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  • 1.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. MTM Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Per
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

    Methods: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

    Results: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

    Conclusion: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

  • 2.
    Banjop-Kharlygdoh, Joubert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Asnake, Solomon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Walstad, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Laboratory Group, Analytical Chemistry & Testing Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Identification of a group of brominated flame retardants as novel androgen receptor antagonists and potential neuronal and endocrine disrupters2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used in industrial products to reduce the risk of fire. However, their continuous release into the environment is a concern as they are often persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic. Information on the impact these compounds have on human health and wildlife is limited and only a few of them have been identified to disrupt hormone receptor functions. In the present study we used in silico modeling to determine the interactions of selected BFRs with the human androgen receptor (AR). Three compounds were found to dock into the ligand-binding domain of the human AR and these were further tested using in vitro analysis. Allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE) and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) were observed to act as AR antagonists. These BFRs have recently been detected in the environment, in house dust and in aquatic animals. The compounds have been detected at high concentrations in both blubber and brain of seals and we therefore also assessed their impact on the expression of L-type amino acid transporter system (LAT) genes, that are needed for amino acid uptake across the blood-brain barrier, as disruption of LAT gene function has been implicated in several brain disorders. The three BFRs down-regulated the expression of AR target genes that encode for prostate specific antigen (PSA), 5. α-reductases and β-microseminoprotein. The potency of PSA inhibition was of the same magnitude as the common prostate cancer drugs, demonstrating that these compounds are strong AR antagonists. Western blot analysis of AR protein showed that ATE, BATE and DPTE decreased the 5. α-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR protein levels, further confirming that these BFRs act as AR antagonists. The transcription of the LAT genes was altered by the three BFRs, indicating an effect on amino-acid uptake across cellular membranes and blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrated that ATE, BATE and DPTE are potent AR antagonists and the alterations in LAT gene transcription suggest that these compounds can affect neuronal functions and should be considered as potential neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting compounds.

  • 3.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P. (Mick)
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, PMB 1, Aspendale, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environment Protection Agency, (E343-04), Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 62-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment Development and implementation of policies to achieve this aim require accurate national inventories of releases of PCDD/PCDF/dl-PCB. To support this objective, the Conference of Parties established a process to review and update the UNEP Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. An assessment of all emission inventories was that for many countries open burning of biomass and waste was identified as the major source of PCDD/PCDF releases. However, the experimental data underpinning the release estimates used were limited in number and, consequently, confidence in the accuracy of the emissions predictions was low. There has been significant progress in measurement technology since the last edition of the Toolkit in 2005. In this paper we reassess published emission factors for release of PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB to land and air.

    In total, four types of biomass and 111 emission factors were assessed. It was found that there are no systematic differences in emission factors apparent between biomass types or fire classes. The data set is best described by a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean emission factors (EFs) for releases of PCDD/PCDF to air for the four biomass classes used in the Toolkit (sugarcane, cereal crops, forest and savannah/grass) are 1.6 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 0.49 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 1.0 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1) and 0.4 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), respectively. Corresponding EFs for release of PCDD/PCDF to land are 3.0 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1) and 0.67 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). There are now also sufficient published data available to evaluate EFs for dl-PCB release to air for sugarcane, forest and grass/savannah; these are 0.03 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), 0.09 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1) and 0.01 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), respectively. The average EF for dl-PCB release to land is 0.19 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). Application of these EFs to national emissions of PCDD/PCDF for global estimates from open burning will lower previous estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases to air and to land by 85% and 90%, respectively. For some countries, the ranking of their major sources will be changed and open burning of biomass will become less significant than previously concluded.

  • 4.
    Cao, Zhi-Guo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Chen, Yong-Shan
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Qi-Ming
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Deng, Shu-Bo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Particle size: A missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 mu m should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 mu m is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will lead to large errors in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled dust. Taking into account the influence of dust particle size on risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals, a new methodology for risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust is proposed and human exposure parameter systems to settled indoor dust are advised to be established at national and regional scales all over the world.

  • 5.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gómez, Mercedes
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Domingo, José L.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

  • 6.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Reus, Spain.
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

  • 7.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsman, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Chemical and toxicological characterisation of PBDFs from photolytic decomposition of decaBDE in toluene2006In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 851-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial formation of PBDF congeners was observed during photolytic decomposition of decaBDE in toluene. The decaBDE degradation was monitored by chemical and toxicological analysis and in all, twenty-seven mono- to hexasubstituted polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) were detected in toluene solutions of decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) after irradiation with UV-A, UV-AB and UV-ABC. The concentration levels of PBDFs formed after 16 h of UV exposure increased with wider spectra and were determined to be 3.5, 4.2 and 14 microg/ml after UV-A, UV-AB and UV-ABC irradiation, respectively. In accordance, bioassay derived TEQs (bio-TEQs), determined with the DR-CALUX assay, increased with a similar pattern. The PBDFs formed after the three UV exposures accounted for 0.31%, 0.35% and 1.2% of the initial amount of decaBDE (molar basis). The PBDF congener patterns were consistent in all three UV experiments which imply that no alterations were induced in the PBDF formation or degradation processes due to differences in UV irradiation. However, these processes tended to increase with wider spectra and increasing radiation energy most likely due to the strong absorbance of for example decaBDE at shorter wavelengths. After total decaBDE decomposition the PBDF formation increased significantly in the UV-ABC experiment. The tetra to hexasubstituted BDFs constituted the majority of detected compounds in all experiments. In all samples, the estimated chemical TEQ indicate that the bio-TEQs observed are largely explained by the presence of non-2,3,7,8-substituted PBDFs with relatively low toxicological potencies.

  • 8.
    Hardell, Elin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bao, Jia
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology.
    Case-control study on perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and the risk of prostate cancer2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 63, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging environmental contaminants. Possible health effects for humans include increased risk for cancer but the knowledge is limited. In this study serum concentrations of certain perfluorinated sulfonates (PFHxS and PFOS) and carboxylates (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) were analyzed among 201 cases with prostate cancer and 186 population based control subjects. All blood samples were collected during 2007-2011 and no case had been treated with radio- or chemotherapy before enrolment in the study. The blood concentrations did not differ statistically significant between cases and controls except for PFDA with higher concentration among the cases (p = 0.03). Analyses based on Gleason score and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level did not change the results. Heredity was a risk factor for prostate cancer yielding odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.1. The analyzed PFAAs yielded statistically significant higher ORs in cases with a first degree relative reporting prostate cancer, e.g., PFOA gave OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-6.0 and PFOS gave OR = 2.7,95% CI = 1.04-6.8. The results showed a higher risk for prostate cancer in cases with heredity as a risk factor. In further studies interaction between gene and environment should be considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wingren, Gun
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 76, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides ( OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village.

    Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n = 38) and women (n = 57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations.

    Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg was associated with consumption of fish, both local and non-local, and Pb exposure was associated with the consumption of game.

    Overall, the contaminant concentrations measured in blood, urine and hair varied substantially among study participants, but on average, the concentrations were similar to concentrations measured in other groups of the general Swedish population in the same age range. Larger studies are needed to evaluate health risks (and causality) associated with historical environmental contamination.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Levels of brominated flame retardants in blood in relation to levels in household air and dust2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and 1,2-bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane (DeBDethane) were determined in air, sedimentary dust and human plasma from five households in Sweden. The levels of the individual BDEs in the plasma samples were in the same order of magnitude as in other studies of the general population in Scandinavia, and varied between non-detectable (< 0.41 ng g− 1 l.w.) to 17 ng g− 1 (l.w.). BDE#28 and #47 were present in all air samples, with mean values of 0.015 and 0.12 ng m− 3, respectively, except for one sample where the BDE#47 concentration was below the limit of detection (< 0.17 ng m− 3). BDE#209 was found in one of the five air samples at a concentration of 0.26 ng m− 3. DeBDethane was also detected in one sample, in which the BDE#209 level was below LOD (< 0.021 ng m− 3), at a level of 0.023 ng m− 3. All the target compounds were found in the sedimentary dust samples at levels from 0.51 to 1600 ng g− 1, the highest concentration representing BDE#209. The most abundant components in plasma, air and dust were BDE#47, #99 and #209. In the plasma samples BDE#207 and #206 were also present at similar concentrations as BDE#47. In the sedimentary dust samples, DeBDethane was also among the most abundant BFRs. A positive relationship was found for the sumBDE concentrations in dust and plasma, although the relationship was strongly dependent on one of the five observations. BFR levels in dust and air were not dependent on the house characteristics such as living area, floor material or number of electronic devices.

  • 11.
    Kumar, Jitender
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekdahl, Kristina N.
    Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Bo
    Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of persistent organic pollutants on the complement system in a population-based human sample2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 71, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPS) are toxic compounds generated through various industrial activities and have adverse effects on human health. Studies performed in cell cultures and animals have revealed that POPs can alter immune-system functioning. The complement system is part of innate immune system that helps to clear pathogens from the body. We performed a large-scale population-based study to find out associations between summary measures of different POPs and different complement system markers.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachloro-p-dibenzodioxin, and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) were analyzed for their association with levels of protein complement 3 (C3), 3a (C3a), 4 (C4) and C3a/C3 ratio. A total of 992 individuals (all aged 70 years, 50% females) were recruited from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort. Regression analysis adjusting for a variety of confounders was performed to study the associations of different POP exposures (total toxic equivalency value or TEQ and sum of 16 PCBs) with protein complements.

    Results: The TEQ values were found to be positively associated with C3a (beta = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.017-0.131, p = 0.01) and C3a/C3 ratio (beta = 0.07, 95% Cl = 0.015-0.126, p = 0.01) taking possible confounders into account. The association observed was mainly driven by PCB-126.

    Conclusion: In this study involving 992 elderly individuals from the general population, we showed that POPs, mainly PCB-126, were associated with levels of complement system markers indicating that the association of these toxic compounds with downstream disease could be mediated by activation of immune system. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Harada, Kouji H.
    Inoue, Kayoko
    Takasuga, Takumi
    Ohi, Etsumasa
    Koizumi, Akio
    Relationship between dietary exposure and serum perfluorochemical (PFC) levels-A case study2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 712-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in relation to serum levels was assessed by determination of nine PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in matched daily diet duplicates and serum samples. Diet and serum were collected in year 2004 from 20 women in Osaka and Miyagi, Japan. Only PFOS and PFOA were detected in the diet samples and no significant difference between cities was seen. After adjusted by water content, diet concentration of PFOA was significantly higher in Osaka. The median daily intake calculated using the measured diet concentrations was 1.47 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 1.28 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Osaka, and 1.08 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 0.72 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Miyagi. A significant difference between cities was seen for the serum concentrations with median of 31 ng/mL PFOS and PFOA in Osaka, compared to 14 ng/mL PFOS and 4.6 ng/mL PFOA in Miyagi. Carboxylates such as perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were also detected in serum at median levels 6.9 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL (Osaka), and 2.8 ng/mL and 5.1 ng/mL (Miyagi). Based on one-compartment model under steady state, dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA accounted for only 22.4% and 23.7% of serum levels in Osaka females, and in contrast 92.5% and 110.6% in Miyagi females, respectively. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Langlois, Ingrid
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Oehme, Michael
    Identification and pattern of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in human serum and plasma2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 782-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human serum and plasma from Sweden (n=17), the United Kingdom (the UK) (n=13) and Australia (n=40) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective was to identify different perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers. Similar isomer patterns typical for the electrochemical fluorination (ECF) process were found for all samples. The linear PFOS (L-PFOS) was the major isomer found (58-70%) followed by the monosubstituted PFOS isomers 1/6-CF(3)-PFOS (18-22%) and 3/4/5-CF(3)-PFOS (13-18%). Disubstituted isomers were also detected. The percentage of L-PFOS found in the serum and plasma samples was lower compared to a standard PFOS product (76-79%). The pattern of PFOS isomers in human serum and plasma may be suggestive concerning potential isomeric discrimination since PFOS is only produced by ECF. Possibilities for such isomer discrimination are discussed. Significant higher content of L-PFOS (68%) in Swedish samples compared to Australia and the UK (59%) was also found, which may suggest differences in exposure sources for humans.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicological Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Department of Zoology and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; Department of Biology and Chemistry, State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    AhR-mediated activities of polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) mixtures are predictable by the concept of concentration addition2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complicated because these compounds exist in the environment as complex mixtures of hundreds of individual PAHs and other related polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). In this study, the hypothesis that concentration addition (CA) can be used to predict the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity of PACs in mixtures containing various combinations of PACs was tested. AhR-mediated activities of 18 mixtures composed of two to 23 PACs, which included PAHs, azaarenes and oxygenated PAHs, were examined by the use of the AhR-based H4IIE-luc bioassay. Since greater AhR-mediated activities have been observed in soils contaminated by PAHs, investigations were done to test whether soil extract matrix or the presence of non-effect PACs might affect responses of the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Our results showed that AhR-mediated activities of mixtures of PACs could be predicted by the use of concentration addition. Additive activities of PACs in multi component mixtures along with the insignificant effect of the soil matrix support the use of concentration addition in mass balance calculations and AhR-based bioassays in risk assessment of environmental samples. However, independent action (IA) could not be used to predict the activity of mixtures of PACs.

  • 15.
    Lee, Duk-Hee
    et al.
    Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jacobs, David R., Jr.
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Associations of persistent organic pollutants with abdominal obesity in the elderly: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 40, p. 170-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In animal experiments, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have induced visceral obesity. To address this possibility in humans, we evaluated associations between POPs and abdominal obesity both cross-sectionally and prospectively.

    Methods: Twenty-one plasma POPs (16 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, 1 brominated diphenyl ether (BDE), and 1 dioxin) were measured at baseline in 970 participants aged 70 years of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), with prospective analyses in 511 participants re-examined after 5 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by an increased waist circumference.

    Results: In the cross-sectional analyses, concentrations of the less chlorinated PCBs, OC pesticides such as p,p'-DDE and dioxin had adjusted odds ratios of 2 to 3 for abdominal obesity. Many relations had inverted U-shapes rather than being linear, particularly in women. In contrast, concentrations of highly chlorinated PCBs were strongly inversely associated with abdominal obesity. In a single model including summary measures of the less chlorinated PCBs, highly chlorinated PCBs, and OC pesticides, both the positive associations and inverse associations strengthened. Similar but somewhat weaker associations were seen between POPs and risk of development of abdominal obesity in the prospective analyses.

    Conclusion: Using both a cross-sectional and a prospective design, low-dose exposure to less chlorinated PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and dioxin, were associated with existence or development of abdominal obesity, while highly chlorinated PCBs had an opposite association in an elderly population, despite the previous observation of higher incident diabetes associated with these same PCBs.

  • 16. Lee, Duk-Hee
    et al.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Jacobs, David R., Jr.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Background exposure to persistent organic pollutants predicts stroke in the elderly2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 47, p. 115-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), lipophilic xenobiotics that accumulate mainly in adipose tissue, has recently emerged as a new risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This prospective study was performed to evaluate if plasma concentrations of selected POPs predict incident stroke among the elderly. Twenty-one POPs (including 16 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, 1 brominated diphenyl ether (BDE), and 1 dioxin) were measured in plasma collected at baseline in 898 participants aged 70 years of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Stroke diagnosis was validated by hospital records. During the five year follow-up, 35 subjects developed hospital-treated stroke. After adjusting for known stroke risk factors, most PCBs with 4, 5, or 6 chlorine atoms, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin significantly predicted the risk of stroke. Across quartiles of summary measures of PCBs and OC pesticides, the adjusted ORs were 1.0, 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.2-2.5), 1.2 (0.4-3.4), and 2.1 (0.7-6.2) for PCBs and 1.0, 1.2 (0.3-4.2), 2.3 (0.7-6.9), and 3.0 (1.0-9.4) for OC pesticides (P for trend = 0.11 and 0.03, respectively). The adjusted ORs among participants >= 90th percentile of the summary measures were 5.5 (1.7-18.1) for PCBs and 4.0 (1.1-14.6) for OC pesticides; corresponding ORs for those >= 95th percentile were 7.8 (2.1-29.6) and 9.5 (2.3-38.9). Background exposure to POPs may play an important role in development or progression of stroke in the elderly. 

  • 17.
    Lee, Duk-Hee
    et al.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Department of Biomedical Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jacobs, David R.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Association between background exposure to organochlorine pesticides and the risk of cognitive impairment: A prospective study that accounts for weight change2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 89-90, p. 179-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Background exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides was recently linked to cognitive impairment and dementia in cross-sectional and case-control studies. This prospective study was performed to evaluate if OC pesticides at baseline are associated with the future risk of cognitive impairment in elderly, with particular focus on weight change.

    Methods: Plasma concentrations of 3 OC pesticides (p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured among 989 men and women aged 70years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Cognitive impairment was validated by reviewing medical records. During the ten year follow-up, cognitive impairment was developed in 75 subjects. When weight change from age 70 to 75 was considered in analyses, elderly with incident cases before age 75 were excluded to keep the prospective perspective, leaving 795 study subjects and 44 incident cases.

    Results: The summary measure of 3 OC pesticides predicted the development of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates, including weight change. Compared to subjects with OC pesticides <25th percentile, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in those with 25th-<75th and ≥75th percentiles were 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-8.5) and 3.2 (1.1-7.6), respectively (Ptrend=0.04). Among 506 subjects who maintained or gained body weight, adjusted HRs were 6.9 and 11.6 (1.4-92.6) among the elderly in the 25th-<75th and ≥75th percentiles compared to <25th percentile (Ptrend<0.01).

    Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates that background exposure to OC pesticides are linked to the risk of developing cognitive impairment in elderly. The role of the chronic exposure to low dose OC pesticides in the development of dementia should be further evaluated in other populations.

  • 18.
    Lind, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ng, Esther
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Lampa, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Genetic and methylation variation in the CYP2B6 gene is related to circulating p,p '-dde levels in a population-based sample2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, p. 212-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Since the metabolism of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is not fully known in humans, we evaluated if circulating levels of a major breakdown product of DDT, p,p'-DDE, were related to genome-wide genetic and methylation variation in a population-based sample.

    Methods: In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), circulating levels of p, p'-DDE were analyzed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Genetic variants were genotyped and imputed (1000 Genomes reference, March 2012 release). Methylation sites were assayed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in whole blood. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach was applied.

    Results: Evidence for genome-wide significant association with p,p'-DDE levels was observed only for a locus at chromosome 19 corresponding to the CYP2B6 gene (lead SNP rs7260538). Subjects being homozygote for the G allele showed a median level of 472 ng/g lipid, while the corresponding level for those being homozygote for the T allelewas 192 ng/g lipid (p= 1.5x10(-31)). An analysis conditioned on the lead SNP disclosed a distinct signal in the same gene (rs7255374, position chr19: 41520351; p= 2.2 x 10(-8)). A whole-genome methylation analysis showed one significant relationship vs. p,p'-DDE levels (p= 6.2 x 10(-9)) located 7 kb downstreamthe CYP2B6 gene (cg27089200, position chr19: 41531976). This CpG-sitewas also related to the lead SNP (p = 3.8 x 10(-35)), but mediated only 4% of the effect of the lead SNP on p, p'-DDE levels.

    Conclusion: Circulating levels of p, p'-DDE were related to genetic variation in the CYP2B6 gene in the general elderly population. DNA methylation in this gene is not closely linked to the p, p'-DDE levels.

  • 19.
    Lind, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Penell, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Luttropp, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordfors, Louise
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Anne-Christine
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Global DNA hypermethylation is associated with high serum levels of persistent organic pollutants in an elderly population2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 456-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxin exposure has experimentally been associated with changes in DNA methylation, an epigenetic change that is associated with disease. The present study aims to investigate if serum levels of dioxin and other persistent environmental pollutants are related to global DNA methylation in a human sample. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (all aged 70), global DNA methylation was measured by the Luminometric Methylation Assay in 524 subjects. Twenty-three different POPs, including 16 PCBs, five pesticides, one dioxin (OCDD) and one brominated flame retardant (BDE47) were analysed by HRGC/HRMS. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-receptor were analysed by mini-sequencing. High levels of toxic equivalency (TEQ) for PCBs and dioxin were associated with DNA hypermethylation (p = 0.030). This was mainly attributed to coplanar non-ortho PCBs. While no significant associations were found between DNA methylation and SNPs in the Ah-receptor, an interaction was found between the SNP rs2237297 and TEQ so that TEQ was associated with hypermethylation (p = 0.009) only in subjects with one G-allele (n = 103). Also high levels of the PCB126 congener, the OCDD, and the pesticide metabolite p,p'-DDE were related to DNA hypermethylation (p = 0.01, 0.03 and 0.003, respectively). In conclusion, in a sample of elderly subjects, high TEQ including PCBs and the dioxin OCDD and high serum levels of PCB126, OCDD, and p,p'-DDE were related to global DNA hypermethylation in a cross-sectional analysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Lind, P. Monica
    et al.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    An environmental wide association study (EWAS) approach to the metabolic syndrome2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 55, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Environmental contaminants have previously been linked to components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). However, exposure to environmental contaminants is in part determined by various lifestyle factors.

    Objective

    Using an "Environmental Wide Association Study" (ELWAS) integrating environmental contaminants and lifestyle factors, we aimed to evaluate a possible additive role of both contaminants and lifestyle factors regarding MetS.

    Methods

    1016 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. 43 environmental contaminants were measured in the circulation. Dietary records were used to evaluate 21 nutrients and the proportions of 13 fatty acids were determined in serum cholesterol esters to further quantify fat quality intake. Adding 5 other important lifestyle factors yielded together 76 environmental and lifestyle factors. MetS was defined by the NCEP/ATPIII-criteria.

    Results

    23% had MetS. Using cross-validation within the sample, fourteen environmental contaminants or lifestyle factors consistently showed a false discovery rate <0.05. When the major variables entered a multiple model, only p,p'-DDE levels (positive), PCB209 (inverse) and exercise habits (inverse) were together with a fatty acid pattern, with high levels of palmitic acid and oleic acid and low levels of linoleic acid, related to MetS (p<0.002 for all variables).

    Conclusion

    Using a cross-sectional EWAS approach, certain environmental contaminants and lifestyle factors were found to be associated with prevalent metabolic syndrome in an additive fashion in an elderly population.

  • 21.
    Liu, Liang-Ying
    et al.
    School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Venier, Marta
    School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.
    Salamova, Amina
    School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.
    Klanova, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hites, Ronald A.
    School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.
    Differences in spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric PAH levels between North America and Europe: Data from two air monitoring projects2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 64, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric concentrations of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at five sites for almost two decades near the North American Great Lakes, as part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), and at three remote sites around Europe, as part of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The primary objectives were to reveal the spatial distributions, long-term temporal trends, and seasonal variations of atmospheric PAH concentrations and to investigate potential differences between these two regions. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at the urban sites in Chicago and Cleveland near Great Lakes were about 20 times (depending on PAH congener and sampling site) greater than those at the rural sites except for Kosetice in the Czech Republic. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at Kosetice, also a rural site, were about one-third of those at Chicago and Cleveland, but 10 times higher than those at other rural sites (Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Eagle Harbor, Aspvreten, and Spitsbergen). Significant long-term decreasing trends of all these PAH atmospheric concentrations were observed at Chicago and Cleveland. For the other sites, either less significant or no long-term decreasing trends were observed. Clear seasonality was observed at Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Kosetice, and Spitsbergen, with the highest PAH concentrations observed in mid-January.

  • 22.
    Ljunggren, Stefan A.
    et al.
    Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping, Sweden.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Cty Council Ostergotland, Linköping, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Cty Council Ostergotland, Linköping, Sweden.
    Persistent organic pollutants distribution in lipoprotein fractions in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 65, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPS) are lipophilic environmental toxins that have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of POPs in human high and low/very low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL/VLDL) and the possible association with CVD and cancer occurrence in individuals living in a contaminated area. Lipoproteins from 28 individuals (7 healthy controls, 8 subjects with cancer, 13 subjects with CVD) were isolated and the fraction-specific concentration of 20 different POPs was analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The activity of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an anti-oxidant in HDL, was determined in plasma of these 28 subjects and additional 50 subjects from the same area excluding diseases other than cancer or CVD. Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and three organochlorine pesticides were detected, and especially highly chlorinated PCBs were enriched in lipoproteins. Significantly higher concentrations of POPs were found among individuals with CVD or cancer compared to controls. Principal component analyses showed that POP concentrations in HDL were more associated with CVD, while POP concentrations in LDL/VLDL were more associated with cancer. PON1 activity was negatively correlated to sumPCB and a co-variation between decreased arylesterase-activity, increased PCB concentrations and CVD was found. This study shows that POPs are present in lipoproteins and were more abundant in individuals with CVD or cancer compared to healthy controls. The results also indicate that PCB exposure is accompanied by reduced PON1 activity that could impair the HDL function to protect against oxidation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro University Hospital.
    Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 51, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in biological compartments have been known for some time but their transport routes and distribution patterns are not properly elucidated. The opinions diverge whether the exposure of the general population occurs indirect through precursors or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed that ski wax technicians are exposed to levels up to 92 000 ng/m(3) of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) via air and have elevated blood levels of PFCAs. Blood samples were collected in 2007-2011 and analyzed for C(4)-C(18) PFCAs, 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs) and 3:3, 5:3 and 7:3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) using UPLC-MS/MS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in levels ranging from 1.90 to 628 ng/mL whole blood (wb). Metabolic intermediates 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTUCAs showed maximum levels of 0.07, 0.64 and 0.11 ng/mL wb. Also, for the first time levels of PFHxDA and PFOcDA were detected in the human blood at mean concentrations up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb respectively. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs and FTOH metabolites in blood from ski wax technicians.

  • 24. Otte, Jens C.
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    Olsman Takner, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hollert, Henner
    Brunström, Björn
    A bioassay approach to determine the dioxin-like activity in sediment extracts from the Danube River: ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction in gill filaments and liver of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)2008In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 1176-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment samples from the upper Danube River in Germany have previously been characterized as ecotoxicologically hazardous and contaminants in these sediments may contribute to the observed decline of fish populations in this river section. For the investigation of sediment toxicity there is a need for development, standardization and implementation of in vivo test systems using vertebrates. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently established fish gill EROD assay as a biomarker in sediment toxicity assessment by using extracts of well characterised sediment samples from the upper Danube River. This to our knowledge is the first application of this novel assay to sediment extracts. Sediments from four different sites along the upper Danube River were Soxhlet-extracted with acetone and dissolved in DMSO. Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) were exposed for 48 h to various concentrations of the extracts, to the positive control β-naphthoflavone or to the solvent. Measurements of EROD activity in gill filaments and liver microsomes followed the exposure. Concentration-dependent induction of EROD in both gill and liver was found for all sediment extracts. The highest EROD-inducing potency was determined for extracts of sediments from the sites “Öpfinger See” and “Sigmaringen” and the EROD activities in gill and liver correlated well. The results from the gill and liver assays were in accordance with in vitro results of previous investigations. The EROD activities measured in the present study corresponded with the concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the sediment samples derived in a previous study. The sticklebacks in this study were in the reproductive phase and a stronger EROD induction was obtained in the females than in the males. Implementation of the EROD assay in testing of sediment extracts gave highly reliable results which make this assay an ecotoxicologically relevant method for assessment of contamination with Ah receptor agonists in sediments.

  • 25.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Jing, Jun
    Reproductive Medical Center, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sheng, Nan
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Yao, Bing
    Reproductive Medical Center, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Associations of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine with phthalate exposure and semen quality in 562 Chinese adult men2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, p. 583-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC), products of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation processes, have been detected previously in human urine, but their associations with environmental chemicals or healthy outcomes are unclear. The present investigation explored the associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate exposure and semen quality. We assessed semen parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, before measuring urinary 5mdC, 5hmdC and 13 phthalate metabolites among 562 subfertile men from Nanjing, China. Urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC were positively associated with the levels of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (Low-MWP), high molecular weight phthalate metabolites (High-MWP), and the sum of all phthalate metabolites (ΣPAEs), respectively. Urinary 5mdC was associated with below-reference sperm concentration (odds ratios for increasing quartiles=1.0, 2.2, 3.0, 2.0; p for trend =0.02), sperm motility (1.0, 1.1, 1.9, 1.3; p for trend =0.05), and sperm morphology (1.0, 1.4, 2.3, 1.5; p for trend =0.05). Sperm concentration was associated with the highest quartile of urinary 5hmdC [odds ratio=1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.6)]. Our findings showed significant associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate metabolites and semen parameters, which suggested urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC may be promising biomarkers in future epidemiological studies.

  • 26.
    Persson, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 425-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C-8-C-13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n = 101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250 ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800 ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6 ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p < 0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken" in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Aylward, Lesa
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Australia; Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, USA.
    Kay, Margaret
    Discipline of General Practice, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Elevated levels of PFOS and PFHxS in firefighters exposed to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 82, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) was evaluated in 149 firefighters working at AFFF training facilities in Australia by analysis of PFOS and related compounds in serum. A questionnaire was designed to capture information about basic demographic factors, lifestyle factors and potential occupational exposure (such as work history and self-reported skin contact with foam). The results showed that a number of factors were associated with PFAA serum concentrations. Blood donation was found to be linked to low PFAA levels, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS were found to be positively associated with years of jobs with AFFF contact. The highest levels of PFOS and PFHxS were one order of magnitude higher compared to the general population in Australia and Canada. Study participants who had worked ten years or less had levels of PFOS that were similar to or only slightly above those of the general population. This coincides with the phase out of 3M AFFF from all training facilities in 2003, and suggests that the exposures to PFOS and PFHxS in AFFF have declined in recent years. Self-reporting of skin contact and frequency of contact were used as an index of exposure. Using this index, there was no relationship between PFOS levels and skin exposure. This index of exposure is limited as it relies on self-report and it only considers skin exposure to AFFF, and does not capture other routes of potential exposure. Possible associations between serum PFAA concentrations and five biochemical outcomes were assessed. The outcomes were serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, and uric acid. No statistical associations between any of these endpoints and serum PFAA concentrations were observed.

  • 28.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Food Safety and Environment, Oslo, Norway.
    Rigét, Frank
    Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Atli Audunsson, Gudjón
    Innovation Center Iceland, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Keldnaholti, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway.
    Vikingsson, Gísli
    Marine Research Institute, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Bloch, Dorete
    Faroese Musum of Natural History, Torshavn, Faroe Islands.
    Dam, Maria
    Environment Agency, Pob, Argir, Faroe Islands.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986 – 20092012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 40, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata),fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

  • 29.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ganna, Andrea
    Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, USA.
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Broeckling, Corey D.
    Proteomics and Metabolomics Facility, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
    Prenni, Jessica E.
    Proteomics and Metabolomics Facility, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The metabolic fingerprint of p,p'-DDE and HCB exposure in humans2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 88, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) are organochlorine pesticides with well-known endocrine disrupting properties. Exposure to p,p'-DDE and HCB concerns human populations worldwide and has been linked to metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, but details about these associations in humans from the general population are largely unknown.

    Objectives: We investigated the associations between p,p'-DDE and HCB exposure and global metabolomic profiles in serum samples from 1016 participants from the Swedish population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.

    Methods: HCB and p,p'-DDE levels were determined using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Metabolite levels were determined by using a non-targeted metabolomics approach with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of- flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS). Association analyses were performed using multivariate linear regression.

    Results: We found circulating levels of p,p-DDE and HCB to be significantly associated with circulating levels of 16 metabolites following adjustment for age, sex, education level, exercise habits, smoking, energy intake, and alcohol intake. The majority of the 16 metabolites belong to lipid metabolism pathways and include fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and glycerolipids. Overall, p,p'-DDE and HCB levels were found to be correlated to different metabolites, which suggests that different metabolic fingerprints may be related to circulating levels of these two pesticides.

    Conclusions: Our findings establish a link between human exposure to organochlorine pesticides and metabolites of key metabolic processes mainly related to human lipid metabolism.

  • 30.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS)2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 82, no Sept 2015, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001–2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70 year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women.

  • 31.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lampa, Erik
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Lind, P. Monica
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Circulating levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) among elderly men and women from Sweden: results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS)2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 44, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are a huge group of chemicals that have been linked to various adverse health effects in humans. Large epidemiological studies investigating gender differences in levels of POPs in the elderly are limited and the results from these are not always consistent. The present study was undertaken to examine the background levels of a broad range of POPs in human plasma samples among elderly men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender. Levels of 23 POPs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (50.2% women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Measurements were performed using high resolution gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and the POPs studied were 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, and one brominated flame retardant. The concentrations of the selected POPs were found similar, or comparable, to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations from Sweden and Europe. Differences in levels of POPs between men and women were assessed by using Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Significant (p<0.0001) gender differences in levels of specific POPs were observed and a number of POP concentrations were found to differ between men and women. More specifically, levels of HCB, OCDD, and PCB congeners #74, #105, and #118 were found to be higher in women, while the rest of the majority of POPs were higher in men.

  • 32.
    Shang, Hongtao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Zhang, Haidong
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Ren, Daiwei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Chen, Weihai
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs by earthworms in field soils of an E-waste dismantling area in China2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 54, p. 50-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 60 paired samples of earthworm, corresponding soil and wormcast were collected to investigate the bioaccumulation tendency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in earthworms from a typical E-waste dismantling area in east China. Significant correlations were observed for the total concentrations among different matrix types except for PCDD/Fs in soil and earthworm. The bioaccumulation tendency showed some differences among the contaminants. Calculated biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) indicated that PCBs and PBDEs had higher bioaccumulation potential compared to PCDD/Fs, which was somewhat different from laboratory studies. The plot of mean BSAFs versus log Kow values for PCBs and PBDEs was well fitted by a second-order polynomial with the maximum BSAF at approximately log Kow of 6.5. While for PCDD/Fs, only a slightly decreasing trend was observed with increasing log Kow. Composition analysis indicated that tetra-, penta- and hexa-halogenated homologs had higher bioaccumulation levels, indicating that medium-halogenated congeners with log Kow around 6.5 are more easily accumulated by earthworms. Furthermore, the ratios of BDE-47/-99 and BDE-99/-100 showed some discrepancies with the technical products and other biotic species, suggesting different bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs in earthworm.

  • 33.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 95, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014.

    The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed.

    Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model.

    In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men.

    From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of production with the exception of PFHxS and C>8 PFASs. Contrary to other studies, PFHxS concentrations showed the greatest overall increase, which is likely attributed to a local drinking water contamination incident.

  • 34.
    Toms, Leisa Maree
    et al.
    School of Clinical Sciences and Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point, Brisbane, Australia .
    Thompson, Jack
    Queensland Health Scientific Services, Coopers Plains, Australia .
    Rotander, Anna
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Australia .
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia .
    Calafat, Antonia
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Kato, K.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Ye, X.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Broomhall, S.
    Department of the Environment, Canberra, Australia.
    Harden, F.
    School of Clinical Sciences and Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point, Brisbane, Australia .
    Mueller, J. F.
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Australia .
    Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 20112014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 71, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002-2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends.

    Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n=26); 2008/09 (n=24) and 2010/11 (n=24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n=84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <. 16. years (2002/03 only); 0-4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5-15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >. 60. years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3-19.2. ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4-17.4. ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8-7.3. ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1-6.5. ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <. 1. ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2-5.7. ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4-5.4. ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5-15. year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0-4. year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA).

    This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends were variable and concentrations were higher in males than in females. Global use has been in decline since around 2002 and hence primary exposure levels are expected to be decreasing. Further biomonitoring will allow assessment of PFAS exposures to confirm trends in exposure as primary and eventually secondary sources are depleted.

  • 35.
    Wang, Pu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, Haidong
    Department of Geography and Environment, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sun, Huizhong
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, Shucheng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yingming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liang, Yong
    Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Sources and environmental behaviors of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds: A review2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 88, p. 206-220Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Dechlorane Plus (DP) has been used as a polychlorinated flame retardant for almost half a century, its detection in the environment was not reported until 2006. The subsequent intensive research has confirmed its global ubiquity. A few reviews have presented the properties, analytical methods and environmental occurrence of DP and related compounds in the past several years. The present review emphasizes on the environmental behavior of DP isomers which is assessed by the variation of the isomer ratio of DP in various matrices. Other aspects including the analytical methods, emission sources, general environmental occurrence and bioaccumulation of DP are also summarized.

    In this review, three typical emission sources in the environment are categorized after introducing the measurement method of DP. The temporal-spatial distribution is then evaluated at the global scale, which provides an integrated representation of the environmental occurrence of DP and potential impact on the human health and ecosystems. The variations of DP isomer ratio in various matrices reinforce its source related distribution and their stereoselective bioaccumulation. Thereafter, DP related compounds and dechlorinated analogs are briefly summarized in regards to their occurrence in various matrices, suggesting their ubiquity in the environment and bioavailability. Further studies are required to better assess the exposures and toxicological effects of DP and its analogs. A special concern is the serious contamination in e-waste recycling areas in developing countries, where long-term monitoring data on the association of DP exposure and adverse effects to human health and ecosystems is urgently needed.

  • 36.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    De Silva, Amila O.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China.
    Marvin, Chris H.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 389-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg-1 d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased.

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