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  • 1.
    Adediran, Gbotemi A.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Liem-Nguyen, Van
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Song, Yu
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Jeffra K.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Microbial Biosynthesis of Thiol Compounds: Implications for Speciation, Cellular Uptake, and Methylation of Hg(II)2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 14, s. 8187-8196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular uptake of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) is a key step in microbial formation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg), but the mechanisms remain largely unidentified. We show that the iron reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces and exports appreciable amounts of low molecular mass thiol (LMM-RSH) compounds reaching concentrations of about 100 nM in the assay medium. These compounds largely control the chemical speciation and bioavailability of Hg(II) by the formation of Hg(LMM-RS)<INF><INF><INF>2</INF></INF> </INF>complexes (primarily with cysteine) in assays without added thiols. By characterizing these effects, we show that the thermodynamic stability of Hg(II)-complexes is a principal controlling factor for Hg(II) methylation by this bacterium such that less stable complexes with mixed ligation involving LMM-RSH, OH<SUP>-</SUP>, and Cl<SUP>-</SUP> are methylated at higher rates than the more stable Hg(LMM-RS)<INF>2</INF> complexes. The Hg(II) methylation rate across different Hg(LMM-RS)<INF>2</INF> compounds is also influenced by the chemical structure of the complexes. In contrast to the current perception of microbial uptake of Hg, our results adhere to generalized theories for metal biouptake based on metal complexation with cell surface ligands and refine the mechanistic understanding of Hg(II) availability for microbial methylation.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany; Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Horii, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Partitioning Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds between Pore Water and Sediment in Two Sediment Cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 18, s. 6969-6975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C ≤ 7) were found exclusively in pore water, while long-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 11) were found only in sediment. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment. The maximum ΣPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm-2 yr-1. Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  • 3.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, China.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Perfluorinated Acid Isomer Profiling in Water and Quantitative Assessment of Manufacturing Source2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 23, s. 9049-9054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C7F15COO -) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C 8F17SO3-) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.

  • 4.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 19, s. 11093-11101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data presenting the environmental occurrence of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are scarce and little is known about the potential sources. In this study, ultra-short-chain PFAAs were analyzed in water connected to potential point sources using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples (n = 34) were collected in connection with firefighting training sites, landfills, and a hazardous waste management facility. Ultra-short-chain PFAAs were detected in all samples at concentrations up to 84 000 ng/L (∑C1-C3), representing up to 69% of the concentration of 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA), trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (TFMS), perfluoroethane sulfonic acid (PFEtS), and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid (PFPrS) were detected at concentrations up to 14 000, 53 000, 940, 1700, and 15 000 ng/L, respectively. Principal component analysis suggests that TFA is associated with landfills. PFPrS was associated with samples collected close to the source at all types of sites included in this study. These findings reveal the presence of high concentrations of ultra-short-chain PFAAs released into the environment from various sources and emphasize the large fraction of ultra-short-chain PFAAs to the total concentration of PFASs in water.

  • 5.
    Cao, Huiming
    et al.
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Zhou, Zhen
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Wang, Ling
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Liu, Guangliang
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Sun, Yuzhen
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Wang, Yawei
    Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Liang, Yong
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health Effects of Persistent Toxic Substances, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Screening of Potential PFOS Alternatives To Decrease Liver Bioaccumulation: Experimental and Computational Approaches2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 2811-2819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with significant bioaccumulation potential in liver tissues. Exposure to PFOS could cause increase of liver weight, induce adenomas of the liver, and cause hepatomegaly. Alternatives of PFOS might be designed and synthesized that have significantly lower liver bioaccumulation. In this study, we conducted animal exposure experiments to investigate tissue accumulations of 14 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. Correlation analysis demonstrated that accumulation of the compounds in rat liver had strong correlations with their binding affinities of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP). Thus, we combined a quantitative structure-activity relationship model with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to develop computational models to predict the LFABP binding affinities of two newly synthesized alternatives, perfluorodecalin-2-sulfonic acid and N-diperfluorobutanoic acid. The binding characteristics of the PFOS alternatives for LFABP were elaborated to explore how the different structural modifications of molecules influenced the underlying binding mechanisms. Subsequent animal experiments demonstrated that the binding free energy calculations based on the MD simulations provided a good indicator to reflect the relative degree of liver accumulation of the PFOS alternatives in the same exposure doses and durations. Our findings from the combination of experimental exposure and computational model can provide helpful information to design potential alternatives of PFOS with weak LFABP binding capability and low liver accumulation.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 24, s. 14503-14511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

  • 7.
    Fu, Jianjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Shao, Junjuan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Yuan, Bo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Influence of e-waste dismantling and its regulations: temporal trend, spatial distribution of heavy metals in rice grains, and its potential health risk2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 13, s. 7437-7445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced regulations, centralized dismantling processes, and sophisticated recycling technologies have been implemented in some e-waste dismantling areas in China with regard to environmental and economic aspects since 2005. In this study, rice grain samples were collected from 2006 to 2010 in an e-waste dismantling area to investigate the temporal trends and spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb. Geometric means of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb in rice samples from the e-waste dismantling area were 111, 217, 4676, and 237 ng g(-1), respectively. Levels of Pb showed a significant decreasing trend during the sampling period, whereas the other three elements remained relatively constant or even increased. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Pb in the e-waste dismantling area were significantly higher than those in the non-e-waste dismantling area (p < 0.05), which showed a close connection between e-waste dismantling activities and elevated Pb, Cu, and Cd contents. Risk assessment for human via rice consumption indicated that over 60% of the hazard quotient of Cd exceeded 1 in the e-waste dismantling area. Our study implied that stricter implementation of regulatory measures might lead to positive effects in controlling the release of some heavy metals to the environment. However, environmental behaviors differed with geochemical characteristics of individual elements. Further remediation actions to reduce heavy metal pollution to the surrounding environment might still be needed.

  • 8.
    Gao, Yan
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Huiming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liang, Yong
    Institute of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China; School of Medicine, Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China; Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Zhao, Chunyan
    School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Differential accumulation and elimination behavior of perfluoroalkyl acid isomers in occupational workers in a manufactory in China2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 11, s. 6953-6962Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, serum and urine samples were collected from 36 occupational workers in a fluorochemical manufacturing plant in China from 2008 to 2012 to evaluate the body burden and possible elimination of linear and branched perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Indoor dust, total suspended particles (TSP), diet, and drinking water samples were also collected to trace the occupational exposure pathway to PFAA isomers. The geometric mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) isomers in the serum were 1386, 371, and 863 ng mL(-1), respectively. The linear isomer of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS was the most predominant PFAA in the serum, with mean proportions of 63.3, 91.1, and 92.7% respectively, which were higher than the proportions in urine. The most important exposure routes to PFAA isomers in the occupational workers were considered to be the intake of indoor dust and TSP. A renal clearance estimation indicated that branched PFAA isomers had a higher renal clearance rate than did the corresponding linear isomers. Molecular docking modeling implied that linear PFOS (n-PFOS) had a stronger interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) than branched isomers did, which could decrease the proportion of n-PFOS in the blood of humans via the transport of HSA.

  • 9.
    Klánová, Jana
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Diamond, Miriam
    Department of Geography, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Jones, Kevin
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Lammel, Gerhard
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, United States.
    Pirrone, Nicola
    Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR-IIA), National Research Council of Italy, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome, Italy.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Institute for Chemical and Bioingeneering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Balducci, Catia
    Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR-IIA), National Research Council of Italy, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome, Italy.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Chemistry Department, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bláha, Karel
    Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Bláha, Ludek
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Booij, Kees
    Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Ab Texel, The Netherlands.
    Bouwman, Henk
    Department of Zoology, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Breivik, Knut
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway.
    Eckhardt, Sabine
    Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme, DTIE/Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Garrigues, Philippe
    Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, UMR 52 55 CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Harner, Tom
    Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Toronto, Canada.
    Holoubek, Ivan
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hung, Hayley
    Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Toronto, Canada.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magulova, Katarina
    United Nations Environment Programme, Stockholm Convention Secretariat, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mosca, Silvia
    Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR-IIA), National Research Council of Italy, Rome, Italy.
    Pistocchi, Alberto
    GECOsistema Srl, Cesena, Italy.
    Simonich, Staci
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, United States.
    Smedes, Foppe
    Deltares, Geo-environmental Research Laboratory, Utrecht, Segrate, Netherlands.
    Stephanou, Euripides
    Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Crete, Voutes-Heraklion, Greece.
    Sweetman, Andy
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Sebková, Katerina
    Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Venier, Marta
    School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.
    Vighi, Marco
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Weber, Roland
    POPs Environmental Consulting, Goeppingen, Germany.
    Weiss, Peter
    Federal Environment Agency, Vienna, Austria.
    Identifying the Research and Infrastructure Needs for the Global Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Ten Years after Establishing the Stockholm Convention2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 18, s. 7617-7619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Horii, Yuichi
    Group of Chemical Substances, Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kazo Saitama, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, United States.
    Petrick, Gert
    Department of Marine Chemistry, Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences, Kiel, Germany.
    Sinha, Ravindra K.
    Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Flux of Perfluorinated Chemicals through Wet Deposition in Japan, the United States, And Several Other Countries2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 18, s. 7043-7049Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread distribution of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in different environmental matrices has prompted concern about the sources, fate, and transport of these classes of chemicals. PFCs are present in the atmosphere, but only a few studies have investigated their occurrence in precipitation. In this study, concentrations of 20 PFCs, including C3-C5 short-chain PFCs, were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS in precipitation samples from Japan (n = 31), the United States (n = 12), China (n = 5), India (n = 2), and France (n = 2). Among the PFCs measured, perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA) was detected in all of the precipitation samples. Average total PFC concentrations ranged from 1.40 to 18.1 ng/L for the seven cities studied. The greatest total PFC concentrations were detected in Tsukuba, Japan, whereas the lowest concentrations were detected in Patna, India. PFPrA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were found to be the dominant PFCs in Japanese and U.S. precipitation samples. No observable seasonal trend was found in precipitation samples from two locations in Japan. Annual fluxes of PFCs were estimated for Japan and the U.S. and the evidence for precipitation as an effective scavenger of PFCs in the atmosphere is reported.

  • 11.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Harden, Fiona
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Levels of 12 perfluorinated chemicals in pooled Australian serum, collected 2002-2003, in relation to age, gender, and region2006Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 12, s. 3742-3748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pooled serum samples from 3802 Australian residents were analyzed for four perfluoroalkylsulfonates, seven perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA). Serum was collected from men and women of five different age groups and from rural and urban regions in Australia. The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 20.8 ng/mL) followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 6.2 ng/mL), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 1.1 ng/mL), and PFOSA (0.71 ng/mL). Additional four PFCs were detected in 5-18% of the samples at concentrations near the detection limits (0.1-0.5 ng/mL). An increase in PFOS concentration with increasing age in both regions and genders was observed. The male pool levels of some of the age groups compared to females were higherfor PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS. In contrast, PFNA concentrations were higher in the female pools. No substantial difference was found in levels of PFCs between the urban and rural regions. The levels are equal or higher than previously reported serum levels in Europe and Asia but lower compared to the U.S.A. These results suggest that emissions from production in the Northern Hemisphere are of less importance for human exposure.

  • 12.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Li, Ming
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Dan
    Siberia Tiger Park Heilongjiang, Harbin, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Dai, Jiayin
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) from China2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 19, s. 7078-7083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in a variety of industrial applications. We tested the hypothesis that, in Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), captivity in industrialized areas increases PFC levels, potentially presenting a health risk to these animals. Serum samples were collected from 100 tigers from industrialized or nonindustrialized regions in China with nonpoint sources of PFCs. Mean concentrations of PFCs in these samples ranged from 1.57 ± 0.83 ng/mL in nonindustrial Hailin to 4.31 ± 2.90 ng/mL in industrial Beijing. PFC concentrations were significantly higher in tigers from the industrial city of Harbin than those from Hailin (p < 0.05). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the most abundant PFC in all tigers and increased with age, regardless of industrial/nonindustrial background (p < 0.01). However, PFOS concentrations were 2-4 orders of magnitude less than the current no-observed-effect level. In addition, overall PFC levels in Amur tigers were low compared with various species living in other countries, consistent with the relatively short history of PFC use in China. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that captivity in industrialized areas increases PFC levels in Amurtigers. They also suggestthat PFC accumulation will persist, and even increase, with continued use of PFCs in China.

  • 13.
    Li, Yingming
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Ding, Lei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Li, Xiaomin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Li, An
    School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL, United States .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Reduction of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during the 2008 Beijing Olympic games2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 3304-3309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 120 air samples were collected at three urban and one rural location in Beijing, China in the summers of 2007-2010, and before, during, and after the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (BOG), in order to assess the effectiveness of long-term and short-term emission-control measures in reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the atmosphere. During the BOG (August, 2008), the PCDD/Fs concentrations decreased to an average value of 1150 fg m−3 (63 fg I-TEQ m−3), which was reduced by approximately 70% from the average in 2007 and by 29% from that in July 2008, before the Olympic event began. Although 2009-2010 levels of PCDD/Fs were significantly higher than 2008, the overall temporal trend was decreasing for summer months during the sampling campaign period. The apparent half-lives of atmospheric PCDD/Fs were estimated to be 3.2-5.8 years by statistically regressing the logarithm PCDD/Fs concentrations versus the number of years passed since 2006. The air concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP) during the BOG ranged between 135 and 183 μg m−3, showing a 52% reduction from 2007 and 26% decrease from those prior to the Olympic event. No significant relationships were found between meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) and PCDD/Fs or TSP during the BOG, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentrations were significantly dependent on the air quality (p < 0.05, positive against TSP and negative against visibility). This work is one of few temporal trend studies of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in mainland China, and provides unique insight into the effects of large-scale control measures in improving air quality and reducing one of the most ubiquitous and toxic organic pollutants in the environment.

  • 14.
    Li, Yingming
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People’s Republic of China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People’s Republic of China.
    Ji, Dongsheng
    Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People’s Republic of China.
    Ding, Lei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People’s Republic of China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, People’s Republic of China.
    Levels and vertical distributions of PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs in the atmospheric boundary layer: observation from the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 1030-1035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyurethane foam disk passive air sampling was carried out to investigate the levels, vertical distributions, and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the atmospheric boundary layer of an urban site in Asia. Sampling was performed at nine heights (15, 47, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 m) of the 325-m meteorological tower in Beijing, China over three 2-month periods between December 2006 and August 2007. This is the first study to report vertical variations of PBDEs in the ABL and one of only a few studies to investigate vertical distributions of persistent organic pollutants. The levels of sigma19PCBs and sigma8PBDEs were relatively low, ranging from 22 to 65 and from 2.3 to 18 pg m-3, respectively. Air concentrations of gamma-HCH were high, with values in the range of 39-103 pg m-3 in winter, 100-180 pg m-3 in spring, and 115-242 pg m-3 in summer, respectively. alpha-HCH concentrations ranged from 20 to 86 pg m-3, p,p'-DDT between 7.3 and 78 pg m-3, and HCB between 15 and 160 pg m-3. The seasonal variations of PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs may reflect different sources for these chemicals, such as those related with regional use (gamma-HCH), volatilization/re-emission (PBDEs, PCBs, alpha-HCH), and pesticide impurities (HCB). Although the performance reference compounds (PRCs) were spiked before deployment, the sampling rates showed strong dependency on wind speeds, resulting in large variations in uptake rates in the ABL, ranging from approximately 7.0 m3 day-1 at ground level to 11 m3 day-1 at 320 m. Levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs decreased with increasing ABL height indicating the potential of Beijing as the local sources.

  • 15.
    Li, Yunyun
    et al.
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and HKU-IHEP Joint Laboratory on Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental Health and Regulation, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian China.
    Zhao, Jiating
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and HKU-IHEP Joint Laboratory on Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhong, Huan
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; Environmental and Life Sciences Program (EnLS), Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario Canada.
    Wang, Yongjie
    School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Li, Hong
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and HKU-IHEP Joint Laboratory on Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yu-Feng
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and HKU-IHEP Joint Laboratory on Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liem-Nguyen, Van
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Jiang, Tao
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zhang, Zhiyong
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and HKU-IHEP Joint Laboratory on Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gao, Yuxi
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and HKU-IHEP Joint Laboratory on Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Chai, Zhifang
    CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, and HKU-IHEP Joint Laboratory on Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Understanding Enhanced Microbial MeHg Production in Mining-Contaminated Paddy Soils under Sulfate Amendment: Changes in Hg Mobility or Microbial Methylators?2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 1844-1852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated methylmercury (MeHg) production in mining-contaminated paddy soils, despite the high fraction of refractory HgS(s), has been frequently reported, while the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that sulfate input, via fertilization, rainfall, and irrigation, is critical in mobilizing refractory HgS(s) and thus enhancing Hg methylation in mining-contaminated paddy soils. To test this hypothesis, the effects of sulfate amendment on Hg methylation and MeHg bioaccumulation in mining-contaminated soil-rice systems were examined. The results indicated 28-61% higher net MeHg production in soils under sulfate amendment (50-1000 mg kg-1), which in turn increased grain MeHg levels by 22-55%. The enhancement of Hg methylation by Hg mobilization in sulfate-amended soils was supported by two observations: (1) the increased Hg(aq) release from HgS(s), the dominant Hg species in the paddy soils, in the presence of sulfide produced following sulfate reduction and (2) the decreases of refractory HgS(s) in soils under sulfate amendment. By contrast, changes in the abundances/activities of potential microbial Hg methylators in different Hg-contaminated soils were not significant following sulfate amendment. Our results highlight the importance to consider enhanced Hg mobility and thus methylation in soils under sulfate amendment.

  • 16.
    Liao, Chunyang
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research for Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China .
    Cui, Lin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China .
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China .
    Duan, Shumin
    Institute of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China .
    Changes in synaptic transmission, calcium current, and neurite growth by perfluorinated compounds are dependent on the chain length and functional group2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 2099-2104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific and public concerns on perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are increasingly growing because of their environmental persistency, bioaccumulation, and extensive distribution throughout the world. Little is known about the effects of PFCs on neural function and the underlying mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that the toxicological effects of PFCs are closely correlated with their carbon chain lengths. In this present work, the actions of PFCs with varying chain length on cultured rat hippocampal neurons and possible action patterns were examined. Increases in the frequencies of spontaneous miniature postsynaptic current (mPSC) were commonly found in cultured neurons when perfused with PFCs. The increase of mPSC frequency was in proportion to the carbon chain length, and the potency of perfluorinated carboxylates was less pronounced than that of perfluorinated sulfonates. A comparable but less perceptible trend was also found for the amplitudes of voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa). No regular change in pattern was observed for the effects of PFCs on activation and inactivation kinetics of ICa. Furthermore, prolonged treatment of PFCs inhibited the neurite growth of neuronsto various degrees. Comparisons between nonfluorinated and perfluorinated analogues demonstrated thatthefluorination in alkyl chain exerts stronger actions on neurons as compared to the surfactant activity. This study shows that PFCs exhibit adverse effects on cultured neurons to various extents, which is dependent on the carbon chain length and functional group attached to the fully fluorinated alkyl chain.

  • 17.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    et al.
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States.
    Klanova, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Yonis, Shifra
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States.
    Bollinger, Kevyn
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States.
    Concentrations, fluxes, and residence time of PBDEs across the tropical Atlantic Ocean2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 24, s. 13967-13975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the fate of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) across the Oceans. Air and water were sampled using both active and passive polyethylene samplers on an east-west transect across the tropical Atlantic Ocean in 2009 and analyzed for PBDEs. Typical particle-bound concentrations of PBDEs in the surface water were low, at <1 pg L-1. Truly dissolved concentrations from passive samplers were similar to 40.5 pg L-1 for BDE 47 and around 0.1 pg L-1 for BDEs 28, 99, and 100 (results from active samples were compromised). In the atmosphere, particle-bound BDE 209 dominated overall concentrations (median 1.2 pg m(-3)), followed by BDE 99 (0.13 pg m(-3)). Gas-phase concentrations based on passive samplers were 1-8 pg m(-3) for BDE 47 and <= 4 pg m(-3) for BDE 99. Net air-water exchange gradients strongly favored gas-phase deposition of PBDEs into the water. Net gas-phase deposition fluxes ranged from tens of pg m(-2) day(-1) for BDEs 28 and 85 to around 1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for BDE 47, 99, and 209. Settling fluxes of particle-bound PBDEs in the atmosphere and surface water were around 50 pg m(-2) day(-1) for BDE 47 and <10 pg m(-2) day(-1) for the other congeners.

  • 18.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    et al.
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States; Geowissenschaften, Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Klanova, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Yonis, Shifra
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States.
    Bollinger, Kevyn
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States.
    PCBs and OCPs on a East-to-West Transect: The Importance of Major Currents and Net Volatilization for PCBs in the Atlantic Ocean2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 19, s. 10471-10479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Air-water exchange gradients of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners across a large section of the tropical Atlantic suggested net volatilization of PCBs to the atmosphere. Only for the higher chlorinated PCB 153 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were gradients near equilibrium detected. The use of passive samplers also enabled the detection of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its transformation products across the tropical Atlantic, indicating net deposition. There were clear differences between the southern and northern hemisphere apparent in terms of atmospheric concentrations: Once the ship moved from the southern into the northern hemisphere air, concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine pesticides increased several-fold. For large swaths of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, neither PCB nor organochlorine pesticide dissolved concentrations varied much longitudinally, probably due to efficient mixing by ocean currents. In selected samples, dissolved concentrations reflected the influence of river plumes and major ocean currents far away from the continents. Dissolved concentrations of PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, and HCB increased in the Amazon plume and the Gulf Stream. While the Amazon plume flushed only a few kg of PCBs and HCB, the Gulf Stream is potentially delivering tons of PCBs into the North Atlantic annually.

  • 19.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Detections of Commercial Fluorosurfactants in Hong Kong Marine Environment and Human Blood: A Pilot Study2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 4677-4685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, much of the perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) research has focused on perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) or perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs). Recent studies indicate that known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 5-95% of the organofluorine (OF) in human and wild rat blood samples suggesting that a relatively large proportion of OF remained unknown. Until recently, some studies reported commercially available compounds such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTSAs) in human blood and sludge samples. The present investigation is a pilot study aiming at surveying some newly identified PFASs such as diPAPs, FTSAs, and perfluorinated phosphinates (PFPiAs) in different environmental samples including surface water, sediment, sewage treatment plant influent and effluent, sludge, benthic worm, and human blood from Hong Kong. DiPAPs (6:2, 6:2/8:2, and 8:2) were detected in some of the samples at part-per-billion (ppb) levels in sludge, sub ppb levels in influent and effluent, sediment, worm, and human blood samples, and sub part-per-trillion (ppt) levels in surface waters. Sub ppt to ppb levels of 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs were observed in worm, surface water, and human blood samples. PFPiAs were only observed in worm samples. The detected "new PFASs" accounted for a minor proportion (less than 5%) of the total PFASs in benthic worm and human blood, but up to 95% in sewage sludge samples from Hong Kong. This is the first report of commercial fluorosurfactants (PFPiAs, diPAPs, and FTSAs) in the samples from the environment and human blood in Hong Kong; further information on the distribution, fate, and transport of "new PFASs" in other Asian cities, as well as toxicity, is needed for further assessing the human exposure and risk.

  • 20.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York, Albany NY, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Trophic Magnification of Poly- and Perfluorinated Compounds in a Subtropical Food Web2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 13, s. 5506-5513Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are known to biomagnify in temperate and Arctic food webs, but little is known about their behavior in subtropical systems. The environmental distribution and biomagnification of PFCs, extractable organic fluorine (EOF), and total fluorine were investigated in a subtropical food web. Surface water, sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, gastropods, worms, shrimps, fishes, and waterbirds collected in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve in Hong Kong were analyzed. Trophic magnification was observed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) in this food web. Risk assessment results for PFOS, PFDA, and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suggest that current PFC concentrations in waterbird livers are unlikely to pose adverse biological effects to waterbirds. All hazard ratio (HR) values reported for PFOS and PFOA are less than one, which suggests that the detected levels will not cause any immediate health effects to the Hong Kong population through the consumption of shrimps and fishes. However, only 10-12% of the EOF in the shrimp samples was comprised of known PFCs, indicating the need for further investigation to identify unknown fluorinated compounds in wildlife.

  • 21.
    Mak, Yim Ling
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lu, Guohui
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 26 Bai Wan Zhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Jin, Ling
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Yongliang
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 26 Bai Wan Zhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, United States; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Perfluorinated Compounds in Tap Water from China and Several Other Countries2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 13, s. 4824-4829Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent development of a sensitive and accurate analytical method for the analysis of 20 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including several short-chain PFCs, has enabled their quantification in tap water collected in China, Japan, India, the United States, and Canada between 2006 and 2008. Of the PFCs measured, PFOS, PFHxS, PFBS, PFPrS, PFEtS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSAA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, and PFPrA were found at detectable concentrations in the tap water samples. The water samples from Shanghai (China) contained the greatest concentrations of total PFCs (arithmetic mean = 130 ng/L), whereas those from Toyama (Japan) contained only 0.62 ng/L. In addition to PFOS and PFOA, short-chain PFCs such as PFHxS, PFBS, PFHxA, and PFBA were found to be prevalent in drinking water. According to the health-based values (HBVs) and advisory guidelines derived for PFOS, PFOA, PFBA, PFHxS, PFBS, PFHxA, and PFPeA by the U.S.EPA and the Minnesota Department of Health, tap water may not pose an immediate health risk to consumers.

  • 22.
    Martin, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Toronto.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    State university of New York at Albany.
    Berger, Urs
    NILU.
    de Voogt, Pim
    University of Amsterdam.
    Field, Jennifer
    Oregon State University.
    Franklin, James
    Solvay.
    Giesy, John
    Michigan State University.
    Harner, Tom
    Environment Canada.
    Muir, Derek
    Environment Canada.
    Scott, Brian
    Environment Canada.
    Kaiser, Mary
    DuPont.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jones, Kevin
    Lancaster University.
    Mabury, Scott
    University of Toronto.
    Schroeder, Horst
    RWTH Aachen.
    Simcik, Matt
    University of Minnesota.
    Sottani, Christina
    Salvatore Maugeri Foundation.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    van Leeuwen, Stefan
    Netherlands Institute for Fisheries research.
    Analytical challenges hamper perfluoroalkyl research2004Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, nr 13, s. 248A-255AArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 19, s. 7717-7722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in mu g/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 2150-2155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians, Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four AS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (< 10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (> 100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure.

  • 25.
    Okonski, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Degrendele, Céline
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Melymuk, Lisa
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Landlová, Linda
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Vojta, Simon
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Cupr, Pavel
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klánová, Jana
    Faculty of Science, RECETOX (Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Particle size distribution of halogenated flame retardants and implications for atmospheric deposition and transport2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 24, s. 14426-14434Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and a group of novel flame retardants (NFRs) on atmospheric aerosols. Two high volume cascade impactors were used to collect particulate fractions of ambient air over a one year period at urban and rural sites. The majority of FRs were found on the finest aerosols (<0.95 mu m). Concentrations of HBCD were higher than those of SPBDEs. Moreover, we noted seasonality and spatial differences in particle size distributions, yet a large portion of the observed differences were due to differences in particulate matter (PM) itself. When normalized by PM, the size distributions of the FRs exhibited much greater heterogeneity. Differences existed between the FR distributions by molecular weight, with the higher molecular weight FRs (e.g., BDE-209, Dechlorane Plus) distributed more uniformly across all particulate size fractions. The seasonal, spatial, and compound-specific differences are of crucial importance when estimating dry and wet deposition of FRs as smaller aerosols have longer atmospheric residence times. Estimated wet and dry deposition of four representative FRs (BDE-47, BDE-209, HBCD, and Dechlorane Plus) using size-segregated aerosol data resulted in lower deposition estimates than when bulk aerosol data were used. This has implications for estimates of long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric residence times, as it suggests that without size-specific distributions, these parameters could be underestimated for FRs.

  • 26. Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    Van Schaik, Joris W. J.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Kleja, Dan Berggreb
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Copper(II) binding to dissolved organic matter fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachate2007Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 12, s. 4286-4291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on Cu speciation in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash leachate is needed for Cu leaching predictions and toxicity estimates. The complexation of Cu with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachates from a stored MSWI bottom ash was studied potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode. More than 95% of the copper was bound to DOM in the hydrophilic fraction of the leachate, indicating that the hydrophilic acids contribute to Cu complex formation. The hydrophilic acids constituted 58% of the dissolved organic carbon in the ash leachate. Comparisons between experimental results and speciation calculations with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm humic model indicated differences between the ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the models have been calibrated. The ratio of carboxylic binding sites to phenolic binding sites was 2 times larger in ash DOM, and the Cu-binding affinity of the former was stronger than accounted for by the generic Cu-binding parameters. The Cu-binding affinity of the phenolic sites, on the other hand, was weaker. When these parameters were adjusted, a good description of the experimental data was obtained.

  • 27.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cui, Qianqian
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Sheng, Nan
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Guo, Yong
    Key Laboratory of Organo fl uorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Sun, Yan
    Key Laboratory of Organo fl uorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    First Report on the Occurrence and Bioaccumulation of Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Trimer Acid: An Emerging Concern2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 17, s. 9553-9560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report on the occurrence of a novel perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acid, ammonium perfluoro-2-[(propoxy)propoxy]-1-propanoate (HFPO-TA), in surface water and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from the Xiaoqing River and in 'residents residing near a fluoropolymer production plant in Huantai County, China. Compared with the levels upstream of the Xiaoqing River, HFPO-TA concentrations (5200-68500 ng/L) were approximately 120-1600-times higher downstream after receiving fluoropolymer plant effluent from a tributary. The riverine discharge' of HFPO-TA was estimated to be 4.6 t/yr, accounting for 22% of total PFAS discharge. In the wild common carp collected downstream from the point source, HFPO-TA was detected in the blood (median: 1510 ng/mL), liver (587 ng/g ww), and muscle (118 ng/g ww). The log BCFbiood of HFPO-TA (2.18) was significantly higher than that of PFOA (1.93). Detectable levels of HFPO-TA were also found in the sera of residents (median: 2.93 ng/mL). This is the first report on the environmental occurrence and bioaccumulation of this novel chemical. Our results indicate an emerging usage of HFPO-TA in the fluoropolymer manufacturing industry and raise concerns about the toxicity and potential health risks of HFPO-TA to aquatic organisms and humans.

  • 28.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Cui, Qianqian
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Sheng, Nan
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sun, Yan
    Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Guo, Yong
    Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Worldwide Distribution of Novel Perfluoroether Carboxylic and Sulfonic Acids in Surface Water2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, nr 14, s. 7621-7629Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), novel fluorinated compounds have emerged on the market. Here we report on the occurrences of several perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer and trimer acids (HFPO-DA and HFPO-TA), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3 H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and its hydrogen-substituted analogue (6:2 H-PFESA) in surface waters from China ( n = 106), the United States ( n = 12), the United Kingdom ( n = 6), Sweden ( n = 10), Germany ( n = 14), The Netherlands ( n = 6), and Korea ( n = 6). Results showed that HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median = 0.95, 0.21, and 0.31 ng/L, respectively) were frequently detected in all countries, indicating ubiquitous dispersal and distribution in global surface waters. The presence of 6:2 H-PFESA was widely detected in China (detection rate > 95%) but not in any other country. Only trace levels of ADONA (0.013-1.5 ng/L) were detected in the Rhine River flowing through Germany. The estimated total riverine mass discharges of HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and ΣPFESAs reached 2.6, 6.0, and 4.3 ton/year in five of the major river systems in China. Our results indicated that novel PFECAs and PFESAs might become global contaminants, and future investigations are warranted.

  • 29.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Zhu, Yingshuang
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Zheng, Tongzhang
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
    Cui, Qianqian
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Buka, Stephen L.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence RI, United States.
    Zhang, Bin
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Guo, Yong
    Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Xia, Wei
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Zhou, Aifen
    Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Qiu, Lin
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Liu, Hongxiu
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Jiang, Minmin
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Wu, Chuansha
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Xu, Shunqing
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Novel Chlorinated Polyfluorinated Ether Sulfonates and Legacy Per-/Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: Placental Transfer and Relationship with Serum Albumin and Glomerular Filtration Rate2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 634-644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cross the placental barrier and lead to fetal exposure. However, little is known about the factors that influence maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals. PFAS concentrations were analyzed in 100 paired samples of human maternal sera collected in each trimester and cord sera at delivery; these samples were collected in Wuhan, China, 2014. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of transfer efficiencies with factors. Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFAESs, 6:2 and 8:2) were frequently detected (>99%) in maternal and cord sera. A significant decline in PFAS levels during the three trimesters was observed. A U-shape trend for transfer efficiency with increasing chain length was observed for both carboxylates and sulfonates. Higher transfer efficiencies of PFASs were associated with advancing maternal age, higher education, and lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cord serum albumin was a positive factors for higher transfer efficiency (increased 1.1-4.1% per 1g/L albumin), whereas maternal serum albumin tended to reduce transfer efficiency (decreased 2.4-4.3% per 1g/L albumin). Our results suggest that exposure to Cl-PFAESs may be widespread in China. The transfer efficiencies among different PFASs were structure-dependent. Physiological factors (e.g., GFR and serum albumin) were observed for the first time to play critical roles in PFAS placental transfer.

  • 30.
    Qu, Guangbo
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Liu, Aifeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Zhang, Chaoli
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Yu, Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Sun, Jianteng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Zhu, Nali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Zhuona
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Wei, Guohua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Du, Yuguo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Liu, Sijin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Identification of tetrabromobisphenol A allyl ether and tetrabromobisphenol A 2,3-dibromopropyl ether in the ambient environment near a manufacturing site and in mollusks at a coastal region2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 4760-4767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and has been frequently detected in the environment and biota. Recent studies have found that derivatives of TBBPA, such as TBBPA bis(allyl) ether (TBBPA BAE) and TBBPA bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether (TBBPA BDBPE) are present in various environmental compartments. In this work, using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS), TBBPA allyl ether (TBBPA AE) and TBBPA 2,3-dibromopropyl ether (TBBPA DBPE) were identified in environmental samples and further confirmed by synthesized standards. Soil, sediment, rice hull, and earthworm samples collected near a BFR manufacturing plant were found to contain these two compounds. In sediments, the concentrations of TBBPA AE and TBBPA DBPE ranged from 1.0 to 346.6 ng/g of dry weight (dw) and from 0.7 to 292.7 ng/g of dw, respectively. TBBPA AE and TBBPA DBPE in earthworm and rice hull samples were similar to soil samples, which ranged from below the method limit of detection (LOD, <0.002 ng/g of dw) to 0.064 ng/g of dw and from below the LOD (<0.008 ng/g of dw) to 0.58 ng/g of dw, respectively. Furthermore, mollusks collected from the Chinese Bohai Sea were used as a bioindicator to investigate the occurrence and distribution of these compounds in the coastal environment. The detection frequencies of TBBPA AE and TBBPA DBPE were 41 and 32%, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from below LOD (<0.003 ng/g of dw) to 0.54 ng/g of dw, with an average of 0.09 ng/g of dw, for TBBPA AE, and from below LOD (<0.008 ng/g of dw) to 1.41 ng/g of dw, with an average of 0.15 ng/g of dw, for TBBPA DBPE.

  • 31.
    Qu, Guangbo
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Zhuona
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Identification of tetrabromobisphenol A diallyl ether as an emerging neurotoxicant in environmental samples by bioassay-directed fractionation and HPLC-APCI-MS/MS2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 11, s. 5009-5016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been widely used as additives in products to reduce their flammability. Recent findings suggested that some BFRs exhibit neurotoxicity and thus might pose a threat to human health. In this work, a neurotoxicity assay-directed analysis was developed, combining sample cleanup, fractionation, chemical identification, and bioassay. Viability of primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) was used to evaluate the neurotoxicity of extracts or separated fractions from environmental samples. Tetrabromobisphenol A diallyl ether (TBBPA DAE) was identified as the causative toxicant in sediment samples collected from a river near a brominated flame retardant (BFR) manufacturing plant in South China. Liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS/MS) was optimized to determine TBBPA DAE levels in the potent fractions and to confirm TBBPA DAE as the key neurotoxicant. On the basis of comparison with the structure of other TBBPA derivatives, the 1-propenyl group in TBBPA DAE appears to be the cause for the neurotoxic potency. The levels of TBBPA DAE in samples along the river were found at up to 49 ng/L for river water, 10,183 ng/g dry weight (dw) in surface sediments, and 42 ng/g dw in soils. According to the distribution of TBBPA DAE in the environmental samples, the manufacturing plant was identified as the release source of TBBPA DAE. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate potential neurotoxicity induced by TBBPA DAE in real environmental samples.

  • 32.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    School of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane QLD, Australia.
    Kay, Margaret
    Discipline of General Practice, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital Complex, University of Queensland, Herston QLD, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Gómez Ramos, María José
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Novel fluorinated surfactants tentatively identified in firefighters using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and a case-control approach2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 2434-2442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated surfactant-based aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are made up of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids. The use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in some AFFF formulations has been linked to substantial environmental contamination. Recent studies have identified a large number of novel and infrequently reported fluorinated surfactants in different AFFF formulations. In this study, a strategy based on a case-control approach using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and advanced statistical methods has been used to extract and identify known and unknown PFAS in human serum associated with AFFF-exposed firefighters. Two target sulfonic acids [PFOS and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)], three non-target acids [perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorononanesulfonic acid (PFNS)], and four unknown sulfonic acids (Cl-PFOS, ketone-PFOS, ether-PFHxS, and Cl-PFHxS) were exclusively or significantly more frequently detected at higher levels in firefighters compared to controls. The application of this strategy has allowed for identification of previously unreported fluorinated chemicals in a timely and cost-efficient way.

  • 33. Routti, H.
    et al.
    Letcher, R. J.
    Arukwe, A.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Yoccoz, N. G.
    Chu, S.
    Gabrielsen, G. W.
    Biotransformation of PCBs in relation to phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard and the Baltic Sea2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 23, s. 8952-8958Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may induce activity of hepatic enzymes, mainly Phase I monooxygenases and conjugating Phase II enzymes, that catalyze the metabolism of PCBs leading to formation of metabolites and to potential adverse health effects. The present study investigates the concentration and pattern of PCBs, the induction of hepatic phase I and II enzymes, and the formation of hydroxy (OH) and methylsulfonyl (CH3SO 2=MeSO2) PCB metabolites in two ringed seal (Phoca hispida) populations, which are contrasted by the degree of contamination exposure, that is, highly contaminated Baltic Sea (n = 31) and less contaminated Svalbard (n = 21). Phase I enzymes were measured as ethoxyresorufin-O- deethylation (EROD), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylation (BROD), methoxyresorufin-O-demethylation (MROD), and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation (PROD) activities, and phase II enzymes were measured as uridine diphosphophate glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Geographical comparison, multivariate, and correlation analysis indicated that Σ-PCB had a positive impact on Phase I enzyme and GST activities leading to biotransformation of group III (vicinal ortho-meta-H atoms and ≀1 ortho-chlorine (Cl)) and IV PCBs (vicinal meta-para-H atoms and ≀2 ortho-Cl). The potential precursors for the main OH-PCBs detected in plasma in the Baltic seals were group III PCBs. MeSO2-PCBs detected in liver were mainly products of group IV PCB metabolism. Both CYP1A- and CYP2B-like enzymes are suggested to be involved in the PCB biotransformation in ringed seals. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  • 34. Routti, Heli
    et al.
    Letcher, Robert J.
    Chu, Shaogang
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Gabrielsen, Geir W.
    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Their Hydroxylated Analogues in Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard and the Baltic Sea2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 3494-3499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the concentrations and patterns of PBDEs and hydroxylated (OH) PBDE analogues in two ringed seal populations: less contaminated Svalbard and more contaminated Baltic Sea. Mean concentration of hepatic Sigma-PBDE, which was dominated by BDE47, was six times higher in the ringed seals from the Baltic Sea compared to the seals from Svalbard. BDE47/Sigma-PBDE was higher in the seals from Svalbard compared to that for Baltic seals, while the trend was opposite for BDE153 and 154. The geographical difference in contaminant pattern of PBDEs in ringed seals could be explained by biotransformation via oxidative metabolism and/or by dietary differences. OH-PBDEs were detectable in the majority of plasma samples from both locations, and dominated by bioaccumulation of naturally occurring congeners. Low levels of 3-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49 in the Baltic ringed seals suggested minor oxidative biotransformation of BDE47. In the Baltic seals, BDE153/Sigma-PBDEs and BDE154/Sigma-PBDEs increased and BDE28/Sigma-PBDE decreased with increasing Sigma-POP concentration, which suggests BDE153 and 154 are more persistent than BDE28. Contrasting diets of the ringed seals in these two locations may influence the PBDE congener pattern due to selective long-range transport and direct effluent emissions to Svalbard and the Baltic, respectively.

  • 35.
    Ruan, Ting
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lin, Yongfeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Liu, Runzeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Identification of novel polyfluorinated ether sulfonates as PFOS alternatives in municipal sewage sludge in China2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 11, s. 6519-6527Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFAES) with the trade name F-53B, is an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in electroplating industry that is uniquely used in China. It was developed as a mist suppressant initially in the 1970s, but the environmental behaviors and potential adverse effects of the 6:2 Cl-PFAES have only recently been investigated. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFSA), fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA), and PFAES analogues were investigated in municipal sewage sludge samples collected around China. Perfluorobutane, perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and perfluorodecanesulfonates, 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs, and the emerging 6:2 Cl-PFAES were detected. Moreover, 8:2 and 10:2 Cl-PFAESs were identified for the first time as new polyfluorinated contaminants using high resolution mass spectrometry. These fluorinated analytes were further quantified with the aid of commercial and laboratory-purified standards. PFOS was the predominant contaminant with a geometric mean (GM) value of 3.19 ng/g dry weight (d.w.), which was subsequently followed by 6:2 Cl-PFAES and 8:2 Cl-PFAES (GM: 2.15 and 0.50 ng/g d.w., respectively). Both 6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFAES were positively detected as the major components in the F-53B commercial product, and discrete 6:2 Cl-PFAES/8:2 Cl-PFAES ratios in the product and sludge samples might suggest 8:2 Cl-PFAES had enhanced sorption behavior in the sludge due to the increase in hydrophobicity.

  • 36.
    Ruan, Ting
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Runzeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fu, Qiang
    China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Song, Shanjun
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing , China.
    Teng, Man
    China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Concentrations and composition profiles of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in municipal sewage sludge in China2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 2071-2079Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental contamination and fate of benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZTs) have received increasing attention due to their large production volume and wide usage in various consumer and industrial products. In the present work, 60 municipal sewage sludge samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 33 cities in China were collected to investigate the occurrence and distribution of 9 frequently used BZTs. The most dominant analogue was 2-[3,5-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-2-hydroxyphenyl]benzotriazole (UV-234) at a median concentration of 116 ng/g (dry weight) and accounted on average for 27.2% of total BZTs. The abundance was successively followed by 2-(2-hydroxy-5-tert-octylphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-329, average 24.3%), 2-(2-hydroxy-3-tert-butyl-5-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole (UV-326, average 22.2%), 2-(3,5-di-tert-amyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-328, average 17.7%), and 2-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-P, average 6.6%), with median concentrations of 66.8, 67.8, 57.3, and 20.6 ng/g, respectively. 5-Chloro-2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-327) and 2-(3-sec-butyl-5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-350) had low detection frequency, while 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-320) and 2-(5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-PS) were not detectable in any sample. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of UV-234, UV-329, and UV-350 in sewage sludge in China. Significant correlations were found among the BZT concentrations and also with a WWTP characteristic (daily treatment volume). Furthermore, results from degradation prediction and multimedia fate simulation based on a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model at screening level also implied that the commercial BZT chemicals and their plausible transformation products might be persistent in the environment.

  • 37.
    Ruan, Ting
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Song, Shanjun
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Liu, Runzeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Lin, Yongfeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Identification and composition of emerging quaternary ammonium compounds in municipal sewage sludge in China2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 4289-4297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have raised considerable attention due to their wide commercial applications and recent discovery of unknown persistent analogues in aqueous environment. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of alkyltrimethylammonium (ATMAC), benzylakyldimethylethylammonium (BAC) and dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) homologues were investigated in fifty-two municipal sewage sludge samples. ATMAC C10-18, BAC C8-18 and paired DADMAC C8:8-C18:18 as well as emerging homologues such as ATMAC-20, 22 and mixed DADMAC-16:18 and 14:16 were present. Furthermore, paired DADMAC-20:20 and mixed DADMAC-14:18, 18:20 were identified for the first time by nontarget qualitative strategies. A triple quadruple mass spectrometer quantification method was also initially verified with the aid of laboratory synthesized standards for the analysis of the mixed DADMACs with no certificated commercial standards currently available. The total concentrations of ATMACs, BACs and DADMACs were in the range of 0.38-293, 0.09-191 and 0.64-344 μg/g dry weight, respectively, and particularly, mixed DADMACs constituted 39 ± 7% of total DADMAC concentrations. The concentrations and profiles of individual homologues further suggested different QAC applications and fate in China. Significant correlations were also found among the concentrations of various QAC homologues as well as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) characteristics (total organic carbon contents and daily treatment volumes).

  • 38.
    Ruan, Ting
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Chang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Fu, Jianjie
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Yin, Yongguang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Identification and evaluation of a novel heterocyclic brominated flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate in environmental matrices near a manufacturing plant in southern China2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 9, s. 3080-3086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A brominated flame retardant (BFR), hexabrominated heterocyclic tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC), was identified,forthe first time, in the natural environment.The chemical was found in river water (2.33-163 ng/L), surface sediments (85.0 ng/g-6.03 microg/g dry weight (dw)), soils (19.6-672 ng/g dw), earthworm (9.75-78.8 ng/g dw), and carp samples (12.0-646 ng/g dw) from a factory-polluted area in southern China. It was found that TBC can strongly adsorb to organic material in sediment, and a trend of decreasing concentration with distance from the source in soil and earthworm samples, combined with calculated Kow (octanol-water partition coefficient) and Koa (octanol-air partition coefficient), suggests its potential ability to undergo regional transportation through dust deposition. Calculated results showed high Kow (log Kow = 7.37) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) (log BAF = 4.30) of this BFR and indicate that TBC has semivolatile properties and bioaccumulation characteristic in certain biological species. Quantitative structure property relationships (QSPRs) modeling revealed that TBC has Koa (log Koa = 23.68) and Kaw (air-water partition coefficient) (log Kaw = -16.31) values several orders higher than those of other BFRs. The identification of this chemical additive further reminds us that the production and usage of heterocyclic BFRs may cause potential contamination to the surrounding environment

  • 39.
    Ruan, Ting
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Ding, Lei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Chang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Presence and partitioning behavior of polyfluorinated iodine alkanes in environmental matrices around a fluorochemical manufacturing plant: another possible source for perfluorinated carboxylic acids?2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 15, s. 5755-5761Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The indistinct origins of some ubiquitous perfluorinated alkyl acids have attracted great attention in recent decades. In this present work, even-chained polyfluorinated iodides (PFIs), a group of volatile perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including four perfluorinated iodine alkanes (FIAs) and three polyfluorinated telomer iodides (FTIs) were confirmed to be present in the environment. A wide concentration range was found for FIAs at 1.41 to 3.08x104 pg/L, and for FTIs at 1.39 to 1.32x103 pg/L in the ambient air collected around a fluorochemical manufacturing plant in Shandong province, northern China. Whereas for surface soils, most of these PFIs were below detection limits and only small amounts of analytes with higher carbon chain (such as perfluorododecyl iodide and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl iodide, 16.6-499 pg/g) could be sporadically detected. The presence of the PFIs in different environmental matrices in the investigated area and calculated vapor pressures (0.095-20.4 Torr) verify that they can be considered as volatile organic chemicals and easily be released into the atmosphere. Together with reported degradation ability and long-range transport potential, the identification of these PFIs indicates that unintentional release during the telomer reaction process might also be another route for the formation and distribution of certain polyfluorinated alcohols, aldehydes, and carboxylic acid derivatives under oxidative conditions in the environment.

  • 40.
    Song, Shanjun
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Runzeng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Distribution and preliminary exposure assessment of bisphenol AF (BPAF) in various environmental matrices around a manufacturing plant in China2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 24, s. 13136-13143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention has been paid to bisphenol A and bisphenol (BP) analogues due to high production volumes, wide usage and potential adverse effects. Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is considered a new bisphenol analogue which is used as raw material in plastic industry, but little is known about its occurrence in the environment and the potential associated risk. In this work, BPAF levels and environmental distribution were reported in samples collected around a manufacturing plant and a preliminary exposure risk assessment to local residents was conducted. BPAF was detected in most of the samples, with levels in river ranging between <LOD to 1.53 × 10⁴ ng/L, sediments (0.520-2.00 × 10³ ng/g dry weight, dw), soils (<LOD to 331 ng/g dw) and indoor dusts (7.82-739 ng/g dw) and well water (<LOD to 300 ng/L). Exponential declining trends were observed for BPAF levels with increasing distance from the manufacturing plant. Based on the quantitative data and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model deduction, BPAF was predicted to mainly retain in sediment and soil after released into the ambient environment and organic carbon was the domain factor during the process. The preliminary BPAF exposure assessment based on the CSOIL model suggested that children could have higher intake of BPAF than adults through inhalation of soils, dermal exposure by soils contact and bathing with well water.

  • 41.
    Song, Yu
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå , Sweden.
    Jiang, Tao
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå , Sweden.
    Liem-Nguyen, Van
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå , Sweden.
    Sparrman, Tobias
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Thermodynamics of Hg(II) Bonding to Thiol Groups in Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter Resolved by Competitive Ligand Exchange, Hg LIII-Edge EXAFS and 1H NMR Spectroscopy2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, nr 15, s. 8292-8301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A molecular level understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the chemical bonding between mercury, Hg(II), and natural organic matter (NOM) associated thiol functional groups (NOM-RSH) is required if bioavailability and transformation processes of Hg in the environment are to be fully understood. This study provides the thermodynamic stability of the Hg(NOM-RS)2 structure using a robust method in which cysteine (Cys) served as a competing ligand to NOM (Suwannee River 2R101N sample) associated RSH groups. The concentration of the latter was quantified to be 7.5 ± 0.4 μmol g-1 NOM by Hg LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. The Hg(Cys)2 molecule concentration in chemical equilibrium with the Hg(II)-NOM complexes was directly determined by HPLC-ICPMS and losses of free Cys due to secondary reactions with NOM was accounted for in experiments using 1H NMR spectroscopy and 13C isotope labeled Cys. The log K ± SD for the formation of the Hg(NOM-RS)2 molecular structure, Hg2+ + 2NOM-RS- = Hg(NOM-RS)2, and for the Hg(Cys)(NOM-RS) mixed complex, Hg2+ + Cys- + NOM-RS- = Hg(Cys)(NOM-RS), were determined to be 40.0 ± 0.2 and 38.5 ± 0.2, respectively, at pH 3.0. The magnitude of these constants was further confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy and the Hg(NOM-RS)2 structure was verified by Hg LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. An important finding is that the thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes Hg(NOM-RS)2, Hg(Cys)(NOM-RS) and Hg(Cys)2 are very similar in magnitude at pH values <7, when all thiol groups are protonated. Together with data on 15 low molecular mass (LMM) thiols, as determined by the same method ( Liem-Ngyuen et al. Thermodynamic stability of mercury(II) complexes formed with environmentally relevant low-molecular-mass thiols studied by competing ligand exchange and density functional theory . Environ. Chem. 2017 , 14 , ( 4 ), 243 - 253 .), the constants for Hg(NOM-RS)2 and Hg(Cys)(NOM-RS) represent an internally consistent thermodynamic data set that we recommend is used in studies where the chemical speciation of Hg(II) is determined in the presence of NOM and LMM thiols.

  • 42.
    Sun, Jianteng
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Chang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Yuzhen
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lei, Zhen
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    In vivo metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in young whole pumpkin plant2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 8, s. 3701-3707Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely distributed persistent organic pollutants. In vitro and in vivo research using various animal models have shown that PBDEs might be transformed to hydroxylated PBDEs, but there are few studies on in vivo metabolism of PBDEs by intact whole plants. In this research, pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) were hydroponically exposed to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). A debromination product (BDE-28) and four hydroxylated metabolites (5-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, and 4-OH-BDE-42) were detected in different parts of the whole plant. In addition, 4-methoxylated-2,2',3,4'-tetraBDE (4-MeO-BDE-42) was observed as a methoxylation product. Root exudates in solution were found to play an important role in metabolizing BDE-47 to a specific OH-PBDE: 4'-OH-BDE-49. BDE-28 was found to translocate more easily and accumulate in shoots than BDE-47 due to the lower hydrophobicity and molecular weight. The concentration ratio between metabolites and parent compound BDE-47 was lower for OH-PBDEs than that for both BDE-28 and 4-MeO-BDE-42. The metabolism pathway of BDE-47 in young whole plants was proposed in this study.

  • 43.
    Temnerud, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Spatial variation of streamwater chemistry in two Swedish boreal catchments: implications for environmental assessment2005Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 1463-1469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the scale-dependent spatial variability of water chemistry within two Swedish boreal catchments (subcatchment areas 0.01-78 km2), samples were taken at every junction in the stream network during June 2000 and August 2002. The values of most chemical constituents spanned more than an order of magnitude, and the range was similar to that found in all of Northern Sweden by the national stream survey in 2000. According to the official assessment tools used in Sweden, the entire range of environmental status (for pH, absorbance, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and human acidification influence existed within these two study catchments. The water chemistry parameters were relatively stable at catchment areas greater than 15 km2. Sampling at that scale may be adequate if generalized values for the landscape are desired. However the chemistry of headwaters, where much of the stream length and aquatic ecosystem is found would not be characterized. Map parameters correlated to the variability in a key chemical parameter, DOC, but the best predictive map parameters differed markedly between catchments. This study highlights the importance of accounting for headwater spatial variability in environmental assessments of running waters, even in relatively pristine areas. The nature of drainage networks with many headwaters and progressively fewer downstream watercourses makes this a considerable challenge.

  • 44.
    Titaley, Ivan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon, United States.
    Walden, Daniel M.
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon, United States.
    Dorn, Shelby E.
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon, United States.
    Ogba, O. Maduka
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon, United States.
    Simonich, Staci L. Massey
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon, United States; Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon, United States.
    Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon, United States.
    Evaluating Computational and Structural Approaches to Predict Transformation Products of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 1595-1607Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) undergo transformation reactions with atmospheric photochemical oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH center dot), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O-3). The most common PAH-transformation products (PAH-TPs) are nitrated, oxygenated, and hydroxylated PAHs (NPAHs, OPAHs, and OHPAHs, respectively), some of which are known to pose potential human health concerns. We sampled four theoretical approaches for predicting the location of reactive sites on PAHs (i.e., the carbon where atmospheric oxidants attack), and hence the chemoselectivity of the PAHs. All computed results are based on density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G(d) optimized structures and energies). The four approaches are (1) Clar's prediction of aromatic resonance structures, (2) thermodynamic stability of all OHPAH adduct intermediates, (3) computed atomic charges (Natural Bond order, ChelpG, and Mulliken) at each carbon on the PAH, and (4) average local ionization energy (ALIE) at atom or bond sites. To evaluate the accuracy of these approaches, the predicted PAH-TPs were compared to published laboratory observations of major NPAH, OPAH, and OHPAH products in both gas and particle phases. We found that the Clar's resonance structures were able to predict the least stable rings on the PAHs but did not offer insights in terms of which individual carbon is most reactive. The OHPAH adduct thermodynamics and the ALIE approaches were the most accurate when compared to laboratory data, showing great potential for predicting the formation of previously unstudied PAH-TPs that are likely to form in the atmosphere.

  • 45. van Leeuwen, Stefan P. J.
    et al.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Struggle for quality in determination of perfluorinated contaminants in environmental and human samples2006Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 24, s. 7854-7860Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on the analyses of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in three environmental and two human samples indicates a varying degree of accuracy in relation to the matrix or analyte determined. The ability of 38 participating laboratories from 13 countries to determine the analytes in the various matrices was evaluated by calculation of z-scores according to the Cofino model. The PFCs which were reported most frequently by the laboratories, and assessed with the most satisfactory agreement, were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In general, the level of agreement between the participating laboratories decreased in the following order: PFC standard solution (76% satisfactory z-scores of <[2]1 for PFOS) < human blood (67%) < human plasma (63%) < fish liver extract (55%) < water (31%) < fish tissue (17%). This shows that relative good agreement between laboratories was obtained for the study of standard and human matrices. For the fish extract, most laboratories underestimated the actual PFOS concentration due to matrix effects. The results for the fish tissue and water are also poor, indicating that the extraction and cleanup steps require further improvement. It was concluded that the PFC determinations in various matrices are not yet fully mastered.

  • 46.
    Wang, Thanh
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Beijing, China.
    Anthropogenic nitrate in Chinese groundwater2006Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 22, s. 6869-6870Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 47.
    Wang, Thanh
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Beijing, China.
    E-waste creates hot spots for POPs2007Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 8, s. 2655-2656Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Wang, Thanh
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Beijing, China .
    One-step process removes chromium from wastewater2006Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 9, s. 2863-2864Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Wang, Thanh
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Beijing, China.
    Particulate matter from Chinese cooking2007Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 8-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Wang, Thanh
    Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Beijing, China .
    Shredding light on cyanobacteria toxins: ES&T's Best Technology Paper 20102011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 2521-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
12 1 - 50 of 77
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