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  • 1.
    Edwards, Alexis C.
    et al.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA, USA.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kendler, Kenneth S.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA, USA.
    Early environmental influences contribute to covariation between internalizing symptoms and alcohol intoxication frequency across adolescence2011In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms during adolescence varies across studies, and the causes underlying this association remain unclear. The current study examines the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and intoxication frequency in a sample of Swedish twins assessed longitudinally from ages 13-14 to 19-20. The objectives of the study were to assess the stability of genetic and environmental influences on each trait across adolescence; to investigate whether these traits share genetic and/or environmental liabilities; and to explore quantitative changes in the shared liability over time. We found that the magnitude of genetic influences on internalizing symptoms remained relatively stable across adolescence, while their impact on intoxication frequency was dynamic. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were influenced by unique environmental factors, while both shared and unique environmental factors influenced intoxication frequency. Genetic and environmental innovation and attenuation were observed for both traits. While no significant genetic correlation was observed between traits, unique environmental factors did contribute to a shared liability. This environmental correlation was positive and moderate (r(E)=0.41) in the early assessment, but decreased and changed direction at later waves (r(E)=-.04 to -.01). The genetic and environmental factors underlying internalizing symptoms and intoxication frequency appear to be developmentally dynamic. Early environmental factors contribute to the association between these traits, but this shared liability diminishes across adolescence.

  • 2.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    McCambridge, Jim
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    When is it appropriate to address patients' alcohol consumption in health care: national survey of views of the general population in Sweden2012In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 1211-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Swedish population's beliefs and attitudes on when it is appropriate to address patients' alcohol in health care services and to identify the characteristics of those who are most supportive of this alcohol-preventive work. A cross-sectional study of 5981 nationally representative individuals (18-64 years) was done using confidential mail questionnaires. Alcohol consumption was assessed with AUDIT-C and respondents were classified into four levels of drinking status. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Thirty-four percent completely agreed that health care providers should routinely ask patients about their alcohol habits and 33% completely agreed that providers should ask but only if patients have consulted them with alcohol-related symptoms. There was limited support for a statement that alcohol conversations should be premised on the patient bringing up the issue and even less support for the notion that alcohol habits are people's own business and not something that health care providers should address. Thirty-four percent believed that people did not answer honestly when asked about their alcohol habits in health care. There appears to be considerable support in the general population for alcohol prevention in Swedish health care services that involves questions being asked routinely about alcohol. This should be helpful in ongoing efforts to improve the implementation of alcohol screening and brief interventions in Sweden. Further studies on the views of hazardous and excessive drinkers appear particularly important.

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