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  • 1. Landberg, Rikard
    et al.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Zhang, Jie-Xian
    Hallmans, Göran
    Åman, Per
    Reproducibility of plasma alkylresorcinols during a 6-week rye intervention study in men with prostate cancer2009In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 139, no 5, p. 975-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic lipids exclusively present in the outer parts of wheat and rye grains, have been proposed as concentration biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake. A key feature of a good biomarker is high reproducibility, which indicates how accurately a single sample reflects the true mean biomarker concentration caused by a certain intake. In this study, the short- to medium-term reproducibility of plasma AR was determined using samples from a crossover intervention study, where men with prostate cancer (n = 17) were fed rye whole-grain/bran or refined wheat products for 6-wk periods. AR homologs C17:0 and C21:0 differed between the treatments (P < 0.001). The reproducibility determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was high (intervention period 1: ICC = 0.90 [95% CI = 0.82-0.98], intervention period 2: ICC = 0.88 [95% CI = 0.78-0.98]). The results show that a single fasting plasma sample could be used to estimate the mean plasma AR concentration during a 6-wk intervention period with constant intake at a precision of +/- 20% (80% CI). This suggests that the plasma AR concentration can be used as a reliable short- to medium-term biomarker for whole-grain wheat and rye under intervention conditions where intake is kept constant.

  • 2.
    Lankinen, Maria
    et al.
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwab, Ursula
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Paananen, Jussi
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Nygren, Heli
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Research Center for Internal Medicine and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Internal Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Research Center for Internal Medicine and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Internal Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Brader, Lea
    Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Marklund, Matti
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Biomedical Nutrition, Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Önning, Gunilla
    Biomedical Nutrition, Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, , Reykjavik, Iceland; Landspitali – University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, , Reykjavik, Iceland; Landspitali – University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Åkesson, Björn
    Biomedical Nutrition, Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Clinical Nutrition, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Dragsted, Lars Ove
    Faculty of Science, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; .
    Orešič, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    A Healthy Nordic Diet Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile in Adults with Features of Metabolic Syndrome in a Multicenter Randomized Dietary Intervention2016In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 146, no 4, p. 662-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    METHODS: Men and women (n = 200) with features of metabolic syndrome [mean age: 55 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.6] were randomly assigned to either a healthy Nordic (n = 104) or a control (n = 96) diet for 18 or 24 wk at 6 centers. Of the participants, 156 completed the study with plasma lipidomic measurements. The healthy Nordic diet consisted of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, berries, vegetable oils and margarines, fish, low-fat milk products, and low-fat meat. An average Nordic diet served as the control diet and included low-fiber cereal products, dairy fat-based spreads, regular-fat milk products, and a limited amount of fruits, vegetables, and berries. Lipidomic profiles were measured at baseline, week 12, and the end of the intervention (18 or 24 wk) by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The effects of the diets on the lipid variables were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models. Data from centers with 18- or 24-wk duration were also analyzed separately.

    RESULTS: Changes in 21 plasma lipids differed significantly between the groups at week 12 (false discovery rate P < 0.05), including increases in plasmalogens and decreases in ceramides in the healthy Nordic diet group compared with the control group. At the end of the study, changes in lipidomic profiles did not differ between the groups. However, when the intervention lasted 24 wk, changes in 8 plasma lipids that had been identified at 12 wk, including plasmalogens, were sustained. There were no differences in changes in plasma lipids between groups with an intervention of 18 wk. By the dietary biomarker score, adherence to diet did not explain the difference in the results related to the duration of the study.

    CONCLUSIONS: A healthy Nordic diet transiently modified the plasma lipidomic profile, specifically by increasing the concentrations of antioxidative plasmalogens and decreasing insulin resistance-inducing ceramides. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.

  • 3.
    Lankinen, Maria
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwab, Ursula
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Juntunen, Katri
    Mykkänen, Hannu
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Food and Health Research Centre, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Gylling, Helena
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Metabolomic analysis of plasma metabolites that may mediate effects of rye bread on satiety and weight maintenance in postmenopausal women2011In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence of the beneficial health effects of dietary fiber and whole grain consumption is strong, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we investigate how the consumption of high-fiber rye bread (RB) or white-wheat bread (WB) modifies the plasma metabolomic profiles in postmenopausal women. The study was a randomized crossover trial consisting of 8-wk intervention periods and an 8-wk washout period. The study included 39 postmenopausal women with elevated serum total cholesterol (5.0-8.5 mmol/L) and BMI 20-33 kg/m(2). During the intervention periods, the study breads contributed to least 20% of total energy intake. Two analytical platforms for metabolomics were applied. Lipidomic analysis was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization MS and the other metabolites, including sterols, organic acids, and alcohols, were analyzed by 2-dimensional GC coupled to time-of-flight MS. Altogether, 540 metabolites were profiled. Ribitol (P < 0.001), ribonic acid (P < 0.001), and indoleacetic acid (P < 0.001) increased during the RB consumption period. Ribonic acid correlated positively with tryptophan (r = 0.40; P = 0.003), which is a precursor for the biosynthesis of hunger-depressing serotonin. There were no changes in plasma lipidomic profiles during the RB or WB intervention periods. The results suggest that 8-wk consumption of high-fiber rye bread increases metabolites that might mediate positive effects of rye bread on satiety and weight maintenance.

  • 4.
    London, Lis E. E.
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Kumar, Arun H. S.
    Centre for Research in Vascular Biology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Casey, Pat G.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, Orla
    Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Hill, Colin
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Caplice, Noel M.
    Centre for Research in Vascular Biology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacilli reduce serum cholesterol and modify enteric microbiota in ApoE-deficient mice2014In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 144, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Probiotic bacteria have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, a leading cause of death and disability.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary administration of exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus cultures on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice.

    Methods: First, we examined lipid metabolism in response to dietary supplementation with recombinant β-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei National Food Biotechnology Centre (NFBC) 338 expressing the glycosyltransferase (Gtf) gene from Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 (GTF), and naturally exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae Dairy Product Culture Collection (DPC) 6426 (DPC 6426) compared with the non-β-glucan-producing isogenic control strain Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (PNZ) and placebo (15% wt:vol trehalose). Second, we examined the effects on the gut microbiota of dietary administration of DPC 6426 compared with placebo. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains at 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units/d per animal were administered to apoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat (60% fat)/high-cholesterol (2% wt:wt) diet for 12 wk. At the end of the study, aortic plaque development and serum, liver, and fecal variables involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and culture-independent microbial analyses of cecal content were performed.

    Results: Total cholesterol was reduced in serum (P < 0.001; ∼33-50%) and liver (P < 0.05; ∼30%) and serum triglyceride concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05; ∼15-25%) in mice supplemented with GTF or DPC 6426 compared with the PNZ or placebo group, respectively. In addition, dietary intervention with GTF led to increased amounts of fecal cholesterol excretion (P < 0.05) compared with all other groups. Compositional sequencing of the gut microbiota revealed a greater prevalence of Porphyromonadaceae (P = 0.001) and Prevotellaceae (P = 0.001) in the DPC 6426 group and lower proportions of Clostridiaceae (P < 0.05), Peptococcaceae (P < 0.001), and Staphylococcaceae (P < 0.01) compared with the placebo group.

    Conclusion: Ingestion of exopolysaccharide-producing lactobacilli resulted in seemingly favorable improvements in lipid metabolism, which were associated with changes in the gut microbiota of mice.

  • 5.
    Moazzami, A.
    et al.
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Zhang, J. X.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kamal-Eldin, A.
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åman, P.
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallmans, G.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, J-E
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients2011In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 141, no 12, p. 2126-2132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in the Western world and the second most important cancer causing male deaths, after lung cancer, in the United States and Britain. Lifestyle and dietary changes are recommended for men diagnosed with early-stage PC. It has been shown that a diet rich in whole grain (WG) rye reduces the progression of early-stage PC, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study sought to identify changes in the metabolic signature of plasma in patients with early-stage PC following intervention with a diet rich in WG rye and rye bran product (RP) compared with refined white wheat product (WP) as a tool for mechanistic investigation of the beneficial health effects of RP on PC progression. Seventeen PC patients received 485 g RP or WP in a randomized, controlled, crossover design during a period of 6 wk with a 2-wk washout period. At the end of each intervention period, plasma was collected after fasting and used for (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for paired comparisons of multivariate data. A metabolomics analysis of plasma showed an increase in 5 metabolites, including 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, and dimethyl sulfone, after RP. To understand these metabolic changes, fasting plasma homocysteine, leptin, adiponectin, and glucagon were measured separately. The plasma homocysteine concentration was lower (P = 0.017) and that of leptin tended to be lower (P = 0.07) after RP intake compared to WP intake. The increase in plasma 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone after RP suggests a shift in energy metabolism from anabolic to catabolic status, which could explain some of the beneficial health effects of WG rye, i.e., reduction in prostate-specific antigen and reduced 24-h insulin secretion. In addition, the increase in betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine and the decrease in homocysteine show a favorable shift in homocysteine metabolism after RP intake.

  • 6.
    Netterbladt, Carl Gustaf
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alibegovic, Asim
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pre-stress carbohydrate solution prevents fatal outcome after hemorrhage in 24 hour food deprived rats1996In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 696-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-four-hour food deprivation increases mortality after experimental hemorrhage. Survival after hemorrhageis closely related to the capacity of the animal to develop hyperglycemia. In this study, 24-h food-deprived ratswere subjected to hemorrhage over a period of 75 min, standardized to reach a final blood pressure of 45 mmHg. Just prior to hemorrhage, the rats ingested a carbohydrate solution (n = 8) 2.16 mL/100 g body weight (b.wt.) or the same volume of water sweetened with sodiumsaccarinate (n = 7). A third group (n = 8) received an IV infusion of 5% glucose 0.5 mL/100 g b. wt. to mimic the hyperglycemia during hemorrhage of rats taking carbohydrates before stress. During hemorrhage rats treated with oral carbohydrate and IV glucose developed moderate hyperglycemia while glucose levels fell in water-treated rats (P < 0.001). Concomitant developments in hematocrits indicated improved plasma refill in carbohydrate and glucose-treated animals versus controls (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in blood pressure by the end of hemorrhage. Six of the seven animals treated with water died within 2 h of bleeding. In both the carbohydrate- and the glucose-treated groups 7 of 8 animals recovered and survived the 7-d observation period (P < 0.05 versus controls). It is concluded that oral carbohydrate solution before hemorrhage can alter the outcome after experimental hemorrhage. The similar finding in rats given IV glucose suggests that the key factor for survival was the capacity to mount a state of hyperglycemia during hemorrhage.

  • 7.
    Nygren, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karpe, Fredrik
    Department of Gustaf V Research Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Short-term hypocaloric nutrition but not bed rest decrease insulin sensitivity and IGF-I bioavailability in healthy subjects: the importance of glucagon1997In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 13, no 11-12, p. 945-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperinsulinemic, normoglycemic clamps were performed before and after 24 h of either hypocaloric nutrition or bed rest in healthy subjects. Decreased insulin sensitivity and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) bioavailibility, as measured by the serum IGF-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) ratio, was found after fasting, whereas no metabolic changes were found after bed rest. Glucagon seems to be a key regulator of IGFBP-1 after brief hypocaloric nutrition. Hypocaloric nutrition and immobilization may add to the catabolic response to surgery and other trauma. Presently, six healthy subjects were studied before and after a 24-h period of hypocaloric nutrition (200 kcal/24 h, fast) or immobilization (bed rest) using the hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg−1 · min−1), normoglycemic (4.5 mmol/L) clamp, indirect calorimetry, and circulating levels of substrates and hormones. After fast, body weight decreased (P < 0.05), and nitrogen balance was negative (−10 ± 1 g urea nitrogen/24 h). Basal levels of free fatty acids, glucagon, and IGFBP-1 increased (P < 0.05), whereas c-peptide levels and the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratio decreased (P < 0.05). However, no change was found in basal levels of IGF-I or substrate oxidation. Furthermore, changes (%) in basal levels of glucagon after fast correlated to IGFBP-1 (r = 1.0, P < 0.05), whereas the suppressibility of IGFBP-1 by insulin was maintained at normal levels. During clamps, glucose infusion rates (GIR) decreased after fast (−43 ± 13%, mean ± SEM, P < 0.001). Although not significant, clamp levels of fat oxidation tended to increase and glucose oxidation tended to decrease. Levels of IGFBP-1 during clamps were higher as compared with the control clamp (P < 0.05). No adverse metabolic changes were seen after bed rest, and no change in GIR during clamps were seen as compared with the control measurement (0 ± 14%). After brief hypocaloric nutrition, insulin sensitivity is reduced, whereas IGF-I bioavailibility is reduced by an increase in levels of IGFBP-1. Glucagon seems to contribute to the increase in IGFBP-1 during these conditions.

  • 8.
    Rashidkhani, B.
    et al.
    Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkesson, A.
    Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Per
    Department of Urology, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Major dietary patterns and risk of renal cell carcinoma in a prospective cohort of Swedish women2005In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 135, no 7, p. 1757-1762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Links between specific foods and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are not well established. Dietary patterns may be a better predictor of RCC risk. Our aim was to identify and examine major dietary patterns and their relation to the risk of RCC in a large prospective cohort study of Swedish women. Complete dietary information was available from a FFQ from 46,572 women aged 40-76 y at baseline. We conducted factor analysis to identify dietary patterns. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs. During a mean of 14.3 y of follow-up, we identified 93 cases of RCC. We observed 3 major dietary patterns in the cohort: Healthy (vegetables, tomato, fish, fruits, poultry, whole grains), Western (sweets, processed meat, refined grains, margarine/butter, high-fat dairy products, fried potato, soft drinks, meat) and Drinker (wine, hard liquor, beer, snacks) pattern. Higher Healthy pattern scores were not significantly associated with decreased risk of RCC (highest vs. lowest tertile RR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.45-1.48 and RR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.27-1.10 among women < or = 65 y). There was a suggestion of an inverse association between the Drinker pattern and RCC risk (RR comparing the 2nd and 3rd with the first tertile, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.95; and 0.72; 95% CI, 0.42-1.22, respectively, P = 0.08 by Wald test); the association was clearer among women < or = 65 y (P = 0.02 by Wald test). Our data suggest an inverse association between Drinker pattern and the risk of RCC.

  • 9. Schepens, Marloes A. A.
    et al.
    Schonewille, Arjan J.
    Vink, Carolien
    van Schothorst, Evert M.
    Kramer, Evelien
    Hendriks, Thijs
    Brummer, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Keijer, Jaap
    van der Meer, Roelof
    Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M. J.
    Supplemental calcium attenuates the colitis-related increase in diarrhea, intestinal permeability, and extracellular matrix breakdown in HLA-B27 transgenic rats2009In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 139, no 8, p. 1525-1533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have shown in several controlled rat and human infection studies that dietary calcium improves intestinal resistance and strengthens the mucosal barrier. Reinforcement of gut barrier function may alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of supplemental calcium on spontaneous colitis development in an experimental rat model of IBD. HLA-B27 transgenic rats were fed a purified high-fat diet containing either a low or high calcium concentration (30 and 120 mmol CaHPO4/kg diet, respectively) for almost 7 wk. Inert chromium EDTA (CrEDTA) was added to the diets to quantify intestinal permeability by measuring urinary CrEDTA excretion. Relative fecal wet weight was determined to quantify diarrhea. Colonic inflammation was determined histologically and by measuring mucosal interleukin (IL)-1beta. In addition, colonic mucosal gene expression of individual rats was analyzed using whole-genome microarrays. The calcium diet significantly inhibited the increase in intestinal permeability and diarrhea with time in HLA-B27 rats developing colitis compared with the control transgenic rats. Mucosal IL-1beta levels were lower in calcium-fed rats and histological colitis scores tended to be lower (P = 0.08). Supplemental calcium prevented the colitis-induced increase in the expression of extracellular matrix remodeling genes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases, procollagens, and fibronectin), which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and gelatin zymography. In conclusion, dietary calcium ameliorates several important aspects of colitis severity in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Reduction of mucosal irritation by luminal components might be part of the mechanism. These results show promise for supplemental calcium as effective adjunct therapy for IBD.

  • 10.
    Thorell, Anders
    et al.
    Deptartment of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alston-Smith, James
    Department of Medical and Physiological Center, BMC, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital & Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effect of preoperative carbohydrate loading on hormonal changes, hepaticglycogen and glucoregulatory enzymes during abdominal surgery1996In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 690-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of preoperative glucose infusion on preoperative alterations in hepatic glycogen content, the activity of key hepatic glucoregulatory enzymes (fructose 1,6-diphosphatase [FDPase]), pyruvate kinase (PK), hormonal developments, and plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were investigated in 16 patients undergoing open cholecystectomy. Patients were randomized to receive (group G) or not receive (group C) overnight glucose infusion (5 mg·kg−1·d−1) preoperatively. Infusion of glucose overnight resulted in preoperative elevations of insulin and c-peptide (P < 0.05) and lower plasma levels of FFA, while the same glucose levels were found in both groups, 4.6 mmol/L. During and after surgery, only minor changes in the plasma levels of insulin, c-peptide, catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, and FFA were found, with minimal differences between groups. The hepatic glycogen content was 65% higher in group G and a significant reduction was confirmed only in this group of patients during surgery. The higher glycogen content was associated with a higher FDPase activity ratio (P < 0.05), which remained unchanged during surgery. In contrast, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of this enzyme was found in group C. The PK activity ratio did not differ between groups and remained unchanged during surgery. The finding of enhanced FDPase activity suggests that the indirect route (via gluconeogenesis) represents an important contributor to the increased glycogen formation during glucose infusion. Additionally, surgery in the overnight fasted patient induces enzymatic changes favoring gluconeogenesis. Lastly, preoperative high-dose glucose infusion has only minor effects on the endocrine response, plasma levels of FFA, and glycogen depletion during elective open cholecystectomy.

  • 11. van Ampting, Marleen T. J.
    et al.
    Schonewille, Arjan J.
    Vink, Carolien
    Brummer, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    van der Meer, Roelof
    Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M. J.
    Damage to the intestinal epithelial barrier by antibiotic pretreatment of salmonella-infected rats is lessened by dietary calcium or tannic acid2010In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 140, no 12, p. 2167-2172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota by antibiotics predisposes the host to food-borne pathogens like Salmonella The effects of antibiotic treatment on intestinal permeability during infection and the efficacy of dietary components to improve resistance to infection have not been studied Therefore we investigated the effect of clindamycin on intestinal barrier function in Salmonella-infected rats We also studied the ability of dietary calcium and tannic acid to protect against infection and concomitant diarrhea and we assessed intestinal barrier function Rats were fed a purified control diet including the permeability marker chromium EDTA (CrEDTA) (2 g/kg) or the same diet supplemented with calcium (4 8 g/kg) or tannic acid (3 75 g/kg) After adaptation rats were orally treated with clindamycin for 4 d followed by oral infection with Salmonella enteritidis Two additional control groups were not treated with antibiotics and received either saline-or Salmonella Urine and feces were collected to quantify intestinal permeability diarrhea cytotoxicity of fecal water and Salmonella excretion In addition Salmonella translocation was determined Diarrhea CrEDTA excretion and cytotoxicity of fecal water were higher in the clindamycin-treated infected rats than in the non-clindamycin treated infected control group Intestinal barrier function was less in the Salmonella-infected rats pretreated with antibiotics compared with the non-clindamycin treated rats Both calcium and tannic acid reduced infection-associated diarrhea and inhibited the adverse intestinal permeability changes but did not decrease Salmonella colonization and translocation Our results indicate that calcium protects against intestinal changes due to Salmonella infection by reducing luminal cytotoxicity whereas tannic acid offers protection by improving the mucosal resistance J Nutr 140 2167-2172 2010

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