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  • 1.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grawunder, Anja
    Institute of Geoscience, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany .
    Neutralisation of an acidic pit lake by alkaline waste products2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 6930-6938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A former open pit where black shale (alum shale) was excavated during 1942-1965 has been water filled since 1966. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium and sulphate and had a pH of 3.2-3.4 until 1997-1998, when pH was gradually increasing. This was due to the intrusion of leachates from alkaline cement waste deposited close to the lake. A stable pH of around 7.5 was obtained after 6-7 years. The chemistry of the pit lake has changed due to the neutralisation. Concentrations of some dissolved metals, notably zinc and nickel, have gone down, as a result of adsorption/co-precipitation on solid phases (most likely iron and aluminium hydroxides), while other metals, notably uranium and molybdenum, are present at elevated levels. Uranium concentration is reaching a minimum of around pH 6.5 and is increasing at higher pH, which may indicate a formation of neutral and anionic uranyl carbonate species at high pH (and total carbonate levels around 1 mM). Weathering of the water-exposed shale is still in progress.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB.
    Berggren, Anna
    Analycen AB.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Analycen AB.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen university.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    AhR agonist and genotoxicant bioavailability in a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing biological treatment2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 521-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. However, the PAH loss is not always followed by a reduction in soil toxicity. For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. In addition, standard PAH analysis does not address the issue of total toxicant bioavailability in bioremediated soil.

    To address these questions, we have used the CALUX AhR agonist bioassay and the Comet genotoxicity bioassay with RTL-W1 cells to evaluate the toxic potential of different extracts from a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing large-scale bioremediation. The extracts were also chemically analyzed for PAH16 and PCDD/PCDF. Soil sampled on five occasions between day 0 and day 274 of biological treatment was shaken with n-butanol with vortex mixing at room temperature to determine the bioavailable fraction of contaminants. To establish total concentrations, parts of the same samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with toluene at 100A degrees C. The extracts were tested as inducers of AhR-dependent luciferase activity in the CALUX assay and for DNA breakage potential in the Comet bioassay.

    The chemical analysis of the toluene extracts indicated slow degradation rates and the CALUX assay indicated high levels of AhR agonists in the same extracts. Compared to day 0, the bioavailable fractions showed no decrease in AhR agonist activity during the treatment but rather an up-going trend, which was supported by increasing levels of PAHs and an increased effect in the Comet bioassay after 274 days. The bio-TEQs calculated using the CALUX assay were higher than the TEQs calculated from chemical analysis in both extracts, indicating that there are additional toxic PAHs in both extracts that are not included in the chemically derived TEQ.

    The response in the CALUX and the Comet bioassays as well as the chemical analysis indicate that the soil might be more toxic to organisms living in soil after 274 days of treatment than in the untreated soil, due to the release of previously sorbed PAHs and possibly also metabolic formation of novel toxicants.

    Our results put focus on the issue of slow degradation rates and bioavailability of PAHs during large-scale bioremediation treatments. The release of sorbed PAHs at the investigated PAH-contaminated site seemed to be faster than the degradation rate, which demonstrates the importance of considering the bioavailable fraction of contaminants during a bioremediation process.

    It has to be ensured that soft remediation methods like biodegradation or the natural remediation approach do not result in the mobilization of toxic compounds including more mobile degradation products. For PAH-contaminated sites this cannot be assured merely by monitoring the 16 target PAHs. The combined use of a battery of biotests for different types of PAH effects such as the CALUX and the Comet assay together with bioavailability extraction methods may be a useful screening tool of bioremediation processes of PAH-contaminated soil and contribute to a more accurate risk assessment. If the bioremediation causes a release of bound PAHs that are left undegraded in an easily extracted fraction, the soil may be more toxic to organisms living in the soil as a result of the treatment. A prolonged treatment time may be one way to reduce the risk of remaining mobile PAHs. In critical cases, the remediation concept might have to be changed to ex situ remediation methods.

  • 3.
    Bräunig, Jennifer
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Broedel, Oliver
    Molecular Biotechnology and Functional Genomics, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Wildau, Germany.
    Müller, Yvonne
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Frohme, Marcus
    Molecular Biotechnology and Functional Genomics, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Wildau, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Time-dependent expression and activity of cytochrome P450 1s in early life-stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio)2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16319-15328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish embryos are being increasingly used as model organisms for the assessment of single substances and complex environmental samples for regulatory purposes.Thus, it is essential to fully understand the xenobiotic metabolism during the different life-stages of early development.The aim of the present study was to determine arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity during selected times of early development using qPCR, enzymatic activity through measurement of 7-ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylase(EROD) activity, and protein expression analysis. In the present study, gene expression of cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1, cyp1c2, and ahr2 as well as EROD activity were investigated up to 120 h postfertilization (hpf) after exposure to either β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or a polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated sediment extract from Vering Kanal in Hamburg (VK). Protein expression was measured at 72 hpf after exposure to 20 μg/L BNF. Altered proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide mass fingerprinting. Distinct patterns of basal messenger RNA (mRNA) expressionwere found for each of the cyp1 genes, suggesting specific roles during embryonic development. All transcripts were induced by BNF and VK. ahr2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated after exposure toVK. All cyp1 genes investigated showed a temporal decline in expression at 72 hpf. The significant decline of Hsp 90β protein at 72 hpf after exposure to BNF may suggest an explanation for the decline of cyp1 genes at this time point as Hsp 90β is of major importance for the functioning of the Ah-receptor. EROD activity measured in embryos was significantly induced after 96 hpf of exposure to BNF or VK. Together, these results demonstrate distinct temporal patterns of cyp1 genes and protein activities in zebrafish embryos as well as show a need to investigate further the xenobiotic biotransformation system during early development of zebrafish.

  • 4.
    Büchert, A.
    et al.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Cederberg, T.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Dyke, P.
    PD Consulting, Round House Cottage, Lechlade, United Kingdom .
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (GE), Switzerland .
    Fürst, P.
    Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veteriniiruntersuchungsamt, Münster, Germany .
    Hanberg, A.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hosseinpour, J.
    Ökometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, O.
    University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Kuenen, J. G.
    TU Delft, Department of Biotechnology, Kluyver Laboratory, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Malisch, R.
    Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Needham, L. L.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Toxicology Branch (F-17), Chamblee, GA, USA .
    Olie, K.
    University of Amsterdam, Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Päpke, O.
    ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg, Germany .
    Aranda, J. Rivera
    CID-CSIC, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Barcelona, Spain .
    Thanner, G.
    Umweltbundesamt, Wien, Austria .
    Umlauf, G.
    European Commission-JRC Ispra, Environment Institute, Soil and Waste Unit, Ispra (Varese), Italy .
    Vartiainen, T.
    National Public Health Institute, Division of Environmental Health, Kuopio, Finland .
    van Holst, C.
    European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Ispra, Italy .
    Dioxin contamination in food: Bayreuth, Germany, from September 28 to October 1, 20002001In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 84-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxin and PCB monitoring programs for food and feeding stuff in most countries of the world, including many European Countries are currently inadequate. Better control of food production lines and food processing procedures is needed to minimize entry of dioxin to the food chain and will help to avoid dioxin contamination accidents. This would also improve the ability to trace back a possible contamination to its source. European guidelines for monitoring programs should be established to ensure comparable and meaningful results. These guidelines should define the minimum requirements for the design of monitoring programs, analytical methods, and quality assurance.

    Though data from Northern Europe shows that the general population exposure to dioxin and PCB has decreased during the last ten years these compounds continue to be a risk of accidental contamination of the food chain. The most prominent recent example is the Belgian dioxin contamination of feeding stuff in 1999. The Belgian dioxin contamination was not detected due to dioxin monitoring programs but by their direct biological effects seen in animals. Four other cases of dioxin contamination have been detected in Europe since 1997 due to local monitoring programs. One of them (citrus pulp pellets 1998) was in a much larger scale than the Belgian dioxin contamination.

    The general population's exposure to dioxins and PCBs is still in the same range (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and day) as the recently revised WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI). There is concern that short-term high level exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCB may cause biological effects on the human fetal development and further research is required.

    Further actions to control sources building on considerable advances already made in many countries may need to be supplemented by measures to prevent direct contamination of feeding stuff or food to reduce general population exposure further.

  • 5.
    Engwall, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Westman, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nordén, Marcus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hollert, Henner
    Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reduce hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1881-1888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread fused-ring contaminants formed during incomplete combustion of almost all kind of organic materials from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Some PAHs have been shown to be carcinogenic to humans, and a wide range of PAHs are found in wildlife all around the globe including avian species. The purpose of this project was to assess the effects of a standard mixture of 16 PAHs (United States Environmental Protection Agency) on the hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed in ovo. The hepatic beta-oxidation was measured using a tritium release assay with [9,10-H-3]-palmitic acid (16:0) as substrate. Treated groups were divided into groups of 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 mg PAHs/kg egg weight. The hepatic beta-oxidation was reduced after exposure in ovo to the 16 PAHs mixture compared to control. The mechanisms causing reduced fatty acid oxidation in the present study are unclear, however may be due to deficient membrane structure, the functionality of enzymes controlling the rate of fatty acid entering into the mitochondria, or complex pathways connected to endocrine disruption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a PAH-caused reduction of hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in avian embryos has been observed. The implication of this finding on risk assessment of PAH exposure in avian wildlife remains to be determined.

  • 6.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Marti
    Rovira il Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jose Luis, Domingo
    Rovira il virgili university, Reus, Spain.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain).

    Materials and methods: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%.

    Results: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively.

    Discussion: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78–1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants.

    Conclusions: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries.

    Recommendations and perspectives: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 7.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mikkelsen, Bjorg
    Faroese Food & Vet Agcy, Torshavn, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Dam, Maria
    Environm Agcy, Argir, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7940-7948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crSme fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

  • 9.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    BIfA GmbH, Bavarian Institute of Waste Research, Augsburg, Germany.
    Van den Berg, Martin
    RITOX, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds: Update and recent developments1996In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Garcia-Käufer, Manuel
    et al.
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany; Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Center for Complementary Medicine, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Gartiser, Stefan
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Hafner, Christoph
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Gruendemann, Christian
    Center for Complementary Medicine, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBT–Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Environment of Education Ministry of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Genotoxic and teratogenic effect of freshwater sediment samples from the Rhine and Elbe River (Germany) in zebrafish embryo using a multi-endpoint testing strategy2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16341-16357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The embryotoxic potential of three model sediment samples with a distinct and well-characterized pollutant burden from the main German river basins Rhine and Elbe was investigated. The Fish Embryo Contact Test (FECT) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) was applied and submitted to further development to allow for a comprehensive risk assessment of such complex environmental samples. As particulate pollutants are constructive constituents of sediments, they underlay episodic source-sink dynamics, becoming available to benthic organisms. As bioavailability of xenobiotics is a crucial factor for ecotoxicological hazard, we focused on the direct particle-exposure pathway, evaluating through put-capable endpoints and considering toxicokinetics. Fish embryo and larvae were exposed toward reconstituted (freeze-dried) sediment samples on a microcosm-scale experimental approach. A range of different developmental embryonic stages were considered to gain knowledge of potential correlations with metabolic competence during the early embryogenesis. Morphological, physiological, and molecular endpoints were investigated to elucidate induced adverse effects, placing particular emphasis on genomic instability, assessed by the in vivo comet assay. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the extent of induced cell death, since cytotoxicity can lead to confounding effects. The implementation of relative toxicity indices further provides inter-comparability between samples and related studies. All of the investigated sediments represent a significant ecotoxicological hazard by disrupting embryogenesis in zebrafish. Beside the induction of acute toxicity, morphological and physiological embryotoxic effects could be identified in a concentration-response manner. Increased DNA strand break frequency was detected after sediment contact in characteristic non-monotonic dose–response behavior due to overlapping cytotoxic effects. The embryonic zebrafish toxicity model along with the in vivo comet assay and molecular biomarker analysis should prospectively be considered to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments allowing for a comprehensive hazard ranking. In order to elucidate mode of action, novel techniques such as flow cytometry have been adopted and proved to be valuable tools for advanced risk assessment and management.

  • 11.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hollert, Henner
    Jönsson, Sofie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds: Effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background:  Sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since January, 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. One common method in the USA and parts of Europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. The capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is not fully elucidated. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was therefore treated in artificial reed beds and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of many pharmaceuticals and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Recently performed studies have also showed that embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are sensitive to nitroaromatic compounds. Therefore, we tested the sludge passing through constructed wetlands in order to detect any changes in levels of embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and dioxin-like activity (AhR-agonists). We also compared unplanted and planted systems in order to examine the impact of the root system on the fate of the toxicants. Methods:  An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics was added daily to small-scale constructed wetlands (vertical flow), both unplanted and planted with Phragmites australis. Sludge with an average dry weight of 1.25%, was added with an average hydraulic loading rate of 1.2 L/day. Outgoing water was collected daily and stored at −20°C. The artificial wetland sediment was Soxhlet extracted, followed by clean-up with multi-layer silica, or extracted by ultrasonic treatment, yielding one organic extract and one water extract of the same sample. Genotoxicity of the extracts was measured according to the ISO protocol for the umu-C genotoxicity assay (ISO/TC 147/SC 5/WG9 N8), using Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 as test organism. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity were studied using the fish egg assay with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay. Chemical analyses of nitroaromatic compounds were performed using Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Results:  Organic extracts of the bed material showed toxic potential in all three toxicity tests after two years of sludge loading. There was a difference between the planted and the unplanted beds, where the toxicity of organic extracts overall was higher in the bed material from the planted beds. The higher toxicity of the planted beds could have been caused by the higher levels of total carbon in the planted beds, which binds organic toxicants, and by enrichment caused by lower volumes of outgoing water from the planted beds. Discussion:  Developmental disorders were observed in zebrafish exposed directly in contact to bed material from unplanted beds, but not in fish exposed to bed material from planted beds. Hatching rates were slightly lower in zebrafish exposed to outgoing water from unplanted beds than in embryos exposed to outgoing water from planted beds. Genotoxicity in the outgoing water was below detection limit for both planted and unplanted beds. Most of the added toxicants via the sludge were unaccounted for in the outgoing water, suggesting that the beds had toxicant removal potential, although the mechanisms behind this remain unknown. Conclusions:  During the experimental period, the beds received a sludge volume (dry weight) of around three times their own volume. In spite of this, the toxicity in the bed material was lower than in the sludge. Thus, the beds were probably able to actually decrease the toxicity of the added, sludge-associated toxicants. When testing the acetone extracts of the bed material, the planted bed showed a higher toxicity than the unplanted beds in all three toxicity tests. The toxicity of water extracts from the unplanted beds, detected by the fish egg assay, were higher than the water extracts from the planted beds. No genotoxicity was detected in outgoing water from either planted or unplanted beds. All this together indicates that the planted reed beds retained semi-lipophilic acetone-soluble toxic compounds from the sludge better than the unplanted beds, which tended to leak out more of the water soluble toxic compounds in the outgoing water. The compounds identified by SPME/GC in the outgoing water were not in sufficient concentrations to have caused induction in the genotoxicity test. Recommendations and Perspectives:  This study has pointed out the benefits of using constructed wetlands receiving an industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics to reduce toxicity in the outgoing water. The water from planted, constructed wetlands could therefore be directed to a recipient without further cleaning. The bed material should be investigated over a longer period of time in order to evaluate potential accumulation and leakage prior to proper usage or storage. The plants should be investigated in order to examine uptake and possible release when the plant biomass is degraded.

  • 12.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Klee, Nina
    Olsman, Helena
    Hollert, Henner
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fate of Ah receptor agonists during biological treatment of an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues2004In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 379-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND:

    Sweden is meeting prohibition for deposition of organic waste from 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a higher degree. Two biological treatment alternatives are anaerobic digestion and composting. Different oxygen concentrations result in different microbial degradation pathways and, consequently, in a different quality of the digestion or composting residue, It is therefore necessary to study sludge treatment during different oxygen regimes in order to follow both degradation of compounds and change in toxicity. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting, and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of both pharmaceutical and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. However, little data are available concerning sludge with nitroaromatics and any associated dioxin-like activity. Therefore, we studied the sludge before and after the treatments in order to detect any changes in levels of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists using two bioassays for dioxin-like compounds.

    METHODS:

    An industrial sludge was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting in small reactors in a semi-continuous manner. The same volume as the feeding volume was taken out daily and stored at -20 degrees C. Sample preparation for the bioassays was done by extraction using organic solvents, followed by clean up with silica gel or sulphuric acid, yielding two fractions. The fractions were dissolved in DMSO and tested in the bioassays. The dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay with transfected H4IIE rat hepatoma pGudluc cells and an EROD induction assay with RTL-W1 rainbow trout liver cells.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

    The bioassays showed that the sludge contained AhR agonists at levels of TCDD equivalents (TEQs) higher than other sludge types in Sweden. In addition, the TEQ values for the acid resistant fractions increased considerably after anaerobic digestion, resulting in an apparent formation of acid resistant TEQs in the anaerobic reactors. Similar results have been reported from studies of fermented household waste. There was a large difference in effects between the two bioassays, with higher TEQ levels in the RTL-W1 EROD assay than in the DR-CALUX assay. This is possibly due to a more rapid metabolism in rat hepatocytes than in trout hepatocytes or to differences in sensitivities for the AhR agonists in the sludge. It was also demonstrated by GC/FID analysis that the sludge contained high concentrations of nitroaromatics. It is suggested that nitroaromatic metabolites, such as aromatic amines and nitroanilines, are possible candidates for the observed bioassay effects. It was also found that the AhR agonists in the sludge samples were volatile.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The sludge contained fairly high concentrations of volatile AhR agonists. The increase of acid resistant AhR agonist after anaerobic digestion warrants further investigations of the chemical and toxic properties of these compounds and of the mechanisms behind this observation.

    RECOMMENDATION AND OUTLOOK:

    This study has pointed out the benefits of using different types of mechanism-specific bioassays when evaluating the change in toxicity by sludge treatment, in which measurement of dioxin-like activity can be a valuable tool. In order to study the recalcitrant properties of the compounds in the sludge using the DR-CALUX assay, the exposure time can be varied between 6 and 24 hours. The properties of the acid-resistant AhR agonists formed in the anaerobic treatment have to be investigated in order to choose the most appropriate method for sludge management.

  • 13.
    Hafner, Christoph
    et al.
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Gartiser, Stefan
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Garcia-Kaeufer, Manuel
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany; Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hercher, Christoph
    Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
    Meyer, Wiebke
    Institute of Geology and Palaeontology – Applied Geology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Achten, Christine
    Institute of Geology and Palaeontology – Applied Geology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Investigations on sediment toxicity of German rivers applying a standardized bioassay battery2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16358-16370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River sediments may contain a huge variety of environmental contaminants and play a key role in the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Contaminants adsorbed to sediments and suspended solids may contribute directly or after remobilization to an adverse ecological and chemical status of surface water. In this subproject of the joint research project DanTox, acetonic Soxhlet extracts from three German river sediments from the River Rhine (Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein with moderate contamination) and River Elbe (Veringkanal Hamburg heavily contaminated) were prepared and redissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). These extracts were analyzed with a standard bioassay battery with organisms from different trophic levels (bacteria, algae, Daphnia, fish) as well as in the Ames test and the umuC test for bacterial mutagenicity and genotoxicity according to the respective OECD and ISO guidelines. In total, 0.01 % (standard) up to 0.25 % (only fish embryo test) of the DMSO sediment extract was dosed to the test systems resulting in maximum sediment equivalent concentrations (SEQ) of 2 up to 50 g l(-1). The sediment of Veringkanal near Hamburg harbor was significantly more toxic in most tests compared to the sediment extracts from Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein from the River Rhine. The most toxic effect found for Veringkanal was in the algae test with an ErC50 (72 h) of 0.00226 g l(-1) SEQ. Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples were about factor 1,000 less toxic. In the Daphnia, Lemna, and acute fish toxicity tests, no toxicity at all was found at 2 g l(-1) SEQ. corresponding to 0.01 % DMSO. Only when increasing the DMSO concentration the fish embryo test showed a 22-fold higher toxicity for Veringkanal than for Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples, while the toxicity difference was less evident for the Daphnia test due to the overlaying solvent toxicity above 0.05 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The higher toxicities observed with the Veringkanal sample are supported by the PAH and PCB concentrations analyzed in the sediments. The sediment extracts of Altrip andVeringkanal were mutagenic in the Ames tester strain TA98 with metabolic activation (S9mix). The findings allow a better ecotoxicological characterization of the sediments extensively analyzed in all subprojects of the DanTox project (e. g., Garcia-Kaeufer et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3894-4, 2014; Schiwy et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-31850, 2014; Hollert and Keiter 2015). In the absence of agreed limit values for sediment extracts in standard tests, further data with unpolluted reference sediments are required for a quantitative risk assessment of the investigated polluted sediments.

  • 14.
    Hausen, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Otte, Jens C.
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Environment and Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Yang, Lixin
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany .
    Strähle, Uwe
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Fenske, Martina
    Project Group for Translational Medicine and Pharmacology, Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen, Germany .
    Hecker, Markus
    School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK, Canada.
    Tang, Song
    School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK, Canada.
    Hammers-Wirtz, Monika
    Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment [gaiac], Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research [RWTH], Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Institute for Environmental Research [RWTH], Aachen University, Aachen, Germany .
    Fishing for contaminants: identification of three mechanism specific transcriptome signatures using Danio rerio embryos2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 4023-4036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ecotoxicology, transcriptomics is an effective way to detect gene expression changes in response to environmental pollutants. Such changes can be used to identify contaminants or contaminant classes and can be applied as early warning signals for pollution. To do so, it is important to distinguish contaminant-specific transcriptomic changes from genetic alterations due to general stress. Here we present a first step in the identification of contaminant class-specific transcriptome signatures. Embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to three substances (methylmercury, chlorpyrifos and Aroclor 1254, each from 24 to 48 hpf exposed) representing sediment typical contaminant classes. We analyzed the altered transcriptome to detect discriminative genes significantly regulated in reaction to the three applied contaminants. By comparison of the results of the three contaminants, we identified transcriptome signatures and biologically important pathways (using Cytoscape/ClueGO software) that react significantly to the contaminant classes. This approach increases the chance of finding genes that play an important role in contaminant class-specific pathways rather than more general processes.

  • 15.
    Hausen, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Otte, Jens C.
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Straehle, Uwe
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Hammers-Wirtz, Monika
    Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment - gaiac, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen H.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ottermanns, Richard
    Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Fold-change threshold screening: a robust algorithm to unmask hidden gene expression patterns in noisy aggregated transcriptome data2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16384-16392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcriptomics is often used to investigate changes in an organism's genetic response to environmental contamination. Data noise can mask the effects of contaminants making it difficult to detect responding genes. Because the number of genes which are found differentially expressed in transcriptome data is often very large, algorithms are needed to reduce the number down to a few robust discriminative genes. We present an algorithm for aggregated analysis of transcriptome data which uses multiple fold-change thresholds (threshold screening) and p values from Bayesian generalized linear model in order to assess the robustness of a gene as a potential indicator for the treatments tested. The algorithm provides a robustness indicator (ROBI) as well as a significance profile, which can be used to assess the statistical significance of a given gene for different fold-change thresholds. Using ROBI, eight discriminative genes were identified from an exemplary dataset (Danio rerio FET treated with chlorpyrifos, methylmercury, and PCB) which could be potential indicators for a given substance. Significance profiles uncovered genetic effects and revealed appropriate fold-change thresholds for single genes or gene clusters. Fold-change threshold screening is a powerful tool for dimensionality reduction and feature selection in transcriptome data, as it effectively reduces the number of detected genes suitable for environmental monitoring. In addition, it is able to unmask patterns in altered genetic expression hidden by data noise and reduces the chance of type II errors, e.g., in environmental screening.

  • 16. Hinger, Gunnar
    et al.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    Sagner, Anne
    Takner [Olsman], Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eisentraeger, Adolf
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Tiehm, Andreas
    Hollert, Henner
    Some heterocyclic aromatic compounds are Ah receptor agonists in the DR-CALUX assay and the EROD assay with RTL-W1 cells2011In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1297-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen heteroatoms (NSO-HET) have been detected in air, soil, marine, and freshwater systems. However, only few publications are available investigating NSO-HET using in vitro bioassays. To support better characterization of environmental samples, selected NSO-HET were screened for dioxin-like activity in two bioassays. Methods The present study focuses on the identification and quantification of dioxin-like effects of 12 NSO-HET using the DR-CALUX assay, and the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay with the permanent fish liver cell line RTL-W1. Changes of the total medium compound concentrations during the test procedure due to, e.g., sorption or volatilization were quantified using GC/MS. Results The NSO-HET benzofuran, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophen, acridine, xanthene, and carbazole caused a response in the DR-CALUX assay. Only benzofuran and 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran were also positive in the EROD assay. All other compounds were inactive in the EROD assay. Relative potency (REP) values ranged from (2.80 +/- 1.32) center dot 10(-8) to (3.26 A +/- 2.03) A center dot 10(-6) in the DR-CALUX and from (3.26 A +/- 0.91) A center dot 10(-7) to (4.87 A +/- 1.97) A center dot 10(-7) in the EROD assay. Conclusions The REP values were comparable to those of larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene. Thus, and because of the ubiquitous distribution of heterocyclic aromatic compounds in the environment, the provided data will further facilitate the bioanalytical and analytical characterization of environmental samples towards these toxicants.

  • 17.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Achen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen H.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Achen, Germany.
    Danio rerio as a model in aquatic toxicology and sediment research2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, p. 16243-16246Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jacobsen, Annette V.
    et al.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Nordén, Marcus
    MTM Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on genes controlling hepatic fatty acid metabolism in livers of chicken embryos2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 23, p. 23074-23081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic surfactants with a wide variety of applications; however, due to their stability, they are particularly resistant to degradation and, as such, are classed as persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one such PFAS that is still detectable in a range of different environmental settings, despite its use now being regulated in numerous countries. Elevated levels of PFOS have been detected in various avian species, and the impact of this on avian health is of interest when determining acceptable levels of PFOS in the environment. Due to its similarities to naturally occurring fatty acids, PFOS has potential to disrupt a range of biological pathways, particularly those associated with lipid metabolism, and this has been shown in various species. In this study, we have investigated how in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of PFOS affects expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of developing chicken embryos. We have found a broad suppression of transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and PPAR-mediated transcription with more significant effects apparent at lower doses of PFOS. These results highlight the need for more research investigating the biological impacts of low levels of PFAS to properly inform environmental policy governing their regulation.

  • 19.
    Jernbro, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Suares Rocha, Paula
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Skutlarek, Dirk
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Färber, Harald
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Jones, Paul D.
    Michigan State University, Michigan, USA.
    Giesy, John P.
    Michigan State University, Michigan, USA.
    Hollert, Henner
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Increases the Genotoxicity of Cyclophosphamide in the Micronucleus Assay with V79 Cells: Further Proof of Alterations in Cell Membrane Properties Caused by PFOS2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 85-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3–) is a fully fluorinated organic compound which has been manufactured for decades and was used widely in industrial and commercial products. The recent toxicological knowledge of PFOS mainly concerns mono-substance exposures of PFOS to biological systems, leaving the potential interactive effects of PFOS with other compounds as an area where understanding is significantly lacking. However, a recent study, reported the potential of PFOS to enhance the toxicity of two compounds by increasing cell membrane permeability. This is of particular concern since PFOS has been reported to be widely distributed in the environment where contaminants are known to occur in complex mixtures. In this study, PFOS was evaluated alone and in combination with cyclophosphamide (CPP) to investigate whether a presence of PFOS leads to an increased genotoxic potential of CPP towards hamster lung V79 cells. Genotoxicity was investigated using the micronucleus(MN) assay according to the recent draft ISO/DIS 21427-2 method. PFOS alone demonstrated no genotoxicity up to a concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. However, PFOS combined with two different concentrations of CPP, with metabolic activation, caused a significant increase in the number of micronucleated cells compared to treatments with CPP alone. These results provide a first indication that PFOS has the potential to enhance the genotoxic action of CPP towards V79 cells, suggesting, together with the alterations in cell membrane properties shown previously, that genotoxicity of complex mixtures may be increased significantly by changes in chemical uptake. Together with an earlier study performed by the own working group, it can be concluded that PFOS alone is not genotoxic in this bioassay using V79 cells up to 12.5 μg/ml, but that further investigations are needed to assess the potential interaction between PFOS and other substances, in particular regarding the impact of membrane alterations on the uptake of toxic substances.

  • 20.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Department of Environment and Mineral Resources, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Denmark.
    Stahre, Nanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Makitalo, Maria
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Maurice, Christian
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Öhlander, Bjorn
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elemental mobility in sulfidic mine tailings reclaimed with paper mill by-products as sealing materials2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 25, p. 20372-20389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg). The leaching results revealed that, in general, the dregs- and ash-covered tailings released relatively lower concentrations of many elements contained in acid rock drainage compared to those from the uncovered tailings. A change in the chemical composition and mineralogical state of the tailings was observed for the tailings beneath the covers. The increase in pH caused by the alkaline materials promoted metal precipitation. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC confirmed most of the geochemical changes of the covered tailings. Both the ash and dregs showed potential to function as sealing materials in terms of their geochemical properties. However, mobilization of Zn and Ni from the lower part of the dregs-covered tailings was observed. The same phenomenon was observed for the lower part of the ash-covered tailings. Ash showed advantages over dregs as a cover material; based on geochemical studies, the ash immobilized more elements than the dregs did. Lysimeters were installed below the sealing layers, and infiltrating water chemistry and hydrology were studied to monitor the amount and quality of the leachate percolating through.

  • 21.
    Karami, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Courtenay, Simon
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB, Canada.
    Fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for characterization of contaminant exposure through selected biomarkers in African catfish2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1586-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A “data trimming”approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.

  • 22.
    Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rastall, Andrew
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kosmehl, Thomas
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Wurm, Karl
    Gewässerökologisches Labor Starzach, The Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Erdinger, Lothar
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Ecotoxicological assessment of sediment, suspended matter andwater samples in the upper danube river: a pilot study in search for the causes for the decline of fish catches2006In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 308-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goals, Scope and Background. Fish populations, especially thoseof the grayling (Thymallus thymallus), have declined over thelast two decades in the upper Danube River between Sigmaringenand Ulm, despite intensive and continuous stocking and improvementof water quality since the 1970s. Similar problems havebeen reported for other rivers, e.g. in Switzerland, Great Britain,the United States and Canada. In order to assess if ecotoxicologicaleffects might be related to the decline in fish catchat the upper Danube River, sediment, suspended matter andwaste water samples from sewage treatment plants were collectedat selected locations and analyzed in a bioanalytical approachusing a battery of bioassays. The results of this pilotstudy will be used to decide if a comprehensive weight-of-evidencestudy is needed.

    Methods. Freeze-dried sediments and suspended particulate matterswere extracted with acetone in a Soxhlet apparatus. Organicpollutants from sewage water were concentrated usingXAD-resins. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological burden,the following bioassays were used: (1) neutral red assaywith RTL-W1 cells (cytotoxicity), (2) comet assay with RTLW1cells (genotoxicity), (3) Arthrobacter globiformis dehydrogenaseassay (toxicity to bacteria), (4) yeast estrogen screen assay(endocrine disruption), (5) fish egg assay with the zebrafish(Danio rerio; embryo toxicity) and (6) Ames test with TA98(mutagenicity).

    Results and Discussion. The results of the in vitro tests elucidateda considerable genotoxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, bacteriotoxic,embryotoxic and estrogenic burden in the upper DanubeRiver, although with a very inhomogeneous distribution of effects.The samples taken from Riedlingen, for example, inducedlow embryo toxicity, but the second highest 17β-estradiol equivalentconcentration (1.8 ng/L). Using the fish egg assay with nativesediments, a broad range of embryotoxic effects could beelucidated, with clear-cut dose-response relationships for theembryotoxic effects of contaminated sediments. With nativesediments, embryotoxicity was clearly higher than with correspondingpore waters, thus corroborating the view that – atleast for fish eggs – the bioavailability of particle-bound lipophilicsubstances in native sediments is higher than generally assumed. The effect observed most frequently in the fish egg assay was a developmental delay. A comparison of our own results with locationsalong the rivers Rhine and Neckar demonstrated similaror even higher ranges of ecotoxicological burdens in theDanube River.

    Conclusions. The complex pattern of ecotoxicological effectscaused by environmental samples from the Danube River, whenassessed in an in vitro biotest battery using both acute and morespecific endpoints, showed that integration of different endpointsis essential for appropriate hazard assessment. Overall, theecotoxicological hazard potential shown has indeed to be consideredas one potential reason for the decline in fish catches atthe upper Danube River. However, based on the results of thispilot study, it is not possible to elucidate that chemically inducedalterations are responsible for the fish decline.

    Recommendations and Perspectives. In order to confirm the ecologicalrelevance of the in vitro results for the situation in thefield and especially for the decline of the grayling and otherfishes, further integrated investigations are required. For linkingthe weight of evidence obtained by in vitro assays and fishpopulation investigations, the application of additional, morespecific biomarkers (e.g. vitellogenin induction, EROD and micronucleusassay) has been initiated in fish taken from the fieldas well as in situ investigations.

  • 23. Klee, Nina
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kosmehl, Thomas
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Erdinger, Lothar
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Hollert, Henner
    Changes in toxicity and genotoxicity of industrial sewage sludge samples containing nitro- and amino-aromatic compounds following treatment in bioreactors with different oxygen regimes2004In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 313-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GOALS, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: From 2005, deposition of organic waste will be banned in Sweden. Likewise, in Germany and Austria, similar bans are being planned, and further countries will probably follow. Thus, there is a need to develop new methods and to refine established techniques for sludge management in the whole of the European Union. For this end, there is also an urgent need for appropriate ecotoxicological approaches to elucidate and assess the hazard potential of sewage sludge. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the capacity of various established sludge treatment methods using different oxygen regimes to degrade recalcitrant nitro-substituted organic compounds and reduce their toxicity. Sewage sludge samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Sweden (Cambrex Karlskoga AB, industrial area Björkborn) receiving wastewater from industries manufacturing pharmaceutical substances, chemical intermediates and explosives were processed with different sludge treatment methods. Among other treatment methods, bioreactors (for anaerobic and aerobic sludge treatment) were used. In the present investigation, a battery of in vitro bioassays was employed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of different fractions of sludge samples in order to elucidate whether the treatments were suitable to reduce the toxicity of the sludge.

    METHODS:

    In order to investigate the cytotoxicity of the extracts of treated and untreated sludge samples, the acute cytotoxicity test with the permanent cell line RTL-W1 was used. Genotoxicity was tested by means of the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) with RTL-W1 cells, and mutagenicity was assessed with the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA98NR and TA100. Sludge toxicity was tested in different fractions of organic extracts produced by acetone and hexane extractions. The subsequent clean-up procedure (silica gel chromatography and elution with hexane and dichloromethane) resulted in two fractions, a lipophilic hexane-fraction and a semi-lipophilic dichloromethane-fraction. For the genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests, these fractions were reunited at equal ratios.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

    The acute cytotoxicity test with RTL-W1 cells revealed a high cytotoxic potential for the semi-lipophilic DM-fractions of all sludge samples with NR50 values (= effective concentration for 50% cell death in the neutral red test) from 8.9 up to 20 mg sludge d.w./ml medium. A low cytotoxic potential for the hexane fractions of the untreated sludge samples (NR50 400 to > 400 mg sludge d.w./ml medium) was observed, whereas the hexane fractions of the treated sludge samples showed elevated cytotoxicity increasing further with treatment in the bioreactors. The comet assay indicated that three out of eight of the reunited fractions had a significant genotoxic potential. Whereas the genotoxic potential of one sample treated anaerobically was very high with an induction factor of 11.6, a similar sample (taken from the same anaerobic reactor four months later) and one untreated sample showed lower potentials. The samples treated in another anaerobic bioreactor as well as the samples treated aerobically showed no genotoxic potential. Results indicate that aerobic treatment was basically adequate for reducing the genotoxicity of the sludge, whereas anaerobic treatment was only partly useful for reduction of genotoxicity. The Ames test revealed a very high mutagenic potential for the reunited fractions of the untreated sludge samples with strain TA98 (maximum induction factors (IFmax) up to 45) and a relatively high potential for one of the samples treated aerobically (S2, IFmax = 18 (TA98, S9-)), thus documenting the suitability of both anaerobic and aerobic treatments to reduce the mutagenicity of the samples, however, with the aerobic treatment being less effective.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Overall, none of the microbiological treatments for wastewater sludge in bioreactors was found to be ideal for general toxicity reduction of the sludge samples. Whereas cytotoxicity of the sludge increased or levelled off in most cases following either treatment, genotoxicity both increased or decreased after anaerobic treatment, depending on the specific sample. However, mutagenicity could generally be reduced by anaerobic treatment and, to a lesser degree, by aerobic treatment.

    RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES:

    The complex modification of the diverse damage potentials of sludge sample extracts by use of an in vitro biotest battery following treatment for toxicity reduction in bioreactors showed that considerations of different toxicological endpoints is essential for an adequate hazard assessment. Whereas in the case of cytotoxicity reduction, the reactors proved ineffective, mutagenicity could be reduced significantly at least in some cases in this case study.

  • 24.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, Jose L.
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    Nadal, Marti
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Biomonitoring perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: concentrations and trends in human liver and milk samples2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 750-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are global environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. Laboratory experiments have revealed toxic effects such as delayed development, humoral suppression, and hepatotoxicity. Although numerous human blood levels have been reported, little is known about distribution in the human body. Knowledge about PFC distribution and accumulation in the human body is crucial to understanding uptake and subsequent effects as well as to conduct risk assessments. The present study reports PFC levels in human liver and breast milk from a general population living in Catalonia, Spain. Liver and milk levels are compared to previously reported levels in blood from the same geographic area as well as to other existing reports on human liver and milk levels in other countries. Human liver (n = 12) and milk (n = 10) samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 in Catalonia, Spain. Liver samples were taken postmortem from six males and six females aged 27-79 years. Milk samples were from healthy primipara women (30-39 years old). Both liver and milk were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six PFCs were detected in liver, with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, 26.6 ng/g wet weight) being the chemical with the highest mean concentration. Other PFCs such as perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and acids with chain lengths up to C11 were also detected, with mean levels ranging between 0.50 and 1.45 ng/g wet weight. On the other hand, PFOS and PFHxS were the only PFCs detected in human milk, with mean concentrations of 0.12 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. While milk concentrations were similar to reported levels from other countries, liver samples contained more PFCs above quantification limits and higher PFOS concentrations compared to the only two other reports found in the literature. Differences between the results of the present study and those concerning previous investigations can be due to declining levels of some PFCs, which have been reported for the USA. The relationship between PFC concentrations in human liver, milk, and blood was assessed using blood concentrations previously determined in Catalonia. Those levels resulted in liver/serum ratios of 1.7:1, 1.4:1, and 2.1:1 for PFOS, perfluorodecanoic acid, and perfluoroundecanoic acid, respectively. Accumulation in liver is suggested for PFOS and the perfluorocarboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths C9, C10, and C11. For PFOA and PFHxS, fivefold and 14-fold higher concentrations, respectively, were seen in serum as compared to liver. The mean concentration of PFOS and PFHxS in milk was only 0.8% and 0.6% of the reported mean serum level, respectively. The results of the present study show that several PFCs could be detected in human liver samples of subjects living in Tarragona. Concerning human milk, the mechanism by which PFCs are transferred from mother's blood to breast milk is still unclear. Considering that PFCs are strongly bound to the protein fraction in blood, the possibility of PFCs entering the milk and accumulating to levels observed in maternal plasma is limited. Interestingly, the potential accumulation difference for PFCs with different chain lengths might be of great importance for risk assessment. Continuing studies on the distribution of different PFCs in human tissue are therefore justified.

  • 25.
    Lammel, Gerhard
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany.
    Audy, Ondrej
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Besis, Athanasios
    Department of Chemistry, Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Efstathiou, Christos
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Eleftheriadis, Kostas
    Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos Institute, Athens, Greece.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Mulder, Marie D.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Pribylová, Petra
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Prokes, Roman
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Rusina, Tatsiana P.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Samara, Constantini
    Department of Chemistry, Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Sofuoglu, Aysun
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Turkey.
    Sofuoglu, Sait C.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Turkey.
    Tasdemir, Yucel
    Environmental Engineering Department, Uludağ University, Nilüfer, Turkey.
    Vassilatou, Vassiliki
    Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos Institute, Athens, Greece.
    Voutsa, Dimitra
    Department of Chemistry, Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Air and seawater pollution and air-sea gas exchange of persistent toxic substances in the Aegean Sea: spatial trends of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 15, p. 11301-11313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near-ground air (26 substances) and surface seawater (55 substances) concentrations of persistent toxic substances (PTS) were determined in July 2012 in a coordinated and coherent way around the Aegean Sea based on passive air (10 sites in 5 areas) and water (4 sites in 2 areas) sampling. The direction of air-sea exchange was determined for 18 PTS. Identical samplers were deployed at all sites and were analysed at one laboratory. hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products are evenly distributed in the air of the whole region. Air concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and o,p'-DDT and seawater concentrations of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were elevated in Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea. The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener pattern in air is identical throughout the region, while polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE)patterns are obviously dissimilar between Greece and Turkey. Various pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, DDE, and penta- and hexachlorobenzene are found close to phase equilibrium or net-volatilisational (upward flux), similarly at a remote site (on Crete) and in the more polluted Thermaikos Gulf. The results suggest that effective passive air sampling volumes may not be representative across sites when PAHs significantly partitioning to the particulate phase are included.

  • 26.
    Lammel, Gerhard
    et al.
    Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Spitzy, Alejandro
    Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Institute for Geology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Audy, Ondřej
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Beckmann, Sabine
    Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Institute for Geology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Codling, Garry P.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kretzschmann, Lisett
    Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Institute for Geology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), Hamburg, Germany.
    Kukučka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Stemmler, Irene
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls along an east-to-west gradient in subtropical North Atlantic surface water2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 11045-11052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that most persistent toxic substances have hardly been primarily emitted for several decades, their concentrations are only slowly decreasing in the global oceans. Surface seawater samples were collected along a 38°-24° N/28°-67° W transect in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. While the concentration levels of hexachlorobenzene (2.1-6.1 pg L(-1)), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, up to 2.1 pg L(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, 10.8-24.9 pg L(-1)) were in the same range as observed earlier in the North Atlantic, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, 90-627 pg L(-1)) was found elevated, partly also relative to previous measurements in the same sea region. Hereby, the ratio α-HCH/γ-HCH was very low, 0.09-0.13. Chlordane and endosulfan were found in the range <3.0-11.1 and <5.8-8.8 pg L(-1) respectively. DDT metabolites, endrin and related pesticides were found below quantification limits. Spatial pollution patterns in surface seawaters seem to be determined by atmospheric and oceanic transport patterns, rather than by mixing and air-sea equilibrium. The comparison with global multicompartment chemistry-transport model predictions of surface seawater levels indicate underestimated degradation of PCBs and overestimated emissions of endosulfan.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 8511-8520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  • 28.
    Macikova, P.
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kalabova, T.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klanova, J.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Department of Biomedical Veterinary Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK, Canada; Zoology Department and Centre for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI, USA; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Environmental Science Program, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    Hilscherova, K.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Longer-term and short-term variability in pollution of fluvial sediments by dioxin-like and endocrine disruptive compounds2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 5007-5022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in pollutant loads in relatively dynamic river sediments, which contain very complex mixtures of compounds, can play a crucial role in the fate and effects of pollutants in fluvial ecosystems. The contamination of sediments by bioactive substances can be sensitively assessed by in vitro bioassays. This is the first study that characterizes detailed short- and long-term changes in concentrations of contaminants with several modes of action in river sediments. One-year long monthly study described seasonal and spatial variability of contamination of sediments in a representative industrialized area by dioxin-like and endocrine disruptive chemicals. There were significant seasonal changes in both antiandrogenic and androgenic as well as dioxin-like potential of river sediments, while there were no general seasonal trends in estrogenicity. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent potency (dioxin-like potency) expressed as biological TCDD-equivalents (BIOTEQ) was in the range of 0.5-17.7 ng/g, dry mass (dm). The greatest BIOTEQ levels in sediments were observed during winter, particularly at locations downstream of the industrial area. Estrogenicity expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEQ) was in the range of 0.02-3.8 ng/g, dm. Antiandrogenicity was detected in all samples, while androgenic potency in the range of 0.7-16.8 ng/g, dm dihydrotestosterone equivalents (DHT-EQ) was found in only 30 % of samples, most often during autumn, when antiandrogenicity was the least. PAHs were predominant contaminants among analyzed pollutants, responsible, on average, for 13-21 % of BIOTEQ. Longer-term changes in concentrations of BIOTEQ corresponded to seasonal fluctuations, whereas for EEQ, the inter-annual changes at some locations were greater than seasonal variability during 1 year. The inter- as well as intra-annual variability in concentrations of both BIOTEQ and EEQ at individual sites was greater in spring than in autumn which was related to hydrological conditions in the river. This study stresses the importance of river hydrology and its seasonal variations in the design of effective sampling campaigns, as well as in the interpretation of any monitoring results.

  • 29.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Berger, Urs
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 10855-10862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

  • 30.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 8021-8030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mug/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

  • 31.
    Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westman, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate increases β-oxidation of palmitic acid in chicken liver2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1859-1863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) belongs to a group of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl acids that have been extensively used in various applications such as stain and oil resistant treatments for fabrics, fire-fighting foams, and insecticides. These chemicals present an environmental and health risk being present in many samples both in wildlife and humans. In this study, we investigate the effect of PFOS on fatty acid β-oxidation in developing chicken embryos.

    Methods: Fertilized chicken eggs were exposed in ovo to PFOS at day 4 of incubation. On day 10, the eggs were dissected and livers were incubated in vitro with (3)H-palmitic acid for 2 h. The media were collected, and after clean up, the amount of tritiated water was measured with liquid scintillation counting to determine the rate of palmitic acid β-oxidation.

    Results: PFOS was found to induce fatty acid β-oxidation at doses starting from a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) of 0.1 μg/g egg weight. Maximum induction of 77 % compared to control was seen at 0.3 μg/g.

    Conclusions: The administered doses in which effects are seen are around and even lower than the levels that can be found in wild populations of birds. General population human levels are a factor of two to three times lower than the LOEL value of this study. The environmental contamination of PFOS therefore presents a possibility of effects in wild populations of birds.

  • 32.
    Olsman, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kalbin, Georgi
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Julander, Anneli
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ah receptor agonists in UV-exposed toluene solutions of decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) and in soils contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)2006In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: The use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants increases the risk for emissions of other brominated compounds, such as polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). The large homology in structure of PBDD/Fs and mechanism of toxic action, i.e. the capacity to activate the Ah receptor (AhR) pathway, compared to their well-studied chlorinated analogues, justifies a raised concern to study the environmental levels and fate of these compounds. Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is the most widely used PBDE today. Studies on photolytic debromination of decaBDE in organic solvents have shown debromination of decaBDE, as well as formation of PBDFs. However, little is known about the transformation mechanisms and there are only scarce data on photoproducts and PBDE transformation in environmentally relevant matrices. In this study, mechanism-specific dioxin bioassays were used to study photolytic formation of AhR agonists in toluene solutions of decaBDE. In addition, the influence of irradiation time and UV-light wavelength on the formation was studied. PBDE congener patterns and presence of PBDD/Fs were analysed. Further, AhR agonists were analysed in agricultural soils contaminated with PBDEs. Soils were also exposed to UV-light to study changes in AhR agonist levels. METHODS: Toluene solutions of decaBDE were irradiated using three different spectra of UV-light, simulating UV-A (320-400 nm), UV-AB (280-400 nm), and UV-ABC (250-400 nm). Additionally, decaBDE solutions were exposed to narrow wavelength intervals (10 nm bandwidth) with the central wavelengths 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360 nm. AhR agonists in decaBDE solutions were analysed with two different bioassays, the chick embryo liver-cell assay for dioxins (Celcad) and the dioxin responsive, chemically activated luciferase expression assay (DR-Calux). Also, the decaBDE solutions were analysed with LRGC-LRMS to obtain PBDE congener patterns for breakdown of decaBDE, and with HRGC-HRMS, for presence of PBDD/Fs. Four soils were exposed to UV-AB light, under both dry and moist conditions. Levels of AhR agonists in soil extract fractions, before and after UV-exposure, were analysed with the DR-Calux. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Significant levels of photoproducts able to activate the AhR pathway, up to 31 ng bio-TEQ/ml, were formed in UV-exposed decaBDE solutions. The transformation yield of decaBDE into AhR agonists was estimated to be at the 0.1%-level, on a molar basis. The net formation was highly dependent on wavelength, with the sample irradiated at 330 nm showing the highest level of dioxin-like activity. No activity was detected in controls. PBDE analysis confirmed decaBDE degradation and a clear time-dependent pattern for debromination of PBDE congeners. AhR agonist effect in the recalcitrant fractions of the soils corresponded to the levels of chemically derived TEQs, based only on chlorinated dioxin-like compounds in an earlier study. It was concluded that no significant levels of other AhR agonists, e.g. PBDFs, were accumulated in the soil. UV-light caused changes in AhR-mediated activity in the more polar and less persistent fractions of the soils, but it is not known which compounds are responsible for this. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: The laboratory experiments in this study show that high levels of AhR agonists can be formed as photoproducts of decaBDE and it is important to elucidate if and under which conditions this might occur in nature. However, soil analysis indicates that photoproducts of PBDE do not contribute to the accumulated levels of persistent dioxin-like compounds in agricultural soil. Still, more data is needed to fully estimate the environmental importance of PBDE photolysis and occurrence of its photoproducts in other environmental compartments. Analysis with dioxin bioassays enabled us to gather information about photoproducts formed from decaBDE even though the exact identities of these compounds were not known. CONCLUSION: Bioassays are valuable for studying environmental transformation processes like this, where chemical analysis and subsequent toxicological evaluation requires available standard compounds and information on toxicological potency. The use of bioassays allows a rapid evaluation of toxicological relevance.

  • 33.
    Olsman, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schnurer, Anna
    Bjornfoth, Helen
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fractionation and determination of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists in organic waste after anaerobic biodegradation and in batch experiments with PCB and decaBDE2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goals, Scope and Background. Anaerobic digestion of organic household waste can lead to an increase in dioxin-like content, as determined by dioxin-specific bioassays. This may be a result of bioactivation of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists into more potent congeners. Work towards identifying the contributing compound groups is important in order to understand the mechanisms and to assess the relevance behind this increase in dioxin-like toxicity, since the residue can be used as a soil fertilising agent. The aim with the present work was to identify compound groups with AhR agonistic properties that caused the previously reported increase in dioxin-like activity after anaerobic biodegradation Methods. Firstly, chemical fractionation combined with dioxin bioassay testing was used to find bioactive classes of compounds. Secondly, batch digestion experiments with an externally added polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Clophen A50) and with decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE), respectively, were studied as a possible process for transformation of precursors into more potent, dioxin-like compounds. Mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion were studied. Two different dioxin-specific bioassays were used to analyse AhR agonists in the biodegraded material, the CELCAD and the DR-CALUX. Results and Discussion. AhR agonist activity was detected in both di- and polyaromatic fractions of digestate extracts, which indicated that a diverse mixture of compounds contributed to the bioassay responses. No quantifiable activities were induced by the monoaromatic fractions. Further fractionation based on planarity revealed higher concentrations of AhR agonists than what was detected after the first fractionation, probably due to non-additive biological interactions of compounds in the extract that were removed in the second fractionation. These results showed significant activity in the non-planar diaromatic fractions and in the coplanar fractions of both diaromates and polyaromates. In the batch experiment with externally added PCB, an increase in dioxin-like activity was seen after 21 days of digestion at mesophilic conditions. After completed digestion, the content of AhR agonists was equal to the start concentration. PCB analysis with GC-MS indicated that dehalogenation of PCBs occurred in the digestors. The batch experiment with decaBDE showed no significant changes in TEQ-concentrations over time. Conclusions. The results show that the previously reported increase of AhR agonists during mesophilic anaerobic digestion is probably due to an accumulation of several different groups of AhR agonists, both diaromatic and polyaromatic, and both coplanar and non-planar. Batch experiments with externally added PCBs and decaBDE, respectively, did not result in any accumulation of AhR agonist activity after completed digestion, even though chemical analysis indicate a dechlorination of PCBs. Complex, unfractionated extracts were difficult to test using the bioassay approach. Removal of AhR antagonists or otherwise interacting compounds during fractionation may yield bio-TEQ values that are much higher than in the original extract. Recommendations and Perspectives. Our results indicate that the environmental risk that AhR agonists may pose concerning largescale anaerobic digestion of organic household waste probably depends on the efficiency of the digester and the sludge residence time. in order to obtain reliable results with the bioassays, an extensive cleanup and fractionation procedure is necessary. Without clean up and fractionation, there is a risk for false negatives and misleading conclusions. DR-CALUX and CELCAD were both suitable for these kinds of studies, provided that suitable fractionation methods are used.

  • 34.
    Scheringer, Martin
    et al.
    Gruppe für Umwelt- und Sicherheitstechnologie, Institut für Chemie- und Bioingenieurwissenschaften, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE International Environment House , Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Suzuki, Noriyuki
    Exposure Assessment Research Section, Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Masaryk University, RECETOX, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Zetzsch, Cornelius
    BayCEER, Universität Bayreuth, Forschungsstelle für Atmosphärische Chemie, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Bergman, Åke
    Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Initiative for an International Panel on Chemical Pollution (IPCP)2006In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 432-434Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Schiwy, Sabrina
    et al.
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    Braeunig, Jennifer
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    Alert, Henriette
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
    A novel contact assay for testing aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR): mediated toxicity of chemicals and whole sediments in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 16305-16318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Water Framework Directive aims to achieve a good ecological and chemical status in surface waters until 2015. Sediment toxicology plays a major role in this intention as sediments can act as a secondary source of pollution. In order to fulfill this legal obligation, there is an urgent need to develop whole-sediment exposure protocols, since sediment contact assays represent the most realistic scenario to simulate in situ exposure conditions. Therefore, in the present study, a vertebrate sediment contact assay to determine aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity of particle-bound pollutants was developed. Furthermore, the activity and the expression of the CYP1 family in early lifestages of zebrafish after exposure to freeze-dried sediment samples were investigated. In order to validate the developed protocol, effects of β-naphthoflavone and three selected sedimenton zebrafish embryos were investigated. Results documented clearly AhR-mediated toxicity after exposure to β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) and to the sediment from the Vering canal. Upregulation of mRNA levels was observed for all investigated sediment samples. The highest levels of all investigated cyp genes (cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1, and cyp1c2) were recorded after exposure to the sediment sample of the Vering canal. In conclusion, the newly developed sediment contact assay can be recommended for the investigation of dioxin-like activities of single substances and the bioavailable fraction of complex environmental samples. Moreover, the exposure of whole zebrafish embryos to native (freeze-dried) sediment samples represents a highly realistic and ecologically relevant exposure scenario.

  • 36.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grandin, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Conditioning sulfidic mine waste for growth of Agrostis capillaris - impact on solution chemistry2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 6888-6904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination of the environment due to mining and mineral processing is an urgent problem worldwide. It is often desirable to establish a grass cover on old mine waste since it significantly decreases the production of leachates. To obtain sustainable growth, it is often necessary to improve several properties of the waste such as water-holding capacity, nutrient status, and toxicity. This can be done by addition of organic materials such as wood residues, e. g., compost. In this study, we focus on the solution chemistry of the leachates when a substrate containing historic sulfidic mine waste mixed with 30 % (volume) bark compost is overgrown by Agrostis capillaris. The pot experiments also included other growth-promoting additives (alkaline material, mycorrhiza, and metabolizable carbon) to examine whether a more sustainable growth could be obtained. Significant changes in the plant growth and in the leachates composition were observed during 8 weeks of growth. It was concluded that in this time span, the growth of A. capillaris did not affect the composition of the leachates from the pots. Instead, the composition of the leachates was determined by interactions between the bark compost and the mine waste. Best growth of A. capillaris was obtained when alkaline material and mycorrhiza or metabolizable carbon was added to the substrate.

  • 37.
    Wang, Thanh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Junchao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment around a wastewater treatment plant2016In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 16, p. 16440-16447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a riparian ecosystem nearby a wastewater treatment plant effluent were investigated. Different aqueous and terrestrial samples such as soil, sediment, plants, and invertebrates were collected and analyzed for tri- to heptabrominated PBDEs. Furthermore, the food web structure was elucidated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The highest PBDE levels were found for sediment- and soil-dwelling invertebrates, such as earthworms (Σ13 PBDEs 144 ng/g lipid weight), Tubifex tubifex (77 ng/g lw), and scarab larvae (49 ng/g lw). Differences in congener composition profiles among the different matrices show that the environmental distribution and fate of PBDEs in ecosystems can be very complex. Among the analyzed PBDEs in this ecosystem, the tetra-brominated BDE-47 was the dominant PBDE congener and followed by the penta-brominated BDE-99. A potential trend of increasing BDE-47/99 ratio with the increase of δ(15)N was observed for species with similar energy sources (δ(13)C), indicating a higher bioaccumulation potential for BDE-47 in this ecosystem. A significant correlation was also found between PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicating similar sources and fate between the two compound groups in this area. The biota-soil or biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were somewhat different among the PBDE congeners and species, but were generally highest for those with log Kow values around 6.5-7.

  • 38.
    Westman, Ola
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Structor Miljöteknik AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An oxygenated metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene increases hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 6243-6251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known carcinogens to humans and ecotoxicological effects have been shown in several studies. However, PAHs can also be oxidized into more water soluble-oxygenated metabolites (Oxy-PAHs). The first purpose of the present project was to (1) assess the effects of a mixture containing three parent PAHs: anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene versus a mixture of their oxygenated metabolites, namely: anthracene-9,10-dione, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, and 9,10-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene-7-(8H)-one on the hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed in ovo. The second and also main purpose of the project was to (2) assess the effects of the parent PAHs versus their oxy-PAHs analogues when injected individually, followed by (3) additional testing of the individual oxy-PAHs. The hepatic beta-oxidation was measured using a tritium release assay with [9,10-H-3]-palmitic acid (16:0) as substrate. The result from the first part (1) showed reduced hepatic beta-oxidation after exposure in ovo to a mixture of three PAHs, however, increased after exposure to the mixture of three oxy-PAHs compared to control. The result from the second part (2) and also the follow-up experiment (3) showed that 9,10-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene-7-(8H)-one was the causative oxy-PAH. The implication of this finding on the risk assessment of PAH metabolite exposure in avian wildlife remains to be determined. To the best of our knowledge, no similar studies have been reported.

  • 39. Wölz, Jan
    et al.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Maletz, Sibylle
    Olsman Takner, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kammann, Ulrike
    Klempt, Martin
    Weber, Roland
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Hollert, Henner
    Changes in toxicity and Ah receptor agonist activity of suspended particulate matter during flood events at the rivers Neckar and Rhine - a mass balance approach using in vitro methods and chemical analysis2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 536-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope  As a consequence of flood events, runoff and remobilized sediments may cause an increase of ecotoxicologically relevant effects from contaminant reservoirs. Aquatic and terrestrial organisms as well as cattle and areas of settlement are exposed to dislocated contaminants during and after flood events. In this study, the impacts of two flood events triggered by intense rain at the rivers Neckar and Rhine (Southern Germany) were studied. Effects in correlation to flood flow were assessed at the river Neckar using samples collected at frequent intervals. River Rhine suspended particulate matter (SPM) was sampled over a longer period at normal flow and during a flood event. Three cell lines (H4L1.1c4, GPC.2D.Luc, RTL-W1) were used to compare Ah receptor agonist activity in different biotest systems. Multilayer fractionation was performed to identify causative compounds, focusing on persistent organic contaminants. Materials and methods  Native water and SPM of flood events were collected at the river Neckar and at the monitoring station (Rheinguetestation, Worms, Germany) of the river Rhine. Water samples were XAD-extracted. SPM were freeze-dried and Soxhlet-extracted using acetone and finally dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Resulting crude extracts were analyzed for cytotoxicity with the neutral red assay. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity was measured in a set of biological test systems (DR-CALUX, GPC.2D, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay) and different cell lines. In addition, crude extracts were fractionated using a combined method of multilayer (sequence of acidified silica layers) and carbon fractionation. Fractions from the multilayer fractionation contained persistent organic compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)); fractions from the carbon fractionation were separated into a PCDD/F and a PCB fraction. Dioxin-like activity of multilayer and carbon fractions was determined in the EROD assay and expressed as biological toxicity equivalency concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (bio-TEQs). The calculation of chemical equivalency concentrations (chem-TEQs) and comparison to bio-TEQ values allowed the determination of the contribution of the analyzed persistent compounds to the total biological effects measured. Results  Soluble compounds in native and extracted water samples resulted in no or minor activity in the toxicity tests, respectively. Filter residues of native water caused increased AhR-mediated activity at the peak of the flood. Activities of SPM of the river Neckar correlated well with the flow rate indicating a flood-dependent increase of toxicity culminating at the peak of flow. River Rhine SPM showed a decrease of activity regarding an SPM sample of the flood event compared to a long-term sample. Excellent correlations with AhR agonistic activity were determined for DR-CALUX and EROD assay, while the GPC.2D assay did not correlate with both other biotests. The activity of persistent dioxin-like acting compounds in multilayer and carbon fractionated PCDD/F and PCB fractions was low if compared to corresponding crude extracts. The congener pattern of PCDD/F revealed that the contaminations mainly originated from products and productions of the chlorine and organochlorine industries. Discussion  Native and extracted water samples could be shown to contain little or no cytotoxic or AhR agonistic compounds. In contrast, particle-bound compounds were shown to be the relevant effect-causing fraction, as indicated by the activities of filter residues of native water and SPM. Compounds other than fractionated persistent PCBs and PCDD/Fs were more relevant to explain AhR-mediated activities of crude flood SPM at both rivers assessed. Biologically detected activities could at least in part be traced back to chemically analyzed and quantified compounds. Conclusions  The calculation of the portion of persistent PCBs and PCDD/Fs in multilayer fractions causing the high inductions in the EROD assay in combination with chemical analysis provides a suitable tool to assess dioxin-like activity of persistent compounds in SPM sampled over the course of flood events. Depending on the catchment area and annual course of flood events, end points may either indicate an increase or a decrease of activity. In order to determine the ecological hazard potential of mobilized contaminants during flood events, the focus should be set on particle-bound pollutants. Furthermore, PCDD/Fs and PCBs, commonly expected to be the most relevant pollutants in river systems, could be shown to contribute only to a minor portion of the overall AhR-mediated activity. However, they might be most relevant for human exposure when considering persistence and bioaccumulation–biomagnification in the food chain. Recommendations and perspectives  As a consequence of climate change, flood events will increase in frequency and intensity at least in some regions such as Central Europe. Thus, it is crucial to identify the potential hazard of (re-)mobilized contaminants from reservoirs dislocated via floods and threatening especially aquatic organisms and cattle grazing in flood plains. Since other less persistent compounds seem to be more relevant to explain AhR-mediated activities in flood SPM, nonconventional PAHs and more polar compounds also need to be considered for risk assessment. Effect-directed analysis using broad-range fractionation methods taking into account compounds from polar to nonpolar should be applied for identification of pollutants causing biological effects, thus integrating biological and chemical parameters.

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