than the PCB in the CYP1A induction.

  • 19.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K. R.
    Rutgers University, E.O.H.S.I., Piscataway, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in southern Mississippi, USA1997In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 34, no 5-7, p. 1411-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n 1994, we analyzed 43 foodstuff samples from local supermarkets in southern Mississippi, USA, for PCDD/PCDF. 2,3,7,8-Cl4DD could be quantified in 31 of these samples. On a lipid basis, levels in meat (0.53-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) and dairy products (0.42-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) were slightly lower than those reported from other industrialized countries. While levels in dairy samples from the United States and Europe are comparable, there is a difference in the contribution of individual congeners to the I-TEQ: for example, in milk samples from Germany approximately 40% of the I-TEQ is due to the presence of 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF while in the Mississippi samples this congener only contributes 16%. The highest concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in our study were detected in the farm-raised catfish (10.2-27.8 pg I-TEQ/g). A unique finding was that in addition to the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF the catfish samples contained many non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. This is unusual because vertebrate animals selectively eliminate or metabolize the non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners.

  • 20.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Sources and sinks of dioxins: Germany1992In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 25, no 7-10, p. 1487-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion processes are known to produce dioxins and especially municipal waste incineration is thought to have the highest contribution to the general background. On the other hand the general acceptance of non-thermal waste treatment methods such as composting is much higher than incineration. The results of an estimation on the input of PCDD/PCDF to Germany show that besides the thermal processes so-called sinks for pollutants, such as sewage sludge, compost, and foliage represent a reservoir to release dioxins by use in agriculture.

  • 21.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Lau, C.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Kjeller, L.-O.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans found in soil and sediment samples in southern Mississippi1996In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 421-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using hierarchical cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), sediment and soil samples from the State of Mississippi were compared with the effluents of a pulp mill, a potential point source. Additionally, data of many known sources of PCDD/PCDF from the scientific literature were evaluated. Both methods were able to distinguish between different matrices with known PCDD/PCDF contamination (e.g. PCP, PCB, kraft pulp mill effluents). In some instances, a specific PCDD/PCDF source could be correlated to an environmental sample, e.g. the pattern of a U.S, brand of pentachlorophenate was found in sediment samples. None of the mathematical and statistical techniques could identify the pulp mill as the source of the PCDD/PCDF in the sediments and soils in the floodplain.

  • 22.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, FRG.
    Schramm, K.-W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, FRG.
    QSAR generated octanol-water partition coefficients of selected mixed halogenated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans1990In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 20, no 10-12, p. 1597-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have calculated the values of pkow, water solubility, and Koc for chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans that have been identified in environmental samples. From the results it can be concluded that brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins and furans will show an ecological behaviour similar to that of the pure chlorinated compounds.

  • 23.
    Fu, Jianjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Temporal trends (2005-2009) of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDEs in rice hulls from an e-waste dismantling area after stricter environmental regulations2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 330-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primitive e-waste dismantling activities have been of increasing concern due to serious environmental and human health problems, and therefore authorities in China have strengthened the regulations on illegal e-waste recycling activities. In this work, we used rice hull as a passive sampler and investigated temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in areas near e-waste recycling sites after the stricter regulations. Furthermore, the distribution patterns and composition profiles of these contaminants were also discussed. The average concentrations of the three groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in rice hulls have markedly decreased during the period of 2005-2009. Specifically, from 12.9 (average value in 2005) to 0.37 pg WHO-TEQ/g (dry weight, dw) (in 2009) for PCDD/Fs, 47.6 (2005) to 7.10 ng g(-1)dw (2009) for PCBs, and 2.51 (2005) to 0.89 ng g(-1), dw (2009) for PBDEs. The significant decrease of combustion markers 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8HxCDF and PCB126, and the PCDD/PCDF ratio from 1:9 (2005) to 7:3 (2009) is likely a result of stricter regulations on open combustion activities. This study suggests that stricter control measures, strengthened laws and regulations and more environmental friendly techniques could be effective measures in reducing the release and formation of related POPs in typical e-waste dismantling sites, and these measures could further improve the quality of the environment and health of the local inhabitants.

  • 24.
    Fu, Jianjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, Zongshan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in an e-waste dismantling region in Southeast China: use of apple snail (Ampullariidae) as a bioindicator2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 648-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fengjiang is a large e-waste dismantling site located in southeast China. In this paper, apple snail and soil samples were collected from this e-waste dismantling site and 25 vicinal towns to investigate the contamination status, spatial distributions and congener patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Total PCB concentrations in apple snails (3.78-1812ngg(-1) dry weight (dw)) were significant higher than that in soil samples (0.48-90.1ngg(-1) dw). PBDE (excluding BDE 209) concentrations in apple snail and soil samples ranged from 0.09 to 27.7ngg(-1) dw and 0.06 to 31.2ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in snails and soils correlated negatively with the distance from Fengjiang. Both the concentrations and profiles of the pollutants were significantly correlated (p<0.05) between the snail and soil samples, indicating the suitability of apple snail as a reliable bioindicator for PCBs and PBDEs contamination in this region. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs at locations far from e-waste dismantling sites implied that these pollutants have been transported to surrounding regions.

  • 25.
    Fu, Jianjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jiemin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    High levels of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) from a typical E-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 71, no 7, p. 1269-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very few studies have investigated the heavy metal contents in rice samples from a typical E-waste recycling area. In this study, 10 heavy metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni and Pb) in 13 polished rice and relevant hull samples, six relevant paddy soil samples were investigated. The geometric mean concentrations of Cd, Cu and Hg in soil samples were 1.19, 9.98 and 0.32 microg g(-1), respectively, which were 4.0, 2.0 and 1.1-folds of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) (0.30, 50.00, 0.30 microg g(-1), respectively) for Chinese agricultural soils. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and relevant hull except for As, Cd and Hg (p<0.05). All metal concentrations, except for Co, in rice hull were higher than those in polished rice. The geometric mean of Pb in polished rice reached 0.69 microg g(-1), which was 3.5-folds higher than the MAC (0.20 microg g(-1)) by the safety criteria for milled rice. Cd contents in 31% of the rice samples exceeded the national MAC (0.20 microg g(-1)), and the arithmetic mean also slightly exceeded national MAC. In addition, Cd and Pb contents in local rice were much higher than commercial rice samples examined in this work and previous studies. Comparing the tolerable daily intakes given by FAO/WHO with the mean estimated daily intakes; Pb daily intake through rice consumption in this area was 3.7 microg day(-1)kg(-1) body weight (bw), which already exceeded the FAO tolerable daily intake, and the Cd daily intake (0.7 microg day(-1)kg(-1) bw) through rice had already taken up 70% of the total tolerable daily intake (1 microg day(-1)kg(-1) bw). The daily intake of Hg and As through rice was much lower than the tolerable daily intakes, but bioaccumulation of Hg through the food chain and intake of As from other food stuff should also be of concern.

  • 26.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Li, Peng
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Nakamura, Mayumi
    Animal Hygiene Service Center, 6-8 Hiraidekougyoudanchi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan.
    Fluorinated alkyl compounds including long chain carboxylic acids in wild bird livers from Japan2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of fluorinated alkyl compounds (FACs) has been reported in wildlife in various locations in the world. However, such information regarding Japanese wildlife is rarely found. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of 21 FACs, including perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (PFASs), perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), and fluorotelomer acids, in the livers of 10 wild bird species from two regions in northern Japan. To avoid interferences, FACs were quantified by a recently developed method using acetonitrile and solid-phase extraction followed by an ion exchange HPLC column separation. Apart from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found at the highest levels of all the compounds detected, several long chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) from C8 to C16, particularly perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA) and perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), were detected for the first time. Additionally, 7:3 FTCA, a fluorotelomer acid, was also detected in most swan livers from Miyagi prefecture and all the birds from Tochigi prefecture. However, none of the sulfonamides and unsaturated telomer acids were detected in any species. Swans seem to be the least exposed wild birds to FACs among the investigated birds, signifying that feeding habits may reflect FAC accumulation in wild birds. The highest total concentration of detected FACs was 405ngg-1wet wt., which was found in a Japanese sparrowhawk, indicating that the top predatory wild birds can accumulate several long chain carboxylic acids. However, the current FAC concentrations found in livers may suggest that these compounds alone would not cause a severe toxic effect in these species.

  • 27.
    Haug, Line Smastuen
    et al.
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Becher, Georg
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway; Dept Chem, Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Levels in food and beverages and daily intake of perfluorinated compounds in Norway2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1137-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been determined in 21 samples of selected food and beverages such as meat, fish, bread, vegetables, milk, drinking water and tea from the Norwegian marked. Up to 12 different PFCs were detected in the samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were found in concentrations similar to or lower than what has been observed in other studies world-wide. Differences in the relative proportion of PFOA and PFOS between samples of animal origin and samples of non-animal origin were observed and support findings that PFOS has a higher bio-accumulation potential in animals than PFOA. Based on these 21 measurements and consumption data for the general Norwegian population, a rough estimate of the total dietary intake of PFCs was found to be around 100 ng d(-1). PFOA and PFOS contributed to about 50% of the total intake. When dividing the population in gender and age groups, estimated intakes were decreasing with increasing age and were higher in males than females. The estimated intakes of PFOS and PFOA in the present study are lower than what has been reported in studies from Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada and Japan. This study illustrates that by improving the analytical methods for determination of PFC in food samples, a broad range of compounds can be detected, which is important when assessing dietary exposure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Hauk, A.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Richartz, H.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Schramm, K. W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Reduction of nitrated phenols: A method to predict half-wave-potentials of nitrated phenols with molecular modeling1990In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 717-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox stability of 13 nitrated phenols was investigated using polarographic measured half-wave-potentials. These half-wave-potentials were compared with data from a semi-empirical quantum mechanic computer model. A good correlation was found between LUMO energy and the half-wave-potential for phenols, but for phenolates the correlation coefficient was lower, even when a multivariate regression model was used.

  • 29. Horii, Yuichi
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Petrick, Gert
    Nachtigall, Kerstin
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Novel evidence for natural formation of dioxins in ball clay2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1280-1289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated concentrations of dioxins in ancient ball clay from the Mississippi Embayment suggest natural formation of dioxins in the environment. Evidence for such natural formation in ball clay derives from unique congener profiles in undisturbed ancient clay deposits and from the lack of other anthropogenic contaminants. Here we present novel evidence of natural formation of dioxins based on congener-specific carbon isotopic analysis of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in ball clays from the USA and Japan. The analyses were performed using a combination of double-column high performance liquid chromatography clean-up and two-dimensional gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Elevated concentrations of OCDD found in ball clays from the USA and Japan were isotopically distinguished from the anthropogenic source materials (fly ash and pentachlorophenol) and environmental samples (sediment and soil). The isotopic signatures and the occurrence of OCDD in ancient ball clays deposited in the Tertiary Era provide evidence for the in situ formation of dioxins.

  • 30.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jefferson, Thomas A.
    Southwest Fisheries Center, NOAA Fisheries, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Hung, Samuel K.
    Hong Kong Cetacean Research Project, 12 Kak Tin Kung Miu Village, Tai Wai, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Michael H. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    O'Toole, Desmond K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    An assessment of the risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls found in the stomach contents of stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Hong Kong waters2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 845-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risks to Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins and Finless Porpoises associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed. Stomach contents from twelve stranded Humpback Dolphins and sixteen stranded Finless Porpoises were collected. Concentrations of total and isomer-specific PCBs in the stomach contents were determined using dual-column gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detectors (GC-ECD). Risks due to the PCBs were assessed in three scenarios, based on total PCBs (summation of 41 PCB congeners), total toxicity equivalency (TEQs) and PCB 118, using the toxicity reference values (TRVs) as the threshold effects benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that risks due to PCBs were generally low or negligible. Specifically, RQs from total TEQs and total PCBs for Finless Porpoises are below one, suggesting that PCBs should be a low risk for the Finless Porpoise in Hong Kong waters. However, the Humpback Dolphin has RQs larger than 1 for total TEQs and total PCBs when the 95th percentile data were used in the evaluation. This indicates that further investigation may be needed to examine more closely the potential impact of toxic contaminants in the habitat of the Humpback Dolphin.

  • 31.
    Hutzinger, O.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    From source to exposure: Some open questions1993In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 27, no 1-3, p. 121-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PCDD/PCDF are trace contaminants in industrial and thermal processes, whose formation often cannot be avoided. Although the most important sources seem to be recognized within the last years new sources have been discovered. Very often only limited data are available. For the understanding of human exposure it is necessary to understand the pathways from the source to target organs or organisms. Environmental concentrations of dioxins have to be analyzed under ectoxicological aspects. Transfer and transformation mechanisms to be considered are: evaporation, deposition, erosion, photochemical degradation

  • 32.
    Hutzinger, O.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry & Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry & Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Sources and emissions of PCDD/PCDF1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 18, no 1-6, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main sources of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) have been found to be the following: 1. Combustion processes in large and small systems; 2. industrial processes of the chemical and other industries, and 3. dumps, accidents and residues. During the last years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from mobile sources, e.g. automobile exhaust, and to private heating. Even though several theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out to elucidate the formation mechanism of PCDD/PCDF, many questions still remain unanswered.

  • 33.
    Johansson, Inger
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in weathered bottom ash from incineration of municipal solid waste2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in weathered bottom ash from different municipal solid waste incinerators. The sum of the 16 "USEPA" PAHs was found to vary from 480 to 3590 mug/kg. The amounts of carcinogenic PAHs were between 89 and 438 mug/kg ash. The maximum levels of carcinogenic PAHs exceed the Swedish generic guidelines for sensitive land use. The results showed that the amount of PAHs in fresh and weathered bottom ash are similar, indicating that the PAHs are strongly bound to the ash and only limited amounts are released to'the surroundings. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Kukucka, Petr
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Audy, Ondrej
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Holt, Eva
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Kalábová, Tereza
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republ ic.
    Source identification, spatio-temporal distribution and ecological risk of persistent organic pollutants in sediments from the upper Danube catchment2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, p. 777-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riverine sediments, collected on a monthly basis during a period of one year, from five sites in a mixed land use region of the Czech Republic were analysed for chlorinated and brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The region is located in the upper catchment of the Danube River. The POPs concentrations were as follows: 11-930 pg g(-1) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), 170-980 pg g(-1) dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), 34-13,700 pg g(-1) polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), 5.7-29,200 pg g(-1) polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 0.21-351 ng g(-1) hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). Concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs), for PCDD/F + dl-PCB + PCN (TEQ(PCDD/F+dla-PCB+PCN)) ranged from 0.37 to 19 pg g(-1). The results revealed a clear spatial separation between sites based on concentration and congener profile. There were also some obvious temporal patterns of selected POPs, which were related to river flow (seasonality) and organic carbon (TOC) of the sediment. Potential sources of POPs include local municipalities (flame retardants), some diffuse sources (PCNs and PCDDs/Fs) and potential point sources (PBDEs). Risk assessment based on risk quotients (RQ) revealed limited to medium ecological risk from PBDEs. TEQ(PCDD/F+dl-PCB+PCN) were low relative to other European rivers, hence the risk to aquatic organisms was considered to be low. PCNs contributed significantly to overall TEQ in several cases.

  • 35.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of persistent organic pollutants on oxidative stress in population-based samples2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 114, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a large group of chemicals widely used and produced in various industrial applications. Many cell culture/animal studies have shown that POPs can induce oxidative stress. Since such data is lacking in humans, we conducted a large population-based study to analyze associations between POPs and oxidative stress markers. We measured following POPs; 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polybrominated diphenyl ether 47, and oxidative stress markers; homocysteine, reduced [GSH] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG], glutathione ratio [GSSG/GSH], total glutathione, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], ox-LDL antibodies, conjugated dienes, baseline conjugated dienes of LDL, and total anti-oxidative capacity in plasma samples collected from 992 70-year old individuals (50% women) from the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Linear regression analyses were performed to study the associations between oxidative stress markers and summary measures of POPs including the total toxic equivalence (TEQ), sums of PCBs and BC pesticides (main exposures) while adjusting for potential confounders. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, sum of PCBs showed strong associations with ox-LDL (beta = 0.94; P = 2.9 * 10(-6)). Further, sum of PCBs showed association with glutathione-related markers (GSSG: beta = 0.01; P = 6.0 *10(-7); GSSG/GSH: beta = 0.002; P = 9.7 * 10(-10)), although in reverse direction. Other summary measures did not show any significant association with these markers. In our study of elderly individuals from the general population, we show that plasma levels of POPs are associated with markers of increased oxidative stress thereby suggesting that even low dose background exposure to POPs may be involved in oxidative stress. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Hardell, Lennart
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in relation to other persistent organic pollutants in human blood2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 9, p. 1582-1591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate blood levels of some perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and compare them to current levels of classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) whole blood samples from Sweden were analyzed with respect to 12 PFCs, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), six chlordanes and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The median concentration, on whole blood basis, of the sum of PFCs was 20-50 times higher compared to the sum of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, 300-450 times higher than HCB, sum of chlordanes and sum of PBDEs. Estimations of the total body amount of PFCs and lipophilic POPs point at similar body burdens. While levels of for example PCBs and PBDEs are normalized to the lipid content of blood, there is no such general procedure for PFCs in blood. The distributions of a number of perfluorinated compounds between whole blood and plasma were therefore studied. Plasma concentrations were higher than whole blood concentrations for four perfluoroalkylated acids with plasma/whole blood ratios between 1.1 and 1.4, whereas the ratio for perflurooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was considerably lower (0.2). This suggests that the comparison of levels of PFCs determined in plasma with levels determined in whole blood should be made with caution. We also conclude that Swedish residents are exposed to a large number of PFCs to the same extent as in USA, Japan, Colombia and the few other countries from which data is available today.

  • 37. Lacayo-Romero, Martha
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Degradation of toxaphene in aged and freshly contaminated soil2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 609-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of toxaphene in soil from both newly contaminated (from Sweden) and aged spills (from Nicaragua) were studied. The newly contaminated soil contained approximately 11 mg kg(-1) toxaphene while the aged Nicaraguan soil contained approximately 100 mg kg(-1). Degradation was studied in anaerobic bioreactors, some of which were supplied with lactic acid and others with Triton X-114. In this study we found that the lower isomers Parlar 11, 12 were degraded while the concentration of isomer Parlar 15 increased. This supported an earlier evaluation which indicated that less chlorinated isomers are formed from more heavily isomers. Lactic acid when added to the soil, interfere with the degradation of toxaphene. Lactic acid was added; several isomers appeared to degrade rather slowly in newly contaminated Swedish soil. The Swedish soil, without any external carbon source, showed the slowest degradation rate of all the compounds studied. When Triton X-114 at 0.4 mM was added, the degradation rate of the compounds increased. This study illustrates that biodegradation of toxaphene is a complex process and several parameters have to be taken into consideration. Degradation of persistent pollutants in the environment using biotechnology is dependent on bioavailability, carbon sources and formation of metabolites.

  • 38.
    Lau, C.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Schwind, K.-H.
    Ökometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hosseinpour, J.
    Ökometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Levels of selected organic compounds in materials for candle production and human exposure to candle emissions1997In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 34, no 5-7, p. 1623-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) selected chlorinated pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some volatile organic compounds (VOC) were analysed in the exhaust fumes of candles made from different waxes and finishing materials. To guarantee defined burning conditions a chamber was developed for the sampling of the exhaust fumes, Using a simple exposure model, the inhalative uptake of PCDD/PCDF by an adult person was calculated for different scenarios. It was shown that additional uptake of PCDD/PCDF caused by candle emissions does not contribute significantly to the total daily intake of these compounds. Emissions of PCDD/PCDF, benzo(a)pyrene and the VOC were then compared to limit value for working places. Even when many candles would be burnt at the same time in a small room, concentrations of the compounds investigated stay below 1 % of the tolerable limit values.

  • 39.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Xu, Muqi
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 10, p. 1649-1653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng mL-1 in tigers and 2.69 ng mL-1 in lions. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the second most prevalent contaminant in both species. The composition profiles of the tested PFCs differed between tigers and lions, and the percentages of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were greater in lions than in tigers, indicating different exposures and/or metabolic capabilities between the two species. Assessments of the risk of PFC contamination to the two species were obtained by comparing measured concentrations to points of departure or toxicity reference values (TRVs). Results suggest no risk of PFOS exposure or toxicity for the two species.

  • 40.
    Li, Yingming
    et al.
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ding, Lei
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Xiaomin
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Hongbiao
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wei, Fusheng
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls around a steel plant area, northeast China2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 253-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in June 2008 and January 2009 to investigate the concentrations, profiles and estimating potential inhalation risks to the local residents around a steel plant area in northeast China. The air concentrations and WHO-TEQs of PCDD/Fs ranged 94-4944fgm(-3) (average 1352fgm(-3)) and 3-247fgm(-3) (average 81fgm(-3)), respectively. The WHO-TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs ranged 1-18fgm(-3) (average 5fgm(-3)), contributing to 3.6-26% of the total TEQ. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the winter, whereas higher dioxin-like PCB concentrations were found in the summer. The seasonal trend can be related to the significant correlation between the concentrations of dioxins and the reciprocal of temperature (positive for PCDD/Fs, P<0.01; negative for dioxin-like PCBs, P=0.05). A significant positive correlation (P<0.0001) was found between the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PCDD/F concentrations, but not for PCB congeners. Although the steel plant sites showed higher dioxin levels than the residential and background areas, the PCDD/F levels in the atmosphere of the steel plant area was at a relatively low level. The results from this study provides further aid in evaluating the impact of steel plants as PCDD/Fs emission sources to the ambient air in China.

  • 41.
    Li, Zhuona
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Yin, Nuoya
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Liu, Qian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Chang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Yichen
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Effects of polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN on steroidogenesis in H295R cells2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 1227-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(γ)-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) are widely used in personal care products. Previous studies showed that HHCB and AHTN can be found in various environmental matrices and have potential endocrine disrupting effects. However, the effects on adrenocortical function of HHCB and AHTN are not fully understood. This study evaluated the influences of HHCB and AHTN on seven steroid hormones (progesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, 17α-OH-progesterone, androstenedione, 17β-estradiol, and testosterone) and 10 genes involved in steroidogenic pathways (HMGR, StAR, CYP11A1, 3βHSD2, CYP17, CYP21, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, 17βHSD, and CYP19) using the H295R cell line in the absence and presence of 8-Br-cAMP. MC2R transcription on the cell membrane was also examined to further investigate the effects of HHCB and AHTN on adrenal steroidogenesis. The results demonstrated that HHCB and AHTN could inhibit progesterone and cortisol production mainly by the suppression of 3βHSD2 and CYP21. Meanwhile, high concentrations of AHTN can affect the sensitivity of H295R cells to ACTH by disrupting MC2R transcription. Overall, the results indicate that high concentrations of HHCB and AHTN can affect steroidogenesis in vitro using the H295R cell line.

  • 42.
    Lind, P. M.
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lee, Duk-Hee
    Department of Preventative Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.
    Jacobs, David R.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN, USA; Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wolff, Mary S.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York NY, USA.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants are related to retrospective assessment of life-time weight change2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 998-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been suggested to be linked to obesity. We have previously shown that less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to fat mass, while highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to obesity.

    Objective: The aim of the present evaluation is to investigate the relationship between retrospective assessed life-time change in body weight (20-70 years) with circulating POP levels measured at age 70 years.

    Methods: 1016 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUSs) study. 16 PCBs and 3 OC pesticides were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. Current body weight was measured and participants self-reported their weight at age 20.

    Results: The average estimated weight change over 50 years was 14.4 kg. Both the sum of OC pesticide concentrations (4.3 kg more weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p < 0.0001) and the sum of the less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to the estimated weight change (3.7 kg more weight gain in quintile 2 vs. quintile 1, non-linear relationship p = 0.0015). In contrast, the sum of concentrations of highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to estimated weight change (8.4 kg less weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p < 0.0001).

    Conclusion: High levels of OC pesticides and the less-chlorinated PCBs at age 70 were associated with a pronounced estimated weight change over the previous 50 years. However, the opposite was seen for highly-chlorinated PCBs. Differences in mode of action, toxicokinetics, non-linear relationships and reverse causation might explain these discrepancies.

  • 43.
    Löthgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Sven
    Numerical modelling of the memory effect in wet scrubbers2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 1, p. S101-S105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) can be absorbed in and desorbed from polypropylene (PP) tower packings in wet scrubbers utilized in waste incineration lines. This behaviour, also known as the memory effect, has been modelled using a gas phase – PP surface equilibrium and a numerical solid phase diffusion model describing the transport of PCDD/Fs inside the PP. The diffusivities and gas – PP partition coefficients of TCDD/F to HxCDD/Fs in PP have been estimated using the numerical model. Two incineration lines were modelled. In the first line, the absorption and desorption in PP test rods was followed before and after installation of a fabric filter that was placed before a wet scrubber. In the second incineration line, the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in a wet scrubber during start up periods and the subsequent decline during the following three months was modelled and compared to continuous two-week gas measurements after the scrubber. The obtained diffusivities in PP range from 10−13 m2/s for TCDD to 10−16 m2/s for HxCDD. Lower chlorinated homologues with a distinctive change in concentrations during the desorption period (e.g. TCDF) are easier to model, and show the best agreement between the two incineration lines.

  • 44.
    Löthgren, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dioxin emissions after installation of a polishing wet scrubber in a hazardous waste incineration facility2005In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 405-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxin levels measured after wet scrubbing systems have been found to be higher than levels measured before the scrubber. It is believed that there is an adsorption of PCDD/Fs on plastic materials in the scrubber. The PCDD/F levels after a polishing wet scrubber were followed continuously for 18 months using long-time sampling equipment at a hazardous waste incineration facility in Sweden. Each sampling period lasted two weeks. It was found that the levels during and shortly after start-up periods were elevated. The decline was very slowly, which supports a memory effect in the scrubber. Further, a multivariate model showed that the relation between different homologues changed over time, which is in agreement with a desorption model, taking into account the vapour pressures for different congeners.

  • 45.
    Mahmoud, Manal A. M.
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Oono, Sayoko
    Kyoto University.
    Harada, Kouji H.
    Kyoto University.
    Koizumi, Akio
    Kyoto University.
    Polyfluorinated telomers in precipitation and surface water in an urban area of Japan2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 467-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) have been detected in various environmental matrices worldwide, no studies have been conducted to evaluate their concentrations in surface water or precipitation. Therefore, we developed a sensitive and reliable method to analyze various environmental aqueous samples for the presence of trace levels of 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOAcr and 8:2 FTOMethacr FTOlefin using gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. The recoveries obtained using this method ranged from 57.8% to 78.2% and the detection limits were 0.5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.05 and 0.1 ng L−1 for 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOAcr and 8:2 FTOMethacr, respectively. Liquid and suspended phases of the examined samples were analyzed. The analysis revealed presence of telomer alcohols from the liquid phase only. Of the FTOHs evaluated, 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOMethacr FTOlefin were not found in any of the environmental samples. The average concentrations of 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOAcr of the precipitation samples were 1.97, 0.82 and 0.21 ng L−1, respectively. In surface water samples, the highest concentrations of 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOAcr were 3.38, 4.06 and 0.16 ng L−1, which were observed in samples from the Daini-Neyagawa, Yamato and Kanzaki rivers, respectively. The total concentration of FTOHs in wastewater treatment plant effluents (23.2 ng L−1) was much higher than that of surface water (10.8 ng L−1). Taken together, the results of this study indicate that FTOHs released into the air contaminate rain and that those released from water disposal sites contaminate surface water.

  • 46.
    Malisch, Rainer
    et al.
    EU Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt, Freiburg, Germany.
    Denison, Michael S.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis CA, United States.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fürst, Peter
    Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Münsterland-Emscher-Lippe (CVUA-MEL), Münster, Germany.
    Hoogenboom, Ron L. A. P.
    RIKILT, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Schaechtele, Alexander
    EU Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt, Freiburg, Germany.
    Schrenk, Dieter
    Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    van den Berg, Martin
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Do PCDD/PCDF standard solutions used in dioxin analysis pose a risk as potentially acutely toxic to lab personnel?2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 185, p. 489-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory safety requires protecting personnel from chemical exposures. Working with stock solutions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in routine analysis of feed and food with bioanalytical or physicochemical methods raises some concerns. Since PCDD/PCDFs are considered as possibly acutely toxic, the potential risks were evaluated to determine whether supervision of their use is necessary. Based on LD50-data for oral or dermal intake, hazard classification of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a substance (category 1) and in commercially available TCDD standard solutions (category 4) is different. As worst case exposure scenario during routine laboratory work it was assumed that a dose of 100 ng TCDD gets onto the skin and is absorbed. This would result in the total body burden of a 70 kg person with 15 kg fat increasing from 10 (upper range of current background levels) to similar to 17 pg of toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDD/PCDFs per g lipid, a level commonly observed over past decades. Chloracne, the main acute effect occurring weeks after exposure, is observed at much higher blood concentrations than estimated from accidental laboratory exposure. Immunotoxicity, developmental effects and other toxic effects may occur at lower blood levels, but require longer periods to develop. Since acute toxic symptoms don't occur within an "8 h acute time window", no supervision is necessary when working with standard solutions in routine analysis. Nevertheless, precautionary measures are needed regarding long-term adverse health effects and appropriate workplace conditions must exist to ensure that additional occupational exposure to PCDD/PCDFs by laboratory personnel is negligible.

  • 47.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Lorca, Spain.
    Heras-Gonzalez, L.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ibañez-Peinado, D.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Rivas, A.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 156, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (<2500 g). These results indicate prenatal exposure to OCPs in Southern Spain and its possible impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns.

  • 48.
    Persson, Sara
    et al.
    Division of Reproduction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Division of Reproduction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of age, season, body condition and geographical area on concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1664-1671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wild mink has gained acceptance as a sentinel species in environmental monitoring. However, only limited data are available in the literature on factors driving variability in concentrations of organic pollutants in this species. This study characterizes the differences in contaminant concentrations in subcutaneous fat of male mink from four different areas in Sweden and demonstrates how age, season and body condition influence concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (including methoxylated forms, MeO-PBDEs), as well as the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The data were statistically treated using multiple regression and principal component analysis. The Sigma PCB concentration and concentrations of PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 180,170/190, 189, 194, 206, 209 as well as PBDE 153/154 varied with age. Season had an influence on Sigma PCB, PBDE 47 and PBDE 153/154 concentrations, as well as concentrations of most PCB congeners, with the exception of PCB 101, 110, 141 and 182/187. Lean mink had higher concentrations of most PCBs and PBDEs than mink with larger fat depots. The analyzed pesticides (DDE, oxychlordane, HCB) showed no systematic variation with season, age or body condition. The concentrations of MeO-PBDEs were generally low and 6Me-PBDEO 47 was the most commonly detected MeO-PBDE in mink from marine, brackish and freshwater areas. The results indicate that age, season and body condition are factors that may influence the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs, and it is thus recommended to take these factors into account when analyzing mink exposure data.

  • 49. Polder, A.
    et al.
    Thomsen, C.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Loken, K. B.
    Skaare, J. U.
    Levels and temporal trends of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in individual human breast milk samples from Northern and Southern Norway2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human breast milk samples from primipara women from Northern (Tromso) (N = 10) and Southern Nor way (Oslo) (N = 19) collected in 2000-2001 were analysed with respect to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), DDTs. mirex, toxaphenes (CHBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) CHBs, PBDEs and HBCD were only analysed in the Tromso samples. Sum-PCBs and sum-DDTs were the major organochlorines (OCs) (170 and 110 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), respectively). Other OCs were found in levels of approximately 10- to 300-fold lower than sum-PCBs. Overall, the concentrations of OCs followed the decreasing order of PCBs > DDTs > HCB > HCHs approximate to CHLs > CHBs > mirex. Concentrations of sum-HCHs were significantly higher in breast milk from Oslo compared to Tromso (p < 0.05). The PCE profile was dominated by PCB-153, -138 and - 180. The PBDE pattern was dominated by PBDE-47 and PBDE-153. The median level of sum-PBDEs was 4.1 ng g(-1) lw. PBDE-209 was detected in all analysed samples (median 0.13 ng g(-1) lw). The estimated daily intake (EDI) for the median (range) of Sum monoortho (mo) PCBS8 was 3.7 (1-9) pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight per day for breast fed infants in Norway. This exceeded the TDI by a factor of 1.8 (1-4) based only on intake of mono-ortho PCBs. The present study shows that concentrations of OCs in primipara breast milk have decreased 50-60% since 1991, and that this trend is continuing. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate disrupt lipid metabolism, reduce fecundity and shortens lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 190, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of phthalates is of major concern as they have adverse effects on many different physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism and cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of the widely-used di (2-ethydlhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with its substitute, diethyl phthalate (DEP). We analyzed the toxicity of these two phthalates using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Gene expression analysis following exposure during the L1 to young adult stage showed that DEHP and DEP alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and stress response. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, including fasn-1, pod-2, fat-5, acs-6 and sbp-1, and vitellogenin were upregulated. Among the stress response genes, ced-1 wah-1, daf-21 and gst-4 were upregulated, while cd-1, cdf-2 and the heat shock proteins (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.48 and sip-1) were down regulated. Lipid staining revealed that DEHP significantly increased lipid content following 1 mu M exposure, however, DEP required 10 mu M exposure to elicit an effect. Both DEHP and DEP reduced the fecundity at 1 mu M concentration. Lifespan analysis indicated that DEHP and DEP reduced the average lifespan from 14 days in unexposed worms to 13 and 12 days, respectively. Expression of lifespan associated genes showed a correlation to shortened lifespan in the exposed groups. As reported previously, our data also indicates that the banned DEHP is toxic to C. elegans, however its substitute DEP has not been previously tested in this model organism and our data revealed that DEP is equally potent as DEHP in regulating C. elegans physiological functions.

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