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  • 1.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Establishing credibility: Practising standard-setting ideals in a Swedish seafood-labelling case2006In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 135-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market-based non-state governance arrangements, many examples of which are seen in the environmental field, require the active approval of a broad group of stakeholders. This paper makes the theoretical argument that credibility is a key issue in the establishment of such arrangements, and examines empirically the effort to develop a trustworthy eco-labelling scheme for seafood in Sweden. Many policy actors view eco-labelling as a particularly credible instrument that consumers and businesspeople can use to demonstrate environmentally friendly behaviour. But establishing credibility is complicated, especially if the issues are controversial and if there is mistrust among the groups. This paper analyses the challenges involved in practising six standard-setting ideals, the fulfilment of which is seen to establish credibility: inclusiveness, independence, auditability, scientific validity, global applicability and the balancing of feasibility versus environmental stringency. The ideals are subjects of framing, debating, power struggles and negotiation; and are dependent upon context, situational and historical factors. The assumed positive relationship between ideals and credibility is complicated because of the challenges involved in practising the ideals. This article draws upon the literature on non-state authority, governance and standardization.

  • 2.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How state-dependent is a non-state-driven rule-making project?: the case of forest certification in Sweden2003In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 165-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, environmental organizations (EOs) have, in co-operation with forest companies and social interest groups, introduced a voluntary certification scheme in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council's (FSC) principles for sustainable forestry. Sweden was one of the first countries in which a nationally based FSC standard was introduced successfully. It is interesting to examine why a non-state-driven rule-making project has been comparatively successful in Sweden, where the state is often regarded as strong, pragmatic and open for big interest organizations and, therefore, could be expected to be the natural arena for forest regulation initiatives. This article asks: (1) why the certification project was initiated and driven from outside of the state; and (2) to what extent the Swedish state had an impact none the less. The case presented here reveals that the initiatives of EOs were partly motivated by their view that state regulatory processes and frameworks have failed to take care of environmental problems. However, the case also shows indications of state dependency/embeddedness and the article analyses the following factors: (1) regulatory framework; (2) political culture; (3) policy discourse and policy networks; and (4) state legitimacy. These findings suggest that non-state-driven rule-making can receive strength through a positive relationship with the state

  • 3.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hansson, Viktor
    Örebro University. Örebro universitet Holding AB .
    Environmental representatives: whom, what, and how are they representing?2018In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 114-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on environment and representation in politics, management, and deliberation has paid little attention on the people involved: environmental representatives. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how environmental representatives in various organizational and professional contexts understand their role as representatives, and how they are shaped by their contexts. The paper argues that it is crucial to learn about the everyday reality of individual representatives to better understand the limitations and possibilities they face. The study is based on 19 interviews with environmental representatives from five organizational and professional contexts: the state, civil society, business, science, and media in Sweden. The paper concludes that some differences in experiences, for example, in freedom and constraint, can be understood in relation to the representatives’organizational and professional affiliation. Other experiences are common: (i) all categories stated the importance of being impartial and well read; (ii) complex layers of affiliation imply that representation requires sensitivity and adjustment between different situations; and (iii) the performative aspects of representation include the representatives’claims-making, others’attributions, and long-term learning of their role. The article contributes an understanding of organizational conditions and the often paradoxical, layered, multifaceted, and cautious representation these individual actors perform.

  • 4.
    Dreyer, Marion
    et al.
    DIALOGIK Non-Profit Institute for Communication and Cooperation Research, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Boström, Magnus
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    School of Culture and Communication, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Participatory Deliberation, Risk Governance and Management of the Marine Region in the European Union2014In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 497-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, marine environmental risks are governed in a complex multi-level system. The role that the marine region could or should play as a level of risk governance has attracted growing attention of late. In this context, reference has been made to the regional sea as one level at which participatory processes in the future governing of European Union’s (EU) marine environment and resources are required. The paper unfolds the particular challenges that one faces when trying to implement stakeholder and citizen participatory deliberation at marine region level. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive is highlighted as a key European environmental policy initiative and participatory deliberation at regional sea level is underlined as a requirement for the Directive’s successful implementation. The paper’s account of participatory deliberation is informed by perspectives of inclusive risk governance and reflexive governance. The discussion of the challenges draws on the distinction between horizontal and vertical risk governance. The paper’s main argument is that frequently encountered problems of participatory deliberation are exacerbated when deliberation is to be carried out at the regional sea level, i.e. at a large trans-boundary scale. These problems include the ‘inclusivity-effectiveness dilemma’, a fragmentation of participation efforts and a loose connection to actual decision-making.

  • 5.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Department of Political Science, Åbo Akademi, Turku, Finland.
    Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance?: The Baltic Sea Context2013In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 225-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.

  • 6.
    Hysing, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Greening transport: explaining urban transport policy change2009In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 243-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport policy has proven highly resistant to change despite growing environmental problems. However, in the Swedish city of Örebro, objectives and policy measures in support of ecological sustainability have successfully been introduced in urban transport policies adopted by the local government. This article explains how this 'greening' became possible. Three variables of change proved highly important to understand policy change in this case: (i) new policy ideas of sustainable transport, (ii) reorganization of the local administration and (iii) the pressure of green policy entrepreneurs. A common denominator behind all these changes was the reformation of urban transport into a political issue through discursive changes and an active involvement by elected politicians, that is, politicization. The continuing importance of politics in contemporary policy processes as complex as transport is an important lesson from this case, that is, politics still matters.

  • 7.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Elander, Ingemar
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ecological modernization in practice?: the case of sustainable development in Sweden2012In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 411-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is widely considered a forerunner in environmental policy and one of the most ecologically modernized countries in the world. However, like most other countries, it has not been able to escape from economic recession, high unemployment rates and increasing social segregation. Doubts have also been raised as to whether the rosy picture of successful eco-modernization corresponds to policy in practice. How does Sweden stand the test when bold sustainable development goals confront the challenges of financial and economic crisis and strong pressure on its social welfare system? The analysis finds that Sweden has officially adopted an eco-modernist understanding of society where economic growth, social welfare and environmental values and interests support each other, with economic growth notably considered the crucial driver. However, reconciling these dimensions into one integrated strategy for sustainable development is easier said than done, and it is shown that the gulf between policy rhetoric and practice is deeper than recognized and may even be increasing. The article finally addresses the question of whether this conclusion indicates the dead-end of eco-modernization as a discursive guideline for sustainable development or if it is rather a trigger for a more radical approach to eco-modernization.

  • 8.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Soneryd, Linda
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Knowledge, power and control: studying environmental regulation in late modernity2005In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 89-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the same time as increased demands for standardization and control occur within the environmental field, regulation is being confronted by tendencies towards contextualization and fragmentation. This paper examines the question of how these seemingly opposing tendencies can be understood. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach for the study of risk regulation in contemporary society. Four elements are stressed as vital to consider when approaching environmental regulation: (i) the varying roles of science and expertise in regulation; (ii) the decisive role of intentional actors and regulatory organizations; (iii) the decisive but not exclusive role of the nation-state; and (iv) regulation as a process in which knowledge, risk and public concerns are constructed. In conclusion, the paper states that even if regulation is currently dispersed, the concepts of knowledge, power and control are still central to the study of environmental regulation.

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