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  • 1.
    Kayizzi-Mugerwa, Steve
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan Göteborgs universitet.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Adjustment and poverty: a review of the African experience1994In: African Development Review, ISSN 1017-6772, E-ISSN 1467-8268, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social impacts of adjustment have received considerable research and policy attention in recent years. This paper is a review of recent studies on adjustment and poverty in African countries. The ambition is to understand what determines the differences in outcomes in terms of the impacts on the vulnerable groups.

  • 2.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Adjustment to external shocks: Kenya 1986-952002In: African Development Review, ISSN 1017-6772, E-ISSN 1467-8268, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the process of stabilization and adjustment in Kenya during the period 1986–95, using a variant of the dependent economy model. The country’s adjustment experience has not been smooth, with terms of trade shocks, unfavourable movements in aid flows and policy reversals contributing to an uneven performance. It is argued that the tight monetary policy regime succeeded to stabilize the economy although the process was prolonged as fiscal adjustment was delayed. Finally, when the budget deficit was reduced the choice of higher protection as a means of raising revenue had a negative impact on export performance.

    L’article analyse le processus de stabilisation et d’ajustement au Kenya sur la période 1986–95. Les résultats de l’ajustement ont connu des mouvements en dents de scie, sous l’effet de la détérioration des termes de l’échange, à l’évolution heurtée des apports d’aide et aux dérapages des politiques. En utilisant une variante du modèle de l’économie dépendante, nous analysons le processus de stabilisation et d’ajustement durant cette période. Nous avançons que l’austérité monétaire a permis de stabiliser l’économie, même si cela a pris beaucoup de temps à cause de l’ajustement budgétaire tardif. Enfin, lorsque le déficit budgétaire a été réduit, le renforcement des mesures de protection institué en vue d’augmenter les recettes a eu une incidence négative sur la tenue des exportations.

  • 3.
    Vimefall, Elin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Ethnolinguistic Background and Enrollment in Primary Education: Evidence from Kenya2017In: African Development Review, ISSN 1017-6772, E-ISSN 1467-8268, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kenya, educational enrollment rates increased significantly after 2003, when primary education became free ofcharge. Unfortunately, approximately one million school-aged children are still not enrolled in school. Earlier literature providesevidence that educational opportunities differ among children, due to poverty, gender and area of residence. Our paper providesnew empirical evidence of the importance of children’s ethnolinguistic background for their probability of being in school.Using data from the Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey 2005/06, we found that Somali and Maasai children are leastlikely to be in school. Girls and boys from the Somali and Maasai groups, but also Mijikenda and Swahili girls, have a lowerprobability to be in school than their Kikuyu peers. This might indicate that gender norms are stronger in these groups.

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