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  • 1.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Sjoberg, Ragnar
    Solvent AB, Motala, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids2010In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, no 1-3, p. 697-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the action of the two biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), as well as citric acid, was tested. Three soil samples, which had previously been treated by conventional soil washing (water), were utilized in the leaching tests. Experiments were performed in batches (0.3 kg-scale) and with a WTC-mixer system (Water Treatment Construction, 10 kg-scale). EDDS and MGDA were most often equally efficient in removing Cu, Pb, and Zn after 10-60 min. Nonetheless, after 10 d, there were occasionally significant differences in extraction efficiencies. Extraction with citric acid was generally less efficient, however equal for Zn (mainly) after 10 d. Metal removal was similar in batch and WTC-mixer systems, which indicates that a dynamic mixer system could be used in full-scale. Use of biodegradable amino polycarboxylic acids for metal removal, as a second step after soil washing, would release most remaining metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from the present soils, however only after long leaching time. Thus, a full-scale procedure, based on enhanced metal leaching by amino polycarboxylic acids from soil of the present kind, Would require a pre-leaching step lasting several days in order to be efficient. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Beiras, R.
    et al.
    ECIMAT, University of Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    Bellas, J.
    Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    Cachot, J.
    Bordeaux University, EPOC, Talence, France.
    Cormier, Bettie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cousin, X.
    IFREMER, Laboratoire Adaptation et Adaptabilités des Animaux et des Systèmes, UMR MARBEC, Palavas, France; UMR GABI INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gambardella, C.
    CNR-ISMAR, Genova, Italy.
    Garaventa, F.
    CNR-ISMAR, Genova, Italy.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Le Bihanic, F.
    Bordeaux University, EPOC, Talence, France.
    López-Ibáñez, S.
    ECIMAT, University of Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    Piazza, V.
    CNR-ISMAR, Genova, Italy.
    Rial, D.
    Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    Tato, T.
    ECIMAT, University of Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    Vidal-Liñán, L.
    Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    Ingestion and contact with polyethylene microplastics does not cause acute toxicity on marine zooplankton2018In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 360, p. 452-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Toxicity of polyethylene microplastics (PE-MP) of size ranges similar to their natural food to zooplanktonic organisms representative of the main taxa present in marine plankton, including rotifers, copepods, bivalves, echinoderms and fish, was evaluated. Early life stages (ELS) were prioritized as testing models in order to maximize sensitivity. Treatments included particles spiked with benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a hydrophobic organic chemical used in cosmetics with direct input in coastal areas. Despite documented ingestion of both virgin and BP-3 spiked microplastics no acute toxicity was found at loads orders of magnitude above environmentally relevant concentrations on any of the invertebrate models. In fish tests some effects, including premature or reduced hatching, were observed after 12 d exposure at 10 mg L-1 of BP-3 spiked PE-MP. The results obtained do not support environmentally relevant risk of microplastics on marine zooplankton. Similar approaches testing more hydrophobic chemicals with higher acute toxicity are needed before these conclusions could be extended to other organic pollutants common in marine ecosystems. Therefore, the replacement of these polymers in consumer products must be carefully considered.

  • 3.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Sakab AB.
    Camdzija, Aida
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalen University.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalen University.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, no 2-3, p. 1033-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

  • 4.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, Otto
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Lau, Christoph
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cikryt, Peter
    Institute of Toxicology, University of Wiirzburg, Wiirzburg, Germany .
    Hosseinpour, Jamshid
    Okometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Case study of a highly dioxin contaminated sports field: Environmental risk assessment and human exposure1995In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 217-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper slag, containing high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) was used as covering material of a community sports field. This led to a contamination up to 40 000 fold in comparison to background concentrations in soils. Levels and patterns of dioxins found in sediments of a nearby river proved a translocation of contaminated copper slag, while slightly elevated dioxin levels found in soil from nearby house gardens could not be attributed to the sports field as the source of dioxins.

    The annual flux of dioxins and furans to the environment was estimated using worst-case assumptions and the potential exposure of humans was deduced. Calculations of possible PCDD/PCDF-fluxes to the environment showed that only one major process - wind erosion - may have contributed to more than 90% of the total dioxin flux from the contaminated site to the surroundings, Based on PCDD/PCDF-exposure pathways for humans it was concluded that the PCDD/PCDF-content of the copper slag of the sports field did not pose a health hazard to athletes nor to the residents living in the neighbourhood.

  • 5. Jonsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Persson, Ylva
    Frankki, Sofia
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: a multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties2007In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 149, no 1, p. 86-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by PAH physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The PAH-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight PAHs were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, PAHs; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic PAHs, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of PAHs with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger PAHs, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of PAHs is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual PAHs. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.

  • 6.
    Sun, Zhendong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Xiaoxi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Qian S.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Chuanhai
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. UN Environment (UNEP), Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Liao, Chunyang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Jianqing
    Department of POPs Lab, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Butylated hydroxyanisole isomers induce distinct adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells2019In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 379, article id UNSP 120794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) isomers, as the widely used anthropogenic antioxidants in food, have been revealed to induce endocrine disrupting effects, while the mechanism how BHA isomers regulate the lipogenic differentiation remains to be elucidated. Using 3T3-L1 differentiation model, the effects of BHA isomers, including 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (2-BHA), 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA) and their mixture (BHA), on adipogenesis were tested. The results showed that 3-BHA and BHA promoted adipocyte differentiation and enhanced the cellular lipid accumulation through the regulation of the transcriptional and protein levels of the adipogenetic biomarkers, while 2-BHA had no effect. The effective window for 3-BHA induced lipogenesis was the first four days during 3T3-L1 differentiation. BHA isomers showed no binding affinities for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Instead, the upstream of PPAR gamma signaling pathway, i.e. the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), upregulation of CAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBP beta) and elevated cell proliferation during postconfluent mitosis stage were induced by 3-BHA exposure. Altogether, this study revealed the adipogenic effect of 3-BHA through interference with the upstream events of the PPAR gamma signaling pathway. The authorized usage of BHA as food additives and its occurrence in human sera can potentially contribute to the incidence of obesity, which is of high concern.

  • 7.
    Svensson, Margareta
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diffusion tests of mercury through concrete, bentonite-enhanced sand and sand2007In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 142, no 1-2, p. 463-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport by diffusion of Hg(II) and Hg(O) through a barrier of concrete or bentonite-enhanced sand was examined under aerobic conditions. Sand was used as a reference system parallel to the two systems. Speciation of mercury was performed with a purge and trap method, where dissolved Hg(O) was purged with nitrogen gas from the sample, through a trap for volatile oxidized mercury species and finally trapped in an oxidative solution. The apparent diffusion coefficient (from Fick's second law of diffusion) for oxidized mercury was 1 x 10(-14) m(2)/s in Standard Portland concrete and 4 x 10(-13) m(2)/s in quartz sand. The diffusion of Hg(O) seemed to be faster than for Hg(II), Hg(O) was however oxidized to Hg(H) under aerobic conditions, and after 45 months only 1-10% of the total mercury concentration was Hg(O). (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Svensson, Margareta
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Formation of cinnabar: estimation of favourable conditions in a proposed Swedish repository2006In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 136, no 3, p. 830-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A deep repository for permanent storage of mercury will be designed and built in Sweden. The preferred chemical state for mercury in such a repository would be the sulphide HgS (cinnabar), which is a highly insoluble and the dominating natural mercury mineral. The possible formation of HgS from HgO or Hg(0) by reaction with a sulphur source (S, FeS or FeS2) is discussed from thermodynamic considerations, and pe–pH-diagrams are constructed by using the computer code MEDUSA to illustrate under which conditions HgS would dominate. Calculations of the speciation (PHREEQE) under varying conditions (S/Hg-ratios, presence of chloride) are given.

    Long-term laboratory experiments are performed, where the formation of HgS from the basic components is demonstrated (after mixing under various conditions and storage at room temperature for up to 3 years).

    The feasibility of HgS-formation with time in a geologic repository under conditions representative of deep granitic bedrock (calcium-bicarbonate buffered to pH 7–8.5) is discussed, as well as effects of alkaline conditions (concrete environment, pH 10.5–12.5). Formation of soluble polysulphides is not expected as long as the S/Hg mole ratio is within 1–1.3 and pH is below 10.5–11. Concrete should be used with caution. Suitable ballast materials could be introduced that would reduce porewater-pH that otherwise would be above 12.

  • 9.
    Zhao, Xiaoli
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Jieming
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wu, Fengchang
    State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory ofState Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Shi, Yali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Removal of fluoride from aqueous media by Fe3O4@Al(OH)3 magnetic nanoparticles.2010In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, no 1-3, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel magnetic nanosized adsorbent using hydrous aluminum oxide embedded with Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle (Fe(3)O(4)@Al(OH)(3) NPs), was prepared and applied to remove excessive fluoride from aqueous solution. This adsorbent combines the advantages of magnetic nanoparticle and hydrous aluminum oxide floc with magnetic separability and high affinity toward fluoride, which provides distinctive merits including easy preparation, high adsorption capacity, easy isolation from sample solutions by the application of an external magnetic field. The adsorption capacity calculated by Langmuir equation was 88.48 mg g(-1) at pH 6.5. Main factors affecting the removal of fluoride, such as solution pH, temperature, adsorption time, initial fluoride concentration and co-existing anions were investigated. The adsorption capacity increased with temperature and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The enthalpy change (Delta H(0)) and entropy change (DeltaS(0)) was 6.836 kJ mol(-1) and 41.65 J mol(-1)K(-1), which substantiates the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the fluoride adsorption process. Furthermore, the residual concentration of fluoride using Fe(3)O(4)@Al(OH)(3) NPs as adsorbent could reach 0.3 mg L(-1) with an initial concentration of 20 mg L(-1), which met the standard of World Health Organization (WHO) norms for drinking water quality. All of the results suggested that the Fe(3)O(4)@Al(OH)(3) NPs with strong and specific affinity to fluoride could be excellent adsorbents for fluoride contaminated water treatment.

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