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  • 1. Boström, P. K.
    et al.
    Broberg, M.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Child's positive and negative impacts on parents-A person-oriented approach to understanding temperament in preschool children with intellectual disabilities2011In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1860-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite previous efforts to understand temperament in children with intellectual disability (ID), and how child temperament may affect parents, the approach has so far been unidimensional. Child temperament has been considered in relation to diagnosis, with the inherent risk of overlooking individual variation of children's temperament profiles within diagnostic groups. The aim of the present study was to identify temperamental profiles of children with ID, and investigate how these may affect parents in terms of positive and negative impacts. Method: Parent-rated temperament in children with ID was explored through a person-oriented approach (cluster analysis). Children with ID (N = 49) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 82) aged between 4 and 6 years were clustered separately. Results: Variation in temperament profiles was more prominent among children with ID than in TD children. Out of the three clusters found in the ID group, the disruptive, and passive/withdrawn clusters were distinctly different from clusters found in the TD group in terms of temperament, while the cluster active and outgoing was similar in shape and level of temperament ratings of TD children. Children within the disruptive cluster were described to have more negative and less positive impacts on mothers compared to children within the other clusters in the ID group. Conclusions: Mothers who describe their children as having disruptive temperament may be at particular risk for experiencing higher parenting stress as they report that the child has higher negative and lower positive impacts than other parents describe. The absence of a relationship between child temperament profile and positive or negative impact on fathers may indicate that fathers are less affected by child temperament. However, this relationship needs to be further explored. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital.
    Prevalence and risk markers of behavior problems among adults with intellectual disabilities: a total population study in Örebro County, Sweden2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 1346-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavior problems among people with administratively defined intellectual disability (ID) and identify possible risk markers for behavior problems using the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI). Sixty-two percent of the ID population (n = 915) had a behavior problem (self-injurious, stereotyped, or aggressive/destructive behavior) and 18.7% had a behavior problem identified as challenging behavior, resulting in a prevalence of 80.3 per 100,000 in the base population. The most pronounced risk markers for behavior problems were severity of ID, autism, night sleep disturbances, sensory hypersensitivity, communication dysfunction, social deficits, psychiatry involvement, and psychotropic medication. About 50% of people with behavior problems were on psychotropic drugs. Protective markers were Down's syndrome and, to some extent, cerebral palsy. The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies. Findings not previously reported were that prevalence of aggressive/destructive behavior peaked among those ≥70 years. Highlighting groups within a population at particular risk has implications for management and treatment of individuals with behavior problems.

  • 3.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) in a Swedish community population of adults with intellectual disability2011In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 2295-2303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) in a community population. The Swedish version of the BPI-01 was administered by interviewing care staff of all adults (n = 915) with administratively defined intellectual disabilities (IDs) living in Orebro County, Sweden. sixty-two percent of the participants had at least one behavior problem. Altogether, 30.9% showed self-injurious behavior, 41.3% stereotyped behavior, and 34.8% aggressive/destructive behavior. All but the self-injurious behavior scale reached acceptable levels of internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the subscales as well as the proposed three factor structure of the original BPI-01. The present study demonstrates that the three subscales are highly similar constructs across different language and cultural settings, and that the BPI-01 is applicable in research on populations with varying mental functioning, diagnoses, ages, and living arrangements. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Nordstrand, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kits, Annika
    Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ann-Christin
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Improvements in bimanual hand function after baby-CIMT in two-year old children with unilateral cerebral palsy: a retrospective study2015In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 41-42, p. 86-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The common assumption that early-onset intensive intervention positively affects motor development has rarely been investigated for hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). This retrospective study explored the possible impact of baby constraint-induced movement therapy (baby-CIMT) on hand function at two years of age. We hypothesized that baby-CIMT in the first year of life would lead to better bimanual hand use at two years of age than would not receiving baby-CIMT. The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was administered at age 21 months (SD 2.4 months) in 72 children with unilateral CP, 31 of who received baby-CIMT. When dividing the children into four functional levels based on AHA, the proportional distribution differed between the groups in favour of baby-CIMT. Logistic regression analysis indicated that children in the baby-CIMT group were more likely than were children in the no baby-CIMT group to have a high functional level, even when controlling for the effect of brain lesion type (OR 5.83, 95% CI 1.44-23.56, p = 0.001). However, no difference was found between groups in the odds of having a very low functional level (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08-1.17, p = 0.084). The result shows that baby-CIMT at early age can have a positive effect. Children who received baby-CIMT were six times more likely to have a high functional level at two years of age than were children in the no baby-CIMT group.

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