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  • 1.
    Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Radiology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center of Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Maret, Eva
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ)2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 1368-1380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire.

    Background: Questionnaires measuring patients’ anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients’ experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed.

    Design: Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design.

    Methods: A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imagingscanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012–October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated.

    Results: Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale.

    Conclusion: Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations.

  • 2.
    Allvin, Renée
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital ,Örebro,Sweden.
    Berg, Katarina
    Department of Medicine and Care, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Research Section, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar,Sweden; Department of Medicine and Care, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro,Sweden; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Örebro University Hospital , Örebro, Sweden.
    Postoperative recovery: a concept analysis2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 552-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This papaer presents a concept analysis of the phenomeneon postoperative recovery.

    Background. Each year, millions of patients throughout the world undergo surgical procedures. Although postoperative recovery is commonly used as an outcome of surgery, it is difficult to identify a standard definition.

    Method. Walker and Avant's concept analysis approach was used. Literature retrieved from MEDLINE and CINAHL databases for english language papers published from 1982 to 2005 was used for the analysis.

    Findings. The theoretical definition developed points out that postoperative recovery is an energy-requiring process of returning to normality and wholeness. It is defined by comparative standards, achieved by regaining control over physical, psychological, social and habitual functions, and results in a return to preoperative level of independence/dependence in activities of daily living and optimum level of psychological well-being.

    Conclusion. The concept of postoperative recovery lacks clarity, both in its meaning in relation to postoperative recovery to healthcare professionals in their care for surgical patients, and in the understanding of what researchers in this area really intend to investigate. The theoretical definition we have developed may be useful but needs to be further explored.

  • 3.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Development of a theoretical framework describing relatives' involvement in palliative care2001In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 554-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The present study is based on four earlier studies in which the authors classified the relative's involvement in palliative care into different categories and described the involvement as "involvement in the light" or "involvement in the dark".

    AIM:

    The aim of the study was to develop a theoretical framework concerning the involvement of relatives based on an in-depth analysis of the results of the four earlier studies.

    METHOD:

    Walker & Avant's (1995) strategies for theory construction were used for development of the framework. A number of different concepts, assumptions and statements about relatives' involvement were penetrated in an in-depth analysis.

    RESULTS:

    From the concepts two theoretical "blocks" of the relatives' involvement were developed and these constitute the foundation for the framework. One is based on concrete descriptions of the concepts "to know", "to be" and "to do". The other describes how the concepts of "involvement in the light" and "involvement in the dark" differ. Factors that promoted involvement in the light were professional care based on humanistic values, a stronger sense of coherence on the part of relatives, an appropriate illness trajectory, and other available resources. The opposite was the case for those who were involved in the dark. Five assumptions successively developed which together form the theoretical framework.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    An important conclusion that can be of importance in palliative care is that the manner in which the staff act toward the patient and relatives influence relatives' possibilities for involvement, patients' possibilities for an appropriate death, and the possibilities the staff have to give good care.

  • 4.
    Bergdahl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Research and Development Unit, FOU nu, SLSO, Stockholm, Sweden; Faculty of Professional Studies, Nursing Science, Nord University, Bodö, Norway.
    Berterö, Carina M.
    Division of Nursing Science, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Concept analysis and the building blocks of theory: misconceptions regarding theory development2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 10, p. 2558-2566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The purpose of this article is to discuss the attempts to justify concepts analysis as a way to construct theory - a notion often advocated in nursing.

    BACKGROUND: The notion that concepts are the building blocks or threads from which theory is constructed is often repeated. It can be found in many articles and well-known textbooks. However, this notion is seldom explained or defended. The notion of concepts as building blocks has also been questioned by several authors. However, most of these authors seem to agree to some degree that concepts are essential components from which theory is built.

    DESIGN: Discussion paper.

    DATA SOURCES: Literature was reviewed to synthesize and debate current knowledge.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Our point is that theory is not built by concepts analysis or clarification and we will show that this notion has its basis in some serious misunderstandings. We argue that concept analysis is not a part of sound scientific method and should be abandoned.

    CONCLUSION: The current methods of concept analysis in nursing have no foundation in philosophy of science or in language philosophy. The type of concept analysis performed in nursing is not a way to 'construct' theory. Rather, theories are formed by creative endeavour to propose a solution to a scientific and/or practical problem. The bottom line is that the current style and form of concept analysis in nursing should be abandoned in favour of methods in line with modern theory of science.

  • 5.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Hartig, Terry
    Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Tønsberg, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: a multi-level cross-sectional study2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 2065-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To test the relationship between greenery in gardens at residential facilities for older people and the self-perceived health of residents, mediated by experiences of being away and fascination when in the garden and the frequency of visitation there. To examine how these indirect effects vary with the number of physical barriers to visiting the garden.

    Background: Many older people in residential facilities suffer from complex health problems. Access to a green outdoor environment may enable psychological distance, engage effortless attention, encourage more frequent visitation and promote resident health.

    Design: A multi-level, cross-sectional, correlational design.

    Methods: Questionnaires were administered June-August, 2011 to convenience samples of residents at 72 facilities for older people with complex healthcare needs. One to 10 eligible residents were sampled during self-motivated garden visits at each facility (n = 290). They reported on their garden experiences and health. Facility staff reported on objective garden characteristics and barriers to access. A serial mediation model was tested with multiple linear regression analysis.

    Results: The total indirect effect of greenery on self-perceived health was positive and significant. Garden greenery appears to affect health by enhancing a sense of being away, affording possibilities to experience the outdoor environment as interesting and encouraging visitation. Among residents in homes with multiple barriers, only fascination mediated the relationship between greenery and self-perceived health.

    Conclusion: Ample greenery in outdoor space at residential facilities for older people appears to promote experiences of being away and fascination, more frequent visitation and better health.

  • 6.
    De Meyer, D.
    et al.
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Hecke, A.
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Nursing Department, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Verhaeghe, S.
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Department Health Care, VIVES University College, Roeselare, Belgium.
    Beeckman, Dimitri
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Dublin, Ireland.
    PROTECT - Trial: A cluster RCT to study the effectiveness of a repositioning aid and tailored repositioning to increase repositioning compliance2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 75, no 5, p. 1085-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study the effectiveness of tailored repositioning and a turning and repositioning system on: (1) nurses' compliance to repositioning frequencies; (2) body posture of patients after repositioning; (3) incidence of pressure ulcers and incontinence-associated dermatitis; (4) nurses' and patients' preferences, comfort and acceptability; and (5) budget impact.

    BACKGROUND: Patient-tailored systematic repositioning is key in pressure ulcer prevention. To date, a clinical decision-making tool is lacking and compliance to pressure ulcer prevention guidelines is low. Research concerning commercially available turning and repositioning systems is lacking.

    DESIGN: Multicentre, cluster, three-arm, randomised, controlled pragmatic trial.

    METHODS: Two hundred twenty-seven patients at risk of pressure ulcer development were recruited at 29 wards in 16 hospitals between February 2016 - December 2017. Wards were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group.

    RESULTS: Nurses' compliance to repositioning frequencies increased significantly in the experimental groups when patients were cared for in bed (94.6% versus 69% and 84.9% versus 71.4%). Applying the turning and repositioning system was associated with significantly more correctly positioned patients (30-45° tilted side-lying position) (69.6% versus 34.6%). Few pressure ulcers and incontinence-associated dermatitis incidents occurred. Both patients and nurses were positive about the intervention. Higher labour costs related to repositioning in bed were found in the control group.

    CONCLUSION: This was the first study investigating the effect of tailored repositioning and the use of a repositioning aid to increase nurses' compliance to repositioning. The results were in favour of the interventions yet demonstrating the importance of follow-up and education.

  • 7.
    De Meyer, Dorien
    et al.
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Gabriel, Sabrina
    Clinical Research Center for Hair and Skin Science, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
    Kottner, Jan
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Clinical Research Center for Hair and Skin Science, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
    Van Damme, Nele
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Den Bussche, Karen
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Verhaeghe, Sofie
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Department Health Care, VIVES University College, Roeselare, Belgium.
    Van Hecke, Ann
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Nursing Department, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Beeckman, Dimitri
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Dublin, Ireland.
    Outcome measurement instruments for erythema associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis: systematic review2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To: (1) examine which outcome measurement instruments for erythema associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis with supporting evidence about measurement properties are available; (2) evaluate the methodological quality of the studies and the quality of the measurement properties; and (3) identify eligible instruments to measure erythema in incontinence-associated dermatitis research.

    DESIGN: Systematic review.

    DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL were systematically searched until July 2018 (update December 2018). Additional input was gathered from 151 incontinence-associated dermatitis experts. Cited and citing references of included studies were screened.

    REVIEW METHODS: The COSMIN Risk of Bias checklist was applied to evaluate the methodological quality of the studies. Reported measurement properties were rated against criteria for good measurement properties.

    RESULTS: Fourteen studies, describing 10 measurement instruments, were included. In five instruments, erythema was captured as a separate concept, two studies provided empirical evidence about the measurement properties. The most studied measurement properties were reliability (9 studies), measurement error (4 studies) and criterion validity (4 studies). In one study, internal consistency was examined.

    CONCLUSION: No instrument measuring exclusively erythema associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis exists. There is no single composite incontinence-associated dermatitis measurement instrument that outperforms others. Development or adaption of an instrument to measure erythema associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis is one option to solve this challenge.

    IMPACT: The evidence about measurement properties of instruments measuring erythema associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis has not been summarized to date. The lack of an instrument should trigger activities to measure this domain accurately in future clinical trials.

  • 8.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Social Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Thorell-Ekstrand, Ingrid
    The Swedish Red Cross College of Nursing and Health, Stockholm.
    Nursing documentation in patient records: experience of the use of the VIPS model1996In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 853-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VIPS model for the documentation of nursing care in patient records was scientifically developed and published in 1991, with the aim of supporting the systematic documentation of nursing care and promoting individualized care. As the model seemed to be accepted and used in many parts of Sweden, a study was conducted in order to gather further information on the validity of the model, to describe the clinical and educational experience of its use and to refine it. Experience of the use of the model was gathered from a review of the scientific papers and other reports on it, from questionnaires addressed to nurses (n = 514), from comments by key informants, and from interviews with faculty members at all the nursing schools in the country. The findings showed that an intense process of change and development was occurring regarding nursing documentation. However, there were limitations in the use of the entire nursing process, especially in the specification of patient problems and the formulation of nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions. The keywords (Swedish spelling) of the VIPS model had good content validity in different areas of nursing care. The findings also indicated the need for further elaboration and revision of some of the keywords. A revised version of the VIPS model based on these findings is presented.

  • 9.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Struggling to retain living space: patients' stories about living with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2011In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 1480-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This paper is a report of a study of the experience of living with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and long-term oxygen therapy when living alone.

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects an increasing number of people. Breathlessness, fatigue and dejection are common symptoms during the last years of life.

    Method: Repeated qualitative interviews with four participants were conducted over an 8-month period in 2008. The data comprised 17 interviews, 15 telephone conversations and various field notes. A phenomenological hermeneutical method was used to interpret the text.

    Findings: The analysis resulted in two main themes and five sub-themes. The first main theme, Being subordinated to the sick body, implies that the body, assistive devices and entrusting oneself to the hands of others can both extend and restrict the living space. The second main theme, Protecting significant values of identity, encompasses both the struggle to maintain self-image and the awareness of one's own death.

    Conclusion: Living alone with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a challenging and complex phenomenon. The everyday life was characterized by a struggle to keep autonomy during a time of increasing dependency and need for help. A person-centred nursing care, built upon peoples' own experiences, may be one way to promote identity and dignity in patients even when they are close to death.

  • 10.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at the end of life: a phenomenological study2008In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title. Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at the end of life: a phenomenological study Aim. This paper is a report of a study to describe the essential structure of the lived experience of living with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during the palliative phase of the disease. Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the most common diseases throughout the world. Shortness of breath, fatigue and cough are the most troublesome symptoms, and living with COPD often imposes limitations on daily living. The disease has a great impact on quality of life and affects the extent to which people can be active in daily life. Methods. We conducted qualitative interviews of eight people with COPD and collected data over a 2-month period in 2003. Our patients were recruited from two pulmonary disease clinics in West Sweden. We used a phenomenological methodology to analyse the interviews. Findings. Daily life for people with COPD is affected in several different ways. The patients described how their physical limitations forced them to refrain from meaningful activities in everyday life and led to social isolation. Everyday emotions vacillated between viewing life as meaningful and meaningless. A sense of involvement and the belief that life was meaningful gave the individual the energy and the desire to continue living and to envision a future. Conclusion. Nursing care should include support and facilitation, so that patients can live rather than exist to the end of their lives. It is important to learn from patients and tailor activities to their social, existential and physical priorities, where appropriate family-centred support may be most effective. © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 11.
    Florin, Jan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Patients' and nurses' perceptions of nursing problems in an acute care setting2005In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    This paper reports a study to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement between nurses and patients in their perceptions of the presence, severity, and importance of nursing problems.

    BACKGROUND:

    Patient experiences, values and preferences are increasingly acknowledged as important factors underpinning healthcare decision-making. The ability to identify patient problems accurately is an important prerequisite for planning and implementing individualized high quality care.

    METHODS:

    A convenience sample of patients (n = 80) and Registered Nurses (n = 30) in an acute care setting responded to a 43-item questionnaire. Findings. Nurses identified patients' problems with a sensitivity of 0.53 and a positive predictive value of 0.50. Patients identified several severe problems that were not identified by nurses, particularly problems with nutrition, sleep, pain, and emotions/spirituality. Nurses underestimated the severity in 47% of mutually-identified problems. An overall level of agreement of 44% was found on the importance of patient problems. Low levels of agreement on severity and importance were related more to individual differences than to systematic differences.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Nurses need to be more aware that patients and nurses often hold disparate views of the priorities in nursing care. To plan individualized nursing care effectively, nurses need to elicit and use individual patients' preferences more systematically in care planning.

  • 12.
    Funk, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Per
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Medical Physics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Patients' experiences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their experiences of breath holding techniques2014In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 1880-1890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To describe patients' experiences of magnetic resonance examination of the liver and their experiences of two breath-hold techniques.

    Background: Traditionally, patients are instructed by the radiographer to hold their breath during the examination. Alternatively, the patient can initiate the breath hold and start the image acquisition. Studies have revealed that magnetic resonance examinations can be experienced as challenging.

    Design: Descriptive qualitative.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 patients and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The data collection was carried out from autumn 2010 to spring 2011.

    Results: The patients' main experience was that they felt loss of control. This was described in terms of feeling trapped, being lost in time and lost as a result of uncertainty. They had many questions in their mind that they did not ask. Although their statements often revealed no clear preference regarding the techniques, almost half of the patients seemed to prefer self-initiated breath hold, as it was easier and less stressful. Those who preferred the radiographer-directed technique felt more confident leaving the responsibility to the radiographer. In general, the patients understood the importance of achieving the best quality images possible.

    Conclusion: Magnetic resonance examination can be experienced as being in loss of control. Nevertheless, not all patients wished to actively participate in magnetic resonance examination. Some preferred to hand over the responsibility to the radiographer. These results can form a base for radiographers' reflections of how to individualize and optimize the nursing care of patients undergoing magnetic resonance examinations.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Department of Hand Surgery, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    Department of Nursing, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amilon, Anders
    Department of Hand Surgery, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    A qualitative study of stress factors in the early stage of acute traumatic hand injury2000In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1333-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study reported in this paper was to identify stress factors in the early stage of acute traumatic hand injury. Stress factors were defined as circumstances which the hand-injured patients experienced as problems in the actual situation. A total of 20 patients, treated as inpatients at the Department of Hand Surgery in Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden, were interviewed 8-20 days after the day of the accident. The analyses of the interviews followed the first step in the analytical process described in a modified model of grounded theory. The trauma experience was one of the stress factors in the early stage. Single acute traumatic stress symptoms, mostly involuntary recollection and re-experience of the trauma, were found in a fourth of the hand-injured patients. All patients reported impaired functioning caused by their hand, irrespective of injury. Practical problems with daily activities and being dependent on help from others for solving practical problems were stress factors caused by functional impairment. Before the accident most of the hand-injured had been very active, also working a lot with their hands in their leisure-time. Involuntary inactivity was a big problem for some of them. Other stress factors in the early stage were uncertainty about function in the future and pain. The appearance of the hand was a minor problem before the first follow-up visit. Probably because the hand was hidden in a bandage. However, some hand-injured felt discomfort in seeing the hand when the dressing was changed at the first follow-up visit.

  • 14.
    Göransson, Katarina E.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Fonteyn, Marsha E.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Thinking strategies used by Registered Nurses during emergency department triage2008In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to describe and compare thinking strategies and cognitive processing in the emergency department triage process by Registered Nurses with high and low triage accuracy. BACKGROUND: Sound clinical reasoning and accurate decision-making are integral parts of modern nursing practice and are of vital importance during triage in emergency departments. Although studies have shown that individual and contextual factors influence the decisions of Registered Nurses in the triage process, others have failed to explain the relationship between triage accuracy and clinical experience. Furthermore, no study has shown the relationship between Registered Nurses' thinking strategies and their triage accuracy. METHOD: Using the 'think aloud' method, data were collected in 2004-2005 from 16 RNs working in Swedish emergency departments who had previously participated in a study examining triage accuracy. Content analysis of the data was performed. FINDINGS: The Registered Nurses used a variety of thinking strategies, ranging from searching for information, generating hypotheses to stating propositions. They structured the triage process in several ways, beginning by gathering data, generating hypotheses or allocating acuity ratings. Comparison of participants' use of thinking strategies and the structure of the triage process based on their previous triage accuracy revealed only slight differences. CONCLUSION: The wide range of thinking strategies used by Registered Nurses when performing triage indicates that triage decision-making is complex. Further research is needed to ascertain which skills are most important in triage decision-making.

  • 15.
    Holmström, Inger K.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Krantz, Anna
    Örebro University Hospital. Ängens vårdcentral, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karacagil, Lena
    Hemsjukvården, Vård och omsorg Västerås stad, Västerås, Sweden; Primärsjukvården, Västerås sjukhus, Västerås, Sweden .
    Sundler, Annelie J
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Frequent callers in primary health care: a qualitative study with a nursing perspective2017In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 622-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To: (a) describe how telephone nurses define a frequent caller; and (b) describe their experiences with calls from frequent callers to primary healthcare centres.

    BACKGROUND: Telephone nursing has been noted to be a cost-effective method to enhance access to and use of health care. Some patients use these services extensively and are called 'frequent callers'. Little is known about this group of callers, the reasons behind these calls and telephone nurses' experiences and strategies to manage the calls.

    DESIGN: Descriptive design with a qualitative inductive approach.

    METHODS: Interviews were conducted with ten telephone nurses in Sweden in 2015. Qualitative content analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS: A main theme was established, called 'Balancing between the experienced and assessed needs', which described the telephone nurses' experiences with calls made by frequent callers to primary healthcare centres and was further described in five categories with 15 subcategories. The categories described telephone nurses' definitions of frequent callers, telephone nurses' views of the underlying reasons for the calls, challenges related to frequent callers, experiences with an increased work load and strategies used to manage and help frequent callers.

    CONCLUSION: Frequent callers were commonly encountered by telephone nurses' in this study. Their calls were experienced as complex and demanding to manage. The findings point to needs for guidelines and routines to improve the care of frequent callers. In addition, support and training in communication skills to encounter this group of callers in an optimal and safe way may be required.

  • 16.
    Hälleberg-Nyman, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Orthopaedics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Langius-Eklöf, Ann
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Ann-Kristin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Patients' experiences of bladder emptying in connection with hip surgery: an issue but of varying impact2013In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 2686-2695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe patients' experiences of bladder emptying and urinary catheterization in connection with hip surgery.

    Background: The capacity of bladder emptying in connection with hip surgery is affected by pain, medication and confinement to bed. In connection with such surgery urinary catheterization is often performed, either intermittent or indwelling. Hip surgery patients' experiences of urinary catheterization and urination have not been studied before.

    Design: A qualitative study with descriptive design was conducted among hip surgery patients.

    Methods: Thirty face-to-face interviews were conducted from October 2009-March 2010 and analysed with inductive qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The main category An issue but of varying impact' illustrated the patients' experiences of bladder emptying and urinary catheterization. Five generic categories were identified: ability to urinate, catheter is convenient, bothersome bladder emptying, intrusion on dignity and concern about complications. Irrespectively of whether the patients were able to urinate or were catheterized, the bladder emptying situation was not as usual. It was described as uncomplicated and experienced as being positive if the patients were able to urinate by themselves or when catheterization was experienced as convenient. Some patients did not want to be catheterized, approving it only reluctantly. Independently of the method for bladder emptying, the patients in our study would choose the same method next time.

    Conclusions: The patients undergoing hip surgery seem to experience bladder emptying as an issue but of varying impact. Both bladder emptying through micturition and bladder emptying through catheterization are described in positive and negative terms.

  • 17.
    Jackson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schollin, Jens
    Department of Paediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    From alienation to familiarity: experiences of mothers and fathers of preterm infants2003In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 120-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The birth of a preterm infant has a long-term impact on both parents. Mothers report more stress and poor adjustment compared with fathers. Influencing factors, such as family situation and health status of the child, can support or weaken the coping ability of the parents. Studies on experiences of fathers are sparse.

    AIM: The aim of this research was to study how mothers and fathers of preterm infants describe their experiences of parenthood during the infant's first 18 months of life.

    METHODS: Seven consecutively selected sets of parents of preterm infants born at </=34 weeks of gestation with no serious congenital defects were interviewed 1-2 weeks after the infant's birth and at 2, 6 and 18 months of age, and the findings were analysed using a phenomenological method.

    FINDINGS: Internalization of parenthood was described as a time-dependent process, with four syntheses of experiences - alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. Within the syntheses, similarities in how mothers and fathers described their parental roles involved concern for the child, insecurity, adjustment and relationship with the child. Regarding differences, mothers experienced having more responsibility and control of the care and a need to be confirmed as a mother, while fathers described confidence in leaving the care to the staff and wanted to find a balance between work and family life. Important turning points in parenthood experiences often occurred when the infant could be removed from the incubator, discharged from the ward, and when the infant looked normal compared to full-term infants.

    CONCLUSIONS: The structure of the phenomenon of parenthood was formed by the integration of the syntheses of alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. The structure seems to be based on the parents' expectations of the parental role, the infant's health condition and the health care environment. These interacting factors are influenced by cultural beliefs.

  • 18. Johansson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Hildingh, Cathrine
    Wenneberg, Stig
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Theoretical model of coping among relatives of patients in intensive care units: a simultaneous concept analysis2006In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the development of a theoretical model of relatives' coping approaches during the patient's intensive care unit stay and subsequent recovery at home by performing an analysis of concepts generated from two empirically grounded, theoretical studies in this area. BACKGROUND: When supporting relatives of intensive care unit patients, it is important that nurses have access to evidence-based knowledge of relatives' coping approaches during the period of illness and recovery. METHOD: Simultaneous concept analysis was used to refine and combine multiple coping concepts into a theoretical model of coping. The concepts were generated in two previous empirical studies of relatives' coping approaches during mechanically ventilated patients' intensive care unit stays and recovery at home. FINDINGS: The theoretical model was developed in 2004-2005 and illustrates the effectiveness of different coping approaches in relation to each other and to social support. Definitions summarizing each coping approach and containing the knowledge gained through the simultaneous concept analysis method were also formulated. CONCLUSION: This middle-range theory of relatives' coping approaches may make a valuable contribution to international intensive care unit nursing practice, especially as it is based on empirical studies and may therefore serve as a basis for the development of future clinical guidelines. However, the theoretical model needs to be empirically validated before it can be used.

  • 19.
    Larson [Windahl], Jenny
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franzén-Dahlin, Åsa
    Department of Nursing, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Billing, Ewa
    Department of Internal Medicine, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Murray, Veronica
    Department of Internal Medicine, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wredling, Regina
    Department of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spouse's life situation after partner's stroke event: psychometric testing of a questionnaire2005In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 300-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper reports a study to validate and test the reliability of a questionnaire constructed to evaluate the life situation of spouses after their partners have had a stroke.

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a disease with great consequences for survivors and their families. Most survivors return home after the hospitalization and rehabilitation due to the stroke event. Relatives, primarily spouses, often feel obligated to care for the survivor at home, providing emotional support or assisting the person in activities of daily living. More specific information is needed about the spouse's life situation after the stroke event in order to develop effective supportive strategies.

    METHODS: Psychometric testing of the Life Situation Questionnaire was undertaken with 99 spouses of stroke survivors. The 13-item questionnaire consists of four subscales: 'Worries', 'Powerlessness', 'Personal adjustment' and 'Social isolation'.

    RESULTS: Item analysis showed that each item correlated with its own subscale (r = 0.63-0.78). The instrument had high internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.80-0.86 and reasonable high congruent validity when correlated with a Wellbeing instrument, with a correlation of 0.59 (P = 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the subscales, accounting for 77% of the variance.

    CONCLUSION: The Life Situation Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument, and could serve as an assessment tool after a stroke event to identify family caregivers who have problems in their life situations and need support from healthcare services.

  • 20.
    Lööf, Helena
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Elisabet Welin
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Rheumatology Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Staffan
    Rheumatology Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Learning Informatics Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Medical Management Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Development and psychometric testing of the Swedish version of the Body Awareness Questionnaire2013In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 1643-1651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper is a report of the development and psychometric testing of the Swedish version of the Body Awareness Questionnaire to measure bodily focus of attention.

    BACKGROUND: The Body Awareness Questionnaire has been identified as an instrument with excellent psychometric properties within the concept of body awareness. It has been used in both research and clinical settings in different contexts. However, a validated Swedish version is not available.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional design was applied for adaptation of the Body Awareness Questionnaire and psychometric validation. Data were collected between autumn 2009 and spring 2011 from 120 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, and from 120 students. The 'concurrent think aloud' method was used in a pre-test to determine the usability of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the construct validity.

    RESULTS: According to the confirmatory factor analysis, neither the one-factor model nor the four-factor model tested in this study fulfilled the pre-specified criteria in accordance with the Comparative Fit Index, Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. The value of Cronbach's alpha for the Swedish version of the Body Awareness Questionnaire was satisfactory.

    CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the two models tested in this study do not provide a good fit to the observed data. Further refinement and testing of the Swedish version of the Body Awareness Questionnaire is therefore required. The concept of body awareness may be useful in the management of chronic disease and can be addressed in nursing.

  • 21.
    Manderlier, Bénédicte
    et al.
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Damme, Nele
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Verhaeghe, Sofie
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Department Health Care, VIVES University College, Roeselare, Belgium.
    Van Hecke, Ann
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Nursing Department, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Everink, Irma
    Department of Health Services Research and Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Halfens, Ruud
    Department of Health Services Research and Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Beeckman, Dimitri
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; School of Nursing & Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Dublin, Ireland.
    Modifiable patient-related factors associated with pressure ulcers on the sacrum and heels: secondary data analyses2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To explore factors associated with the presence of category I-IV pressure ulcers on the sacrum and heels.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional, secondary data analysis using data collected from the Landelijke Prevalentiemeting Zorgproblemen (LPZ) project, a multicentre prevalence study including nursing home residents and community care clients (N = 4842) in the Netherlands in 2017.

    METHODS: A single binary logistic regression model was designed to identify factors associated with the presence of pressure ulcers. Additionally, a multiple binary logistic regression model including modifiable explanatory factors associated with the presence of pressure ulcers was designed.

    RESULTS: Impaired mobility, friction and shear (evaluated using the Braden Scale) are significantly associated with the presence of both sacral and heel category I-IV pressure ulcers. Incontinence-associated dermatitis is significantly associated with category I-IV sacral pressure ulcers.

    CONCLUSION: In pressure ulcer prevention, nursing interventions should focus on frequent repositioning and mobilisation while avoiding exposure of the skin to friction and shear. The need to consider incontinence-associated dermatitis, incontinence and moisture as important factors in pressure ulcer risk assessment is confirmed.

    IMPACT: Pressure ulcers occur when skin and tissues are deformed between bony prominences and the support surface in a sitting or lying position. They are the result of a complex interaction between direct causal factors and a wide range of indirect factors. Recognition of these factors influence risk assessment guidance and practice. Knowledge of skin-specific factors at the patient level, modifiable by nursing interventions, enable a better targeted and tailored preventive approach.

  • 22.
    Medin, Jörgen
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Windahl, Jenny
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Arbin, Magnus
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Kerstin
    Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wredling, Regina
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eating difficulties among patients 3 months after stroke in relation to the acute phase2012In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 580-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This paper is a report of a study comparing eating difficulties among patients 3 months after stroke in relation to the acute phase.

    Background: There is limited knowledge of patients with eating problems early after stroke, hence the progress of eating abilities needs to be further explored.

    Method: From March 2007 to June 2008 36 stroke patients with 2-7 eating difficulties or problems with reduced alertness or swallowing in the acute phase were included. Eating difficulties were detected using a structured protocol of observation of meals. In addition, stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale), functional status (Barthel Index), unilateral neglect (Line Bisection test and Letter Cancellation test), psychological well-being (The Well-being Questionnaire-12), nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment) and oral status (Revised Oral Assessment Guide) were assessed.

    Results: There were 36 participants (58% female) with a median age of 74·5 years. The proportion of eating difficulties decreased significantly from the acute phase to the 3-month follow-up in 'sitting position', 'managing food on the plate' and 'manipulating food in the mouth' and increased regarding inadequate food consumption. Improvements were shown at 3 months in stroke severity, functional status, nutritional status and neglect. Oral status and psychological well-being remained unchanged.

    CONCLUSION: The majority of eating problems persisted 3 months after stroke despite a marked improvement in most of the physical functions. The unchanged psychological well-being and sustained problems with food consumption indicate that factors other than physical function should be taken into account regarding eating difficulties poststroke.

  • 23.
    Rohani, Camelia
    et al.
    Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Nursing Div, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Fac Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Nursing, Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Esfahan, Iran.
    Khanjari, Sedigheh
    Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Nursing Div, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abedi, Heidar-Ali
    Fac Nursing & Midwifery, Khorasgan Branch, Dept Nursing, Islamic Azad Univ, Esfahan, Iran.
    Oskouie, Fatemeh
    Ctr Nursing Care Res, Iran Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran; Fac Nursing & Midwifery, Iran Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Langius-Eklöf, Ann
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Health index, sense of coherence scale, brief religious coping scale and spiritual perspective scale: psychometric properties2010In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 66, no 12, p. 2796-2806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This paper is a report of a study to translate one Swedish and three English instruments into the Persian language, and to estimate their validity and reliability. Background. The Sense of Coherence Scale, Health Index, Brief Religious Coping Scale and Spiritual Perspective Scale are all well tested instruments for use in nursing research. Since there was no Persian translation of these instruments, they had to be translated and cross-culturally adapted for nursing research in the Iranian culture.

    Method: After the translation process, sampling for psychometric tests was done. A sample of healthy Iranian people (n = 375) was selected to response to the instruments in 2006, at baseline and 1 month later. Findings. Cronbach's alpha values and intra-class correlations were high (> 0.70). Tests of criterion-related validity showed that six of the ten hypotheses were confirmed, and the four rejected hypotheses did not imply a threat to validity. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that sense of coherence was the strongest predictor of well-being (Health Index scores) both at baseline ((beta) over cap = 0.52, P < 0.001) and 1 month later (<(beta)over cap> = 0.58, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: There is a sound psychometric basis for using the Iranian versions of these instruments in nursing research with the Iranian population. The Sense of Coherence Scale proved to be as valid and reliable as in Western countries, which supports its cross-cultural applicability.

  • 24. Tishelman, Carol
    et al.
    Bernhardson, Britt-Marie
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Franklin, Liselotte
    Johansson, Eva
    Leveälahti, Helena
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Complexity in caring for patients with advanced cancer2004In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 420-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The gap between nursing research and practice is readily acknowledged in literature, with a variety of strategies suggested for reducing this gap. It is necessary not only to address problems of research implementation in practice, but also to find strategies that strengthen the influence of practitioners on research agendas through more collaborative relationships in order to have an impact on care of patients. A multi-centre research project was therefore initiated by two universities and three health care facilities, aiming to improve quality of care for patients with advanced cancer through a knowledge-exchange programme between nurse researchers, practitioners and students.

    Aim. The aim of this article is to explore how clinical staff reason about care provision for patients with advanced cancer, through analysis of 20 focus group discussions conducted with staff in three different health care facilities in two Swedish cities. An initial analysis based on grounded theory was complemented with consideration of the interactive process in the focus group discussions, and carried out by a team consisting of senior nurse researchers, clinical experts and nursing instructors.

    Findings. The findings of the focus group discussions emphasize the complexity of caregiving for patients with advanced cancer. The tension between caregiving ideals and limits imposed by the realities of caregiving in today's health system were striking. Practitioners discussed the organization of care, different constellations of relationships between patients, family members and professionals, and theoretical and experiential knowledge as equally important aspects in dealing with all concrete situations in daily practice. The importance of reflective practice, use of self and ethical reasoning also permeated the focus group discussions.

    Conclusions. These findings highlight an integrated need both to influence organizational structures and working relationships, along with increasing knowledge, if sustainable change is to be effected.

  • 25.
    Udén, Giggi
    et al.
    Centre of Caring Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Sjöström, Kerstin
    Department of Internal Medicine, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö.
    Use of initial risk assessment and recording as the main nursing intervention in identifying risk of falls1999In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 145-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of falls among hospital patients are a great problem, for the patient, the family and society, and cost billions of dollars. In Sweden, almost one-third of all hip fractures occur in the hospital population. Despite this, very few prevention strategies have been developed and tested. In this study, a risk assessment and recording programme in relation to the risk of falling among patients in a geriatric department at a Swedish hospital was implemented. The records of all patients admitted to a geriatric unit during one year, and a stratified random sample of patient records, constituting the control group from the year before, were reviewed. No recording of assessments regarding the patients' risk of falling, and no preventive nursing interventions, were found in the records of the control group. The study group, however, increased the recording of risk assessment to 96%. Only implemented nursing interventions were found in the patients' records, despite the fact that Swedish law makes it obligatory for the registered nurse to record both the planning and implementation of nursing care. In the study group there were explicit descriptions of problems of concern for nursing regarding the patients' risk of falling in less than one-third of the records, the nursing care plans were rare, and the evaluations were not satisfactory. Nursing interventions consisted mostly of information or education, promotion of patient participation, and structuring of the environment. There was no agreement on any standard-care plan. Recording of falls was found more often in the study group than in the control group (probably due to more careful recording), but the proportion of injuries in relation to falls was higher in the control group. The results of this study may be used as a baseline for developing a nursing strategy and documentation relating to falls.

  • 26.
    Van den Bussche, Karen
    et al.
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Kottner, Jan
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Clinical Research Center for Hair and Skin Science, Department of Dermatology, Charité-Universtitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Beele, Hilde
    Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Meyer, Dorien
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Dunk, Ann Marie
    Tissue Viability Unit, Canberra Hospital, ACT Health, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Ersser, Steven
    Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK.
    Lange, Toni
    Center for Evidence-Based Healthcare, Medizinsche Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Petrovic, Mirko
    Department of Geriatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Schoonhoven, Lisette
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Radboud University Medical Center, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Smet, Steven
    Wound Care Center, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Damme, Nele
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Verhaeghe, Sofie
    Department of Public Health, University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Hecke, Ann
    Department of Public Health, University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Nursing Department, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Beeckman, Dimitri
    Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; School of Nursing & Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
    Core outcome domains in incontinence-associated dermatitis research2018In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 1605-1617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To report the development of a core set of outcome domains for clinical research involving adults with incontinence-associated dermatitis or at risk, independently from any geographical location or skin colour.

    BACKGROUND: The management of incontinence-associated dermatitis is important in caring for incontinent patients. The lack of comparability of clinical trial outcomes is a major challenge in the field of evidence-based incontinence-associated dermatitis prevention and treatment. Core outcome sets may therefore be helpful to improve the value of clinical incontinence-associated dermatitis research.

    DESIGN: Systematic literature review, patient interviews and consensus study using Delphi procedure.

    METHODS: A list of outcome domains was generated through a systematic literature review (no date restrictions-April 2016), consultation of an international steering committee and three patient interviews. The project team reviewed and refined the outcome domains prior to starting a three-round Delphi procedure conducted between April-September 2017. The panellists, including healthcare providers, researchers and industry were invited to rate the importance of the outcome domains.

    RESULTS: We extracted 1,852 outcomes from 244 articles. Experts proposed 56 and patients 32 outcome domains. After refinement, 57 panellists from 17 countries rated a list of 58 outcome domains. The final list of outcome domains includes erythema, erosion, maceration, IAD-related pain and patient satisfaction.

    CONCLUSION: Erythema, erosion, maceration, incontinence-associated dermatitis -related pain and patient satisfaction are the most important outcome domains to be measured in incontinence-associated dermatitis trials. Based on this international consensus on what to measure, the question of how to measure these domains now requires consideration. Registration: This project has been registered in the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET Initiative) database and is part of the Cochrane Skin Group-Core Outcomes Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN).

  • 27.
    Vandewalle, Joeri
    et al.
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, BELGIUM; Research Foundation-Flanders (FWO), Brussel, BELGIUM.
    Beeckman, Dimitri
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Skin Integrity Research Group (SKINT), University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, BELGIUM; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, IRELAND.
    Van Hecke, Ann
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, BELGIUM; Nursing Department, Ghent University Hospital, BELGIUM.
    Debyser, Bart
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, BELGIUM; Department of Nursing, VIVES University College, BELGIUM; Centre for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Clinic St Joseph, Psychiatric Hospital, BELGIUM.
    Deproost, Eddy
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, BELGIUM; Centre for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Clinic St Joseph, Psychiatric Hospital, BELGIUM.
    Verhaeghe, Sofie
    University Centre for Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, BELGIUM; Department of Nursing, VIVES University College, BELGIUM; Department of Nursing, VIVES University College, BELGIUM.
    Contact and communication with patients experiencing suicidal ideation: a qualitative study of nurses' perspectives2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To uncover and understand the core elements of how nurses in psychiatric hospitals make contact with patients experiencing suicidal ideation.

    DESIGN: A qualitative study based on the principles of grounded theory was performed.

    METHODS: Nineteen nurses on wards of four psychiatric hospitals were interviewed between May 2017 and February 2018. The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven was used to facilitate the constant comparison of data.

    FINDINGS: Nurses make contact with patients experiencing suicidal ideation by 'creating conditions for open and genuine communication' while maintaining a focus on 'developing an accurate and meaningful picture of patients'. These interconnected core elements represent nurses' attention to relational processes like building trust as well as their predominant focus on assessing suicide risk. Nurses put other emphases in their contacts with patients depending on whether their approach is guided more by checking and controlling suicide risk or by acknowledging and connecting (with) the person.

    CONCLUSION: The study enhances the conceptual understanding of how nurses on psychiatric wards can involve in compassionate and considerate contact and communication with patients experiencing suicidal ideation. These findings can be used to underpin the nurses' role in and contribution to suicide prevention.

    IMPACT: The core elements 'creating conditions for open and genuine communication' while maintaining a focus on 'developing an accurate and meaningful picture of patients' can inform policies for nursing practice and education that aim to preserve and improve the capacity of nurses to involve in compassionate and considerate contact and communication with patients experiencing suicidal ideation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    von Vogelsang, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Division of Nursing Research at Karolinska Hospital, DepDepartment of Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Forsberg, Christina
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Red Cross Univ. College of Nursing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patient information after ruptured intracranial aneurysm2004In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 551-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper reports an investigation into the effects of increased information for patients treated for intracranial aneurysm rupture. Background. Intracranial aneurysm rupture is a grave condition that requires immediate care. It can be treated in two different ways, by surgery or by endovascular procedure. Intracranial aneurysm rupture can mean great changes in life, both for the patient and their spouse or relatives. Methods. An intervention study was conducted using a quasi-experimental design. Participants were recruited consecutively over a period of 12 months and consisted of 62 patients treated for intracranial aneurysm rupture at a Swedish neurosurgical clinic. They were divided into two groups: an intervention group, who received written and oral information, and a comparison group, who received only oral information. Instruments. Self-report questionnaires were sent to patients' homes 1-3 months after the aneurysm rupture. The questionnaires consisted of one study-specific instrument with questions about understanding of the information given and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, which measures worry or anxiety. Findings. The intervention group considered that the information that they received was somewhat easier to understand and that it corresponded more closely to their needs, compared with the comparison group. The majority of patients in both groups expressed a need for more and improved information. Levels of anxiety were high for the majority of patients, but no significant difference was evident between groups. Furthermore, the results showed that the majority of patients were given information without their spouse or relatives being present. Conclusion. Increased information seems to be needed for these patients. There is a need to continue the work to improve information-giving to them and their relatives.

  • 29.
    Widar, Marita
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Experiences and consequences of pain in persons with post-polio syndrome1998In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 606-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the meaning of pain and its implications for everyday life in 35 persons with symptoms of post-polio syndrome. The mean age of the study group is 65 years and the sex ratio of men to women is 1.5:1. The study persons were interviewed on two occasions in their homes and answered a pain questionnaire. The result shows that everyday vocabulary is used to express pain experiences. The study persons normally answered that it hurt, although the interviewers used pain in their questions. The results show that the lower back is the most common location of pain. Joint pains are most common in the upper extremities. The pain is worst in the evening and at night, and tangibly affects the daily rhythm. Physical strain and climatic factors commonly provoke pain, whereas rest and heat give relief. The study show that interviews and pain questionnaire should be supplemented with questions on activities so as to gain a comprehensive view of the difficulties experienced in everyday life.

  • 30.
    Zakrisson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of University Healthcare Research Centre.
    Arne, Mats
    Centre for clinical research, County Council of Värmland, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Lung allergy and sleep research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Lisspers, Karin
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Theander, Kersti
    Centre for clinical research, County Council of Värmland, Sweden.
    A complex intervention of self-management for patients with COPD or CHF in primary care improved performance and satisfaction with regard to own selected activities: a longitudinal follow-up2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 175-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To test a self-management intervention in primary health care for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Chronic Heart Failure on self-efficacy, symptoms, functioning and health.

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Chronic Heart Failure experience often the same symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, lack of energy, dry mouth, numbness or tingling in hands and feet, pain and sleeping problems.

    DESIGN: A multicentre randomized control trial.

    METHOD: The trial was conducted with one intervention group (n=73) and one control group (n=77). The trial was performed from September 2013 - September 2015 at nine primary health care centres in three county councils in Sweden. At baseline patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Chronic Heart Failure experienced any symptom. Follow-ups were performed after three months and one year. The intervention was structured on Bandura's theory of self-efficacy in six meetings and individual action plans based on personal problems were performed and discussed.

    RESULTS: At baseline, there were no differences between the groups except for SF-36 social function. After three months, the intervention group improved performance and satisfaction with regard to own selected activities, otherwise no differences were found.

    CONCLUSION: When designing a program, the patient's own difficulties must be taken into consideration if person-centered care is to be established. It is feasible to include both patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Chronic Heart Failure in the same group in primary health care. Health care professionals need supervision in pedagogics during intervention in self-management.

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