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  • 1.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Börjesson, Erika
    SWECO VBB VIAK, SE-61132 Nykoping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Diurnal variations of abiotic parameters in a stream, recipient for drainage water in Ranstad, southwest Sweden2002Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 772-777Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During 24 h, water samples were taken for determination of a number of key parameters in a water system containing high concentrations of FeII at circumneutral pH. None of the major constituents (Ca, Mg, Na, K and sulfate) showed diurnal variations, while dissolved oxygen and pH increased during the night. This increase could entirely be explained by the decrease in water temperature. However, the concentration of FeII slightly increased at constant concentration of total Fe during the night, opposite to earlier observations in other systems where the presence of FeII was shown to be controlled by photoreduction. Nocturnal peaks of FeII have also been observed in other systems with high iron concentrations, however, at acidic pH, but without obvious explanation. The mechanisms for this process therefore need further investigation.

  • 2. Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Hagstrom, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Axelsson, Sara
    Nylander-French, Leena
    Tape-stripping as a method for measuring dermal exposure to resin acids during wood pellet production2008Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 345-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for quantifying dermal exposure to the resin acids 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-OXO), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), abietic acid ( AA), and pimaric acid (PA). In addition the method was evaluated in occupational settings during production of wood pellets. Tape-strips were spiked with the substances to evaluate the recovery of the acids from the tape. The removal efficiency of the tape was assessed by tape-stripping a specified area on a glass plate spiked with resin acids. The recovery of the acids from human skin in vivo was evaluated by applying acids in methanol onto the skin of volunteers. Occupational dermal exposure to the resin acids was assessed by tape-stripping the skin of workers involved in the production of wood pellets. The resin acids were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The limit of detection was 15 pg (7-OXO), 150 pg ( DHAA), 285 pg ( AA) and 471 pg ( PA) per injection. The recovery from spiked tapes was in general 100%. The removal efficiency of the tape was 48-101%. Recovery tests from human skin in vivo showed a mean recovery of 27%. Quantifiable amounts of resin acids were observed on four different skin areas with an increase in exposure during a work shift. This study shows that occupational dermal exposure to resin acids can be assessed by tape-stripping and quantified by LC-MS.

  • 3.
    Fassbender, Christopher
    et al.
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Gene-TEQ-a standardized comparative assessment of effects in the comet assay using genotoxicity equivalents2012Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 14, s. 1325-1334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing methods for the comparison of genotoxic effects in the comet assay bear considerable disadvantages such as the problem to link information about concentration dependence and severity of effects. Moreover, given the lack of standardized protocols and the use of various standards, it may be extremely difficult to compare different studies. In order to provide a method for standardized comparative assessment of genotoxic effects, the concept of genotoxicity equivalents (Gene-TEQ) was developed. As potential reference compounds for genotoxic effects, three directly acting (N-methyl-N0-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methyl-methanesulfonate, and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea) and three indirectly acting (cyclophosphamide, dimethylnitrosamine, and 4-nitroquinoline-oxide) genotoxic substances were compared with respect to their cytotoxic (neutral red) and genotoxic (cometassay) concentration–response profiles in the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1. For further comparison, two sediment extracts from the upper Danube River were investigated as environmental samples. Based on the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing, MNNG was selected as the reference compound. At several exposure levels and durations, genotoxic effects of both the other pure substances and the environmental samples were calculated as percentages of the maximum MNNGeffect and related to the absolute MNNG effect (EC values). Thus, genotoxicity equivalent factors(Gene-TEQs) relative to MNNG could be calculated. Gene-TEQs can easily be applied to puresubstances, mixtures and field samples to provide information about their toxicity relative to the reference compound. Furthermore, the Gene-TEQ concept allows a direct comparison of environmental samples from different laboratories.

  • 4.
    Grahn, Evastina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden: Part B: sediment analysis of silver, antimony, thallium and indium2006Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 732-744Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four boreal and remote lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden were analysed for acid leachable silver, antimony, thallium and indium in the solid sediment phase and the corresponding porewater. Dating of the cores was made by their content of acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, in one lake also by 210Pb. The impact of diagenesis on element redistribution in the sediments was included and found to be minor except for thallium. The results show lowered concentrations towards the north and most intense accumulation after the Second World War, which is taken as evidence for atmospheric deposition being the primary source. Indium has declining concentrations in recent strata while silver and antimony increase. Thallium has lowered acid-leachable concentrations in recent strata. For all metals the impact of domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe is discernible. Only thallium appears to reach a geological background at depths that correspond to the late 18th century. For the other metals elevated levels are concluded.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Grahn, Evastina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Historical pollution of seldom monitored trace elements in Sweden - Part A: sediment properties and chronological indicators2006Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 721-731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from four small oligotrophic boreal lakes, with minor acidification, in remote regions of central Sweden were used for historical interpretation of their metal content, with focus on Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in Lake Stensjön, which has the longest sediment record (at least two centuries according to 210Pb dating). Comparison is made with the other three lakes. Major and trace elements in lake water, porewater and the acid-leached (HNO3) solid sediment phase was analysed with ICP-MS. In addition, general lake water chemistry, TOC and principal anions were measured in the aqueous phases. Redistribution processes were interpreted from geochemical modelling. The solid/solution distribution of pe/pH sensitive elements, indicates a minor diagenetic redistribution and the concentration profiles are therefore suitable for chronological evaluation. The ratios of Al, Ti, Sc and V, indicated a qualitative shift of sedimenting material a century ago, which did not have any impact on the retention of trace elements. Lead had a concentration profile, supported by the 206Pb/207Pb ratio, where it was possible to distinguish preindustrial conditions, early industrialisation in Europe, industrialisation in Sweden, and the use of leaded petrol after the Second World War. Cadmium showed a similar concentration pattern. The zinc profile resembled that of cadmium, but with less enrichment. Local lithogenic sources are believed to be quantitatively important. The solid/solution distribution (Kd) was independent of depth for all four elements. The sediment concentrations of copper and zinc are not related to early industrialisation but its concentration has doubled since the Second World War.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    The effect of light and iron(II)/iron(III) on the distribution of Tl(I)/Tl(III) in fresh water systems2006Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 634-640Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of aqueous Tl(I)/Tl(III) as a function of light exposure and solution properties was studied by quantifying the oxidation states after separation with ion chromatography and on-line detection with ICP-MS. Ultraviolet irradiation of aqueous solutions containing 1 μg l−1 Tl(III) and in equilibrium with the atmosphere increases the reduction rate. In systems with photoreduction of Fe(III)(aq) a quantitative oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) was observed, notably at low pH. The process is reversible, as indicated by formation of Tl(I) when the irradiated systems were kept in the dark. In systems with colloidal silica-stabilised ferrihydrite, UV irradiation also leads to oxidation of Tl(I)(aq), but not quantitatively. It is suggested that adsorption of thallium to the ferrihydrite determines the rate of oxidation. Detectable, but not quantitative, oxidation of Tl(I)(aq) took place when natural water samples with 1 μg l−1 Tl(I)(aq) were exposed to either sunlight or UV-light. For these samples, the reduction was not quantitative when they were kept in the dark for 24 h. The results suggest that the light dependent iron cycle in fresh water systems strongly influences the redox state of thallium.

  • 7.
    Li, Honghua
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Li, Yingming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Lv, Jianxia
    Weifang Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Weifang, China.
    Chen, Weihai
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Geng, Dawei
    School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Levels and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in environmental samples near manufacturing facilities in Laizhou Bay area, East China2012Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 14, nr 10, s. 2591-2597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 55 samples including soil, sediment, plants (cypress, reed and seepweed) and aquatic species were collected at locations around hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) manufacturing facilities in Laizhou Bay area, East China. HBCD was determined at concentrations ranging between 0.88 and 6901 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), 2.93-1029 ng g(-1) dw, 8.88-160241 ng g(-1) dw, and 7.09-815 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), respectively. Significant negative correlations (r(2) = 0.54, p = 0.006) were observed between HBCD concentrations in soils and the distance from the manufacturing facility, and the concentrations became constant when the distance was >4 km. The calculation results on the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) suggested that HBCD may be accumulated in plants. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation of HBCD diastereoisomers was found in aquatic species. For example, in crabs the highest concentrations of HBCD (815 ng g(-1) lw for female and 446 ng g(-1) lw for male) were observed in the gill. Besides the gill, α-HBCD was more preferentially accumulated in the spermary and ovary, while β- and γ-HBCD were more accumulated in the muscle. A similar distribution was also observed in roe and muscle of goby fish.

  • 8.
    Pettersson-Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Personal air sampling and analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other bromine containing compounds at an electronic recycling facility in Sweden2004Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 874-880Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used extensively and are considered ubiquitous contaminants. To evaluate exposure to brominated flame retardants within an electronic recycling facility personal air monitoring was done during a two year period. A total of 22 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2 other bromine containing organic compounds have been analysed and evaluated in 17 personal air samples. The most abundant congeners of PBDE was #209 (<0.7-61 ng m(-3)), #183 (<0.1-32 ng m(-3)) indicating the use of the commercial octaBDE mixture, followed by PBDE #99 and #47 (<1.3-25 and <0.9-16 ng m(-3), respectively). The second most abundant peak in the chromatogram from all samples was identified as 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenyxy)ethane (BTBPE) in the concentration range <0.6-39 ng m(-3) (semi-quantitatively calculated against PBDE #191). A second bromine containing compound was also detected, structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane), however no definite identification could be made. The air samples were also evaluated on a work exposure category basis. The workers represented three different categories: dismantlers, other workers and unexposed. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05 with the Mann-Whitney test) among the dismantlers and the unexposed categories for PBDE congeners #47, #100, #99, #154; #153, #183, #209 and BTBPE. Another observation was that the air concentrations of PBDEs and BTBPE in the breathing zone were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) to the amount of recycled material ( in kg). The present work shows that the exposure to brominated flame retardants varied within the electronic facility and that further research is needed to evaluate how the exposure differs with different products being dismantled as well as how the bioavailability of the different BFRs to humans is related to particle exposure.

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