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  • 1.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Faculty of Medicine and Health, Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Department of Labour Environment and Safety, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Faculty of Medicine and Health, Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk2017In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 494-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO.

    METHODS: Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (μT). Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated.

    RESULTS: Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the time window 1-14 years odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.6, p linear trend <0.001, and in the time window 15+ years OR = 0.9, 95%CI = 0.6-1.3, p linear trend = 0.44 in the highest exposure categories 2.75+ and 6.59+ μT years, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: An increased risk in late stage (promotion/progression) of astrocytoma grade IV for occupational ELF-EMF exposure was found.

  • 2.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Walker, Martin J.
    Walhjalt, Bo
    Friedman, Lee S.
    Richter, Elihu D.
    Secret ties to industry and conflicting interests in cancer research2007In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Recently it was reported that a Swedish professor in environmental health has for decades worked as a consultant for Philip Morris without reporting his employment to his academic employer or declaring conflicts of interest in his research. The potential for distorting the epidemiological assessments of hazard and risk through paid consultants, pretending to be independent, is not exclusive to the tobacco industry Methods Documentation is drawn from peer reviewed publications, websites, documents from the Environmental Protection Agency, University reports, Wellcome Library Special Collections and the Washington Post. Results Some consulting firms employ university researchers for industry work thereby disguising industry links in the income of large departments. If the industry affiliation is concealed by the scientist, biases from conflicting interests in risk assessments cannot be evaluated and dealt with properly. Furthermore, there is reason to suspect that editors and journal staff may suppress publication of scientific results that are adverse to industry owing to internal conflict of interest between editorial integrity and business needs. Conclusions Examples of these problems from Sweden, UK, and USA are presented. The shortfalls cited in this article illustrate the need for improved transparency, regulations that will help curb abuses as well as instruments for control and enforcement against abuses. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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