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  • 1.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Nordlund, Emilia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Katina, Kati
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mykkänen, Hannu
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread2011In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 10, article id 116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism.

    METHODS: A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC × GC-TOF-MS).

    RESULTS: Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P < 0.001) after bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values < 0.05). Among them, there were changes in essential amino acids (phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine and glutamic acid), metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (alpha-ketoglutaric, pyruvic acid and citric acid) and several organic acids. Interestingly, the levels of two compounds involved in the tryptophan metabolism (picolinic acid, ribitol) significantly changed depending on the different bread intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  • 2.
    Han, Hedong
    et al.
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Fang, Xin
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wei, Xin
    Mount Sinai St. Luke's and West Medical Center, New York NY, United States.
    Liu, Yuzhou
    Mount Sinai St. Luke's and West Medical Center, New York NY, United States.
    Jin, Zhicao
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Chen, Qi
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Fan, Zhongjie
    Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Faculty of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Kongsvinger Hospital Division, Kongsvinger, Norway.
    Hiyoshi, Ayako
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    He, Jia
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake, serum magnesium concentration and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies2017In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 16, article id 26Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The findings of prospective cohort studies are inconsistent regarding the association between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentration and the risk of hypertension. We aimed to review the evidence from prospective cohort studies and perform a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations and the risk of hypertension.

    Methods: We searched systematically PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases from October 1951 through June 2016. Prospective cohort studies reporting effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension in more than two categories of dietary magnesium intake and/or serum magnesium concentrations were included. Random-effects models were used to combine the estimated effects.

    Results: Nine articles (six on dietary magnesium intake, two on serum magnesium concentration and one on both) of ten cohort studies, including 20,119 cases of hypertension and 180,566 participates, were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. We found an inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension [relative risk (RR) = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.98] comparing the highest intake group with the lowest. A 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was associated with a 5% reduction in the risk of hypertension (RR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.00). The association of serum magnesium concentration with the risk of hypertension was marginally significant (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.02).

    Conclusions: Current evidence supports the inverse dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of hypertension. However, the evidence about the relationship between serum magnesium concentration and hypertension is limited.

  • 3.
    Östlund-Lagerström, Lina
    et al.
    Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Nutrition Gut Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kihlgren, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Nutrition Gut Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Nutrition Gut Brain Interactions Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Schoultz, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Probiotic administration among free-living older adults: a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial2016In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 15, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diseases of the digestive system have been found to contribute to a higher symptom burden in older adults. Thus, therapeutic strategies able to treat gastrointestinal discomfort might impact the overall health status and help older adults to increase their overall health status and optimal functionality.

    Objective: The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri on digestive health and wellbeing in older adults.

    Methods: The study enrolled general older adults (>65 years). After eligibility screening qualified subjects (n = 290) participated in a 2-arm study design, with each arm consisting of 12 weeks of intervention of either active or placebo product. Primary outcome measure was set to changes in gastrointestinal symptoms and secondary outcome measures were changes in level of wellbeing, anxiety and stress. Follow up was performed at 8 and 12 weeks.

    Results: No persistent significant effects were observed on the primary or secondary outcome parameters of the study. A modest effect was observed in the probiotic arm, were levels of stress decreased at week 8 and 12. Similarly, we found that subjects suffering from indigestion and abdominal pain, respectively, showed a significant decrease of anxiety at week 8 after probiotic treatment, but not at week 12.

    Conclusion: The RCT failed to show any improvement in digestive health after daily intake of a probiotic supplement containing L. reuteri. Neither was any significant improvement in wellbeing, stress or anxiety observed. Even though the RCT had a negative outcome, the study highlights issues important to take into consideration when designing trials among older adults.

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