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  • 1.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, I
    et al.
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    te Velde, S
    EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Brug, J
    EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Due, P
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wind, M
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Sandvik, C
    Faculty of Psychology, Department of Education and Health Promotion, Research Centre for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Maes, L
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Wolf, A
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Perez Rodrigo, C
    Community Nutrition Unit of Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorsdottir, I
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Rasmussen, M
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elmadfa, I
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Franchini, B
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Klepp, K-I
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries2008In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 62, no 7, p. 834-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential personal, social and physical environmental predictors of daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake in 11-year-old boys and girls in nine European countries.

    SUBJECTS: The total sample size was 13 305 (90.4% participation rate).

    RESULTS: Overall, 43.2% of the children reported to eat fruit every day, 46.1% reported to eat vegetables every day. Daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake was mainly associated with knowledge of the national recommendations, positive self-efficacy, positive liking and preference, parental modeling and demand and bringing fruit to school (odds ratio between 1.40 and 2.42, P<0.02). These factors were associated fairly consistently with daily fruit intake across all nine European countries, implying that a rather uniform intervention strategy to promote fruit can be used across Europe. For vegetables, the pattern was, however, less consistent. Differences between countries in cooking and preparing vegetables might be responsible for this larger diversity.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that especially a combination of personal and social factors is related to daily fruit and vegetable intake in schoolchildren. This shows that a comprehensive multilevel intervention strategy based upon a series of individual and social correlates will be most promising in the promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in children.

  • 2.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Total daily energy expenditure and pattern of physical activity measured by minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in 14-15 year old Swedish adolescents2000In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and patterns of physical activity among Swedish male and female adolescents and to relate the amount and intensity of physical activity to existing recommendations (energy expenditure equal to or above 12.4 kJ/kg/day or accumulation of 30 min/day in moderate physical activity equal to 4.5 times sedentary energy expenditure or more).

    DESIGN: TDEE, physical activity level (PAL=TDEE/BMR), energy expenditure (EE) and time spent in different intensities of physical activity were assessed by using minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in combination with laboratory measured sedentary energy expenditure (SEE) and peak oxygen uptake.

    SETTING: Department of Physical Education and Health, Orebro University, and Department of Clinical Physiology, Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Eighty-two 14-15 y old adolescents (42 boys, 40 girls) from the city of Orebro, randomly selected through a two-stage sampling procedure.

    RESULTS: TDEE was 12.8 MJ/day and 10.0 MJ/day for boys and girls respectively (P<0.001) and PAL was 1.74 and 1.67 (NS). Forty-four percent and 47%, respectively, of TDEE referred to EE in physical activity, of which 70% for both genders referred to light physical activity (corresponding to <4.5 times SEE). Eleven boys and 14 girls had an EE lower than 12.4 kJ/kg/day and/or did not accumulate 30 min/day in physical activity >/=4.5 SEE. Those (n=20) with the highest PAL values (>2.01 and 1.81, respectively) spent 149 min/day at a >/=4.5 SEE intensity level compared to 40 min/day for those (n=30) with the lowest PAL values (<1.55 and 1.45, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Swedish adolescent boys and girls are similarly physically active. The major amount of time devoted to physical activity refers to light physical activity. At least thirty percent of adolescents seem not to achieve appropriate levels of physical activity considered to be beneficial for health.

  • 3. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Dreifaldt, Ann Charlotte
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Breast-feeding duration and the risk of malignant diseases in childhood in Sweden2001In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 179-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To evaluate childhood cancer in relation to duration of breast-feeding.

    SETTING:

    Sweden. Records from Child Healthcare Centres were scrutinised regarding information on breast-feeding and other health-related items.

    SUBJECTS:

    All children aged 0-14 y with a malignant disease (benign brain tumours included) during the time period 1988-91 (n = 962) were identified from the Swedish Cancer Register. An equal number of controls matched for sex and age were selected from the Swedish Birth Register.

    RESULTS:

    Information was obtained for 835 cases and 860 controls. Overall, duration of breast-feeding did not influence the risk for a malignant disease in this age group. However, breast-feeding > or = 1 month increased the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) yielding an odds ratio (OR) 5.5 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-25. Breast-feeding 1 -< 6 months gave OR 5.1, CI 1.1-24 and > 6 months gave OR 7.0, CI 1.3-37 with a significant trend (P = 0.04). Adjustment for maternal and birth-related co-variates gave similar results. For other malignancies no significant changes of the risk were obtained.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Overall, no association between duration of breast-feeding and childhood malignancies was found except for a significantly increased risk for NHL, but this was based on low numbers of cases and needs to be confirmed in other investigations

  • 4.
    Jauhiainen, Tiina A.
    et al.
    Institute of Biomedicine Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Research and Development, Valio Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
    Niittynen, Leena H.
    Nutritionist Leena Niittynen, Vihti, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Järvenpää, Salme K.
    Medcare Foundation, Änekoski, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Timo P.
    Department of Medicine and Research Program for Molecular Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rönnback, Mats
    Doctagon Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vapaatalo, Heikki I.
    Institute of Biomedicine Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Korpela, Riitta A.
    Institute of Biomedicine Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Effects of long-term intake of lactotripeptides on cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive subjects2012In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 843-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lactobacillus helveticus LBK-16H-fermented milk products containing tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline lower blood pressure in hypertensive subjects using office and home blood pressure registration. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of two doses of these lactotripeptides on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and lipidomics profiles in mildly hypertensive subjects.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, 89 mildly hypertensive subjects ingested, after a 1-month run-in period, a fermented milk drink with 5 mg per day of lactotripeptides during 3 months, and a milk drink with 50 mg per day of lactotripeptides for the following 3 months, or a placebo milk drink without lactotripeptides. Ambulatory blood pressure (24 h) was recorded at baseline and at the end of the intervention periods. Lipidomics profiles were characterized before and after the 6-month intervention.

    RESULTS: After the second intervention period (50 mg per day of lactotripeptides), systolic and diastolic 24-h blood pressures decreased significantly in the peptide, but not in the placebo group. However, the treatment effects -2.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -5.7 to 0.4) in systolic and -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -3.4 to 0.8) in diastolic blood pressure did not reach statistic significance. Ingestion of 5 mg per day of lactotripeptides for 3 months did not lower blood pressure. The peptide group was dominated by decrease in multiple phospholipids (PL).

    CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of fermented milk with daily dose of 50 mg of lactotripeptides appears to lower elevated blood pressure slightly from the baseline, but not significantly compared with the placebo group and to induce significant decreases in multiple PL.

  • 5.
    Larsson, I.
    et al.
    Dept Endocrinol Diabetol & Metab Internal Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, L.
    Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Samuelson, G.
    Dept Nursing Hlth & Culture, Univ West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Fors, H.
    Dept Paediat, Northern Älvsborg Hosp, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Lantz, H.
    Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Diabetol & Metab Internal Med, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ingmar
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlsson, L. M. S.
    Dept Mol & Clin Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjoström, L.
    Dept Mol & Clin Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bosaeus, I.
    Dept Endocrinol Diabetol & Metab Internal Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Body composition through adult life: Swedish reference data on body composition2015In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 837-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) >= 30 kg/m(2), differs between populations; however, there is a need for data on description on body composition in reference populations of different ages and from different countries. The objective of this study was to pool dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition reference data from population-based Swedish cohorts.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Four population-based cross-sectional cohort studies including 1424 adult Swedes were divided into five age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-61 and 75 years of age); BMI 24.6 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2) were pooled. Body composition was measured with DXA.

    RESULTS: The difference in BMI from the youngest to the oldest age group was 3.2 and 4.3 kg/m(2) in men and women, respectively (P<0.001, both sexes), and fat mass (FM) was 9.9 and 9.1% higher in the oldest compared with the youngest men and women (P<0.001, both sexes). Fat-free mass (FFM) remained stable up to 60 years of age in men (P = 0.83) and was lower at 75 years of age compared with the younger ages. In women, FFM was lower from age 60. From youngest to oldest age groups, height-adjusted FM differed from 4.6 to 7.8 kg/m(2) in men and from 6.8 to 10.8 kg/m(2) in women (P<0.001, both sexes).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide reference data on body composition in Swedish populations. BMI and FM were higher among older age groups compared with the younger ones. FFM remained stable up to 60 years of age and was lower first among the 75 years of age.

  • 6.
    Norden, J.
    et al.
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gronberg, A. M.
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bosaeus, I.
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forslund, H. Berteus
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulthen, L.
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rothenberg, E.
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Health Care Sciences, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wallengren, O.
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Slinde, F.
    Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nutrition impact symptoms and body composition in patients with COPD2015In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 256-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anorexia or lack of appetite is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may be caused or augmented by several symptoms affecting appetite and eating. We aimed to investigate and quantify the extent of nutrition impact symptoms (NIS) in patients with COPD and to explore relationships between NIS and fat-free mass depletion.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: The results in this cross-sectional study are based on 169 COPD patients (62% female subjects). Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and the patients reported NIS by two newly developed questionnaires: the Eating Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) and the Disease-Related Appetite Questionnaire (DRAQ).

    RESULTS: Symptoms with the highest prevalence were dry mouth (71%), stomach ache (39%), pain or aches affecting appetite (36%) and constipation (35%). Problems with diarrhoea and feeling affected by smells were more severe among women compared with men (P < 0.05). Thirty-six percent of the patients were depleted (fat-free mass index (FFMI) < 15 kg/m(2) for women and FFMI < 16 kg/m(2) for men). Depleted patients had more NIS (P < 0.05) and also rated appetite and taste of food as worse compared with non-depleted patients (P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: NIS are common in patients with COPD, and depleted patients have more severe symptoms. To investigate how these symptoms are best prevented and/or managed and whether NIS prevention/treatment can affect development of malnutrition in patients with COPD is a challenge for the future.

  • 7.
    Odlund Olin, A
    et al.
    Division of Surgery, Centre for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Neurotec Department, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm.
    Koochek, A
    Comprehensive Centre for Elderly Care, Älvsjö, Stockholm.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Division of Surgery, Centre for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm; Centre of Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm.
    Cederholm, T
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Neurotec Department, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm.
    Nutritional status, well-being and functional ability in frail elderly service flat residents2005In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 263-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate nutritional status and its relationship to cognition, well-being, functional ability and energy intake in frail elderly service flat residents.

    Design: Cross-sectional and prospective study.

    Setting: Two municipal service flat complexes.

    Subjects: A total of 80 residents (median age 85.5 (79-90) y) with regular home care assistance participated. A subgroup of 35 residents took part in a re-examination 1 y later.

    Methods: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Barthel Index and Health Index were used for the evaluation of nutritional, cognitive and ADL function and well-being, respectively.

    Results: In all, 30% of the frail and chronically ill service flat residents were assessed as malnourished and 59% were at risk of malnutrition. The malnourished residents had worse cognitive conditions (P<0.001) and well-being (P<0.05), lower functional ability (P<0.01) and they had a greater need for daily assistance (P<0.05) than the other residents. The median night fast period was 14.0 (12.5-15.0) h. Five subjects classified as malnourished at baseline had lost a median of -9.6 kg (range -11.0 to +7.3 kg) (P<0.05) in body weight at the 1-y follow-up, which contrasted significantly from the weight stability in residents classified as at risk for malnutrition or well-nourished.

    Conclusion: Out of 10 residents, nine were assessed to have impending nutritional problems that related to impaired well-being, cognition, and functional ability. Malnourished residents had a significant weight loss over one year. Studies are needed to determine whether weight loss and nutrition-related dysfunction in service flat residents are preventable or treatable.

  • 8.
    Pialoux, V.
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Activités Physiques et Sportives, Faculté de Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Mounier, R.
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Activités Physiques et Sportives, Faculté de Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Serv. de Physiol. Clinique/des Explorations Fonctionnelles et Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg, France.
    Rock, E.
    Unité Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA Clermont-Ferrand/Theix, Saint-Genès Champanelle, France.
    Mazur, A.
    Unité Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA Clermont-Ferrand/Theix, Saint-Genès Champanelle, France.
    Dufour, S.
    Serv. de Physiol. Clinique/des Explorations Fonctionnelles et Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg, France.
    Richard, R.
    Serv. de Physiol. Clinique/des Explorations Fonctionnelles et Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg, France.
    Richalet, J.-P.
    ARPE, Laboratoire 'Réponses cellulaires et fonctionnelles à l'hypoxie', Université Paris XIII, Bobigny, France.
    Coudert, J.
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Activités Physiques et Sportives, Faculté de Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Fellmann, N.
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Activités Physiques et Sportives, Faculté de Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Effects of exercise and training in hypoxia on antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance2006In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 1345-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to investigate the effects of acute exercise under hypoxic condition and the repetition of such exercise in a 'living low-training high' training on the antioxidant/prooxidant balance.

    Design: Randomized, repeated measures design.

    Setting: Faculté de Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

    Subjects: Fourteen runners were randomly divided into two groups. A 6-week endurance training protocol integrated two running sessions per week at the second ventilatory threshold into the usual training.

    Intervention: A 6-week endurance training protocol integrated two running sessions per week at the second ventilatory threshold into the usual training. The first hypoxic group (HG, n=8) carried out these sessions under hypoxia (3000 m simulated altitude) and the second normoxic group (NG, n=6) in normoxia. In control period, the runners were submitted to two incremental cycling tests performed in normoxia and under hypoxia (simulated altitude of 3000 m). Plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehydes (MDA) and lipid oxidizability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid-soluble antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene) normalized for triacyglycerols and cholesterol were measured before and after the two incremental tests and at rest before and after training.

    Results: No significant changes of MDA and AOPP level were observed after normoxic exercise, whereas hypoxic exercise induced a 56% rise of MDA and a 44% rise of AOPP. Plasma level of MDA and arterial oxygen hemoglobin desaturations after the acute both exercises were highly correlated (r=0.73). alpha-Tocopherol normalized for cholesterol and triacyglycerols increased only after hypoxic exercise (10-12%, P<0.01). After training, FRAP resting values (-21%, P<0.05) and alpha-tocopherol/triacyglycerols ratio (-24%, P<0.05) were diminished for HG, whereas NG values remained unchanged.

    Conclusions: Intense exercise and hypoxia exposure may have a cumulative effect on oxidative stress. As a consequence, the repetition of such exercise characterizing the 'living low-training high' model has weakened the antioxidant capacities of the athletes.

    Sponsorship: International Olympic Committee and the Direction Régionale de la Jeunesse et des Sports de la Région Auvergne.

  • 9.
    Sjöström, M
    et al.
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Umeå, Sweden; Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department for Physical Education and Health, University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, A B
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Umeå, Sweden; Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaati, G
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Umeå, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Green, L W
    Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Bygren, L O
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Umeå, Sweden.
    A four week residential program for primary health care patients to control obesity and related heart risk factors: effective application of principles of learning and lifestyle change1999In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 53, no Suppl 2, p. S72-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To test the short and long-term effectiveness of a four week residential program for primary health care patients to control obesity and related risk factors for cardio-vascular disease (CVD), especially blood pressure (BP).

    DESIGN: Prospective clinical study, with follow up after 1 and 5 y.

    SETTING: Vindeln Patient Education Centre, Vindeln, and Department of Social Medicine, University of Umea, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Approximately 2500 individuals, with two or more of the traditional risk factors for CVD, participated in the program. This report describes a subsample of 100 consecutive patients, 52+/-9 y, 53 men, with obesity and/or high BP. Intervention: Four week residential program with lectures and group discussions as well as practical sessions in smaller groups (meal preparations, physical exercise, etc). The patients were followed-up medically in their home area.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight and blood pressure.

    RESULTS: Dramatic reductions of weight and, especially, of blood pressure (BP) occurred during the residential weeks, and the reductions were pronounced also after 1 y. After 5 y, the total mean weight among men with initial BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 was still 5 kg lower, and diastolic and systolic BP among those with hypertension was 15 and 20 mm Hg lower, respectively, than before the program.

    CONCLUSIONS: The full-time participation in the residential program and the enrollment and commitment of the patients may explain the clinical outcome. A level of predisposition greater than that required of most weight- and BP-control programs was confirmed and a great preventive or therapeutic potential was indicated. The study illustrates an effective application of the Precede-Proceed model of health promotion planning.

  • 10. van Vught, A. J. A. H.
    et al.
    Nieuwenhuizen, A. G.
    Veldhorst, M. A. B.
    Brummer, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S.
    The effects of dietary protein on the somatotropic axis: a comparison of soy, gelatin, alpha-lactalbumin and milk2010In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 441-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Growth hormone (GH) is an important regulator of growth and body composition. It has been shown that GH release can be promoted by administration of various amino acids (AAs), such as arginine and lysine, that are present in soy protein. We previously showed that oral ingestion of soy protein stimulates the GH release, it is not known however to which extent other proteins stimulate the GH secretion.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ingestion of soy protein (soy), gelatin protein (gelatin), alpha-lactalbumin protein (alpha-lactalbumin) and milk protein (milk) were compared on their GH-stimulating capacity. After oral ingestion of protein (0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight), blood was sampled every 20 min for 5 h to analyze GH, AA, insulin and glucose concentrations. The study was performed in eight healthy women (aged 19-26 years; body mass index 19-26 kg/m(2)) in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled crossover design.

    RESULTS: GH responses were more increased after ingestion of gelatine (8.2+/-1.1 microg/l) compared with ingestion of soy, alpha-lactalbumin and milk (5.0+/-0.8, 4.5+/-0.6 and 6.4+/-1.0 microg/l, respectively) (P<0.05). After ingestion of each protein, GH responses were higher compared with placebo ingestion (P<0.05). Simultaneously ingestion of gelatin resulted in the highest serum-arginine concentrations (ARG) compared with after ingestion of the other proteins (P<0.05). Insulin as well as glucose concentrations were not different after ingestion of the various proteins (P<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The GH-promoting activity of protein depends on the protein source, in that, gelatin protein is the most potent GH stimulator. Arginine may be the responsible AA in the GH-promoting effect of gelatin, although each protein may have its own specific AA-spectrum involved in the stimulation of the somatotropic axis.

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