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  • 1.
    Amdany, Robert
    et al.
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chimuka, Luke
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Cukrowska, Ewa
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Tölgyessy, Peter
    Water Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Assessment of bioavailable fraction of POPS in surface water bodies in Johannesburg City, South Africa, using passive samplers: an initial assessment2014In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 186, no 9, p. 5639-5653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) passive samplers were used to determine freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in selected water bodies situated in and around Johannesburg City, South Africa. The devices were deployed for 14 days at each sampling site in spring and summer of 2011. Time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the water-borne contaminants were calculated from the amounts of analytes accumulated in the passive samplers. In the area of interest, concentrations of analytes in water ranged from 33.5 to 126.8 ng l(-1) for PAHs, from 20.9 to 120.9 pg l(-1) for PCBs and from 0.2 to 36.9 ng l(-1) for OCPs. Chlorinated pesticides were mainly composed of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (0.15-36.9 ng l(-1)) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethane (DDT) with its metabolites (0.03-0.55 ng l(-1)). By applying diagnostic ratios of certain PAHs, identification of possible sources of the contaminants in the various sampling sites was performed. These ratios were generally inclined towards pyrogenic sources of pollution by PAHs in all study sites except in the Centurion River (CR), Centurion Lake (CL) and Airport River (AUP) that indicated petrogenic origins. This study highlights further need to map up the temporal and spatial variations of these POPs using passive samplers.

  • 2.
    Benyamine, Michelle
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Multi-objective environmental management in constructed wetlands2004In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 90, no 1-3, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined multi-objective environmental management as applied to pursuing concurrent goals of water treatment, biodiversity and promotion of recreation in constructed wetlands. A case study of a wetland established to treat landfill leachate, increase biodiversity, and promote recreation was evaluated. The study showed that attempts to combine pollution management with activities promoting biodiversity or recreation are problematic in constructed wetlands. This could be because the typical single-objective focus of scientific research leads to contradictions when planning, implementing and assessing the multi-objective use of wetlands. In the specific case of wetland filters for landfill leachate treatment, biodiversity, and recreation, there is a need for further research that meet practical needs to secure positive outcomes.

  • 3.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Metal leachability and anthropogenic signal in roadside soils estimated from sequential extraction and stable lead isotopes2004In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 90, no 1-3, p. 135-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several roadside soil samples were collected at two field sites in Sweden. They were analysed for total elemental content (using both ICP-MS and XRF) and stable lead isotopes. Extraction with deicing salt solution and sequential extraction were performed in order to elucidate the potential mobility due to the use of deicing agents. The total concentrations of elements, especially lead, have decreased and lead is presently almost at background concentrations (15–51 ppm for surface samples). However, the isotopic signature indicates that old gasoline lead still is left at the site constructed prior to 1975. The field site constructed in 1992 showed, however, no 206Pb/207Pb ratio below 1.14. Only minor amounts were leached using deicing salt solutions; for lead only 0.29%, on average, was extracted indicating that the mobile fraction already was released. Sequential extraction indicated that lead mainly was associated with reducible (34.4%) and oxidisable (35.4%) fractions. Exchangable and acid soluble fractions contained 20.3% while 10.0% was found in the residual fraction. The salt extraction released, however, very low concentrations indicating that most in fraction 1 is acid soluble (e.g. carbonates). Tungsten was also found at high concentrations indicating a possible impact from studded tires. For tungsten the following composition was obtained: residual (48.0%) > oxidisable (47.6%) > reducible (3.3%) > exchangeable/acid soluble (1.1%). From the isotopic studies it was also suggested that the order for incorporating anthropogenic lead into soils is exchangeable/carbonates > (hydr)oxides > organic matter > residual. The multivariate technique principal component analysis (PCA) seems promising for evaluating large sequential extraction datasets.

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