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  • 1.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden; Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth WA, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne VIC, Australia; Faculty of Health Sciences, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: A pilot study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year.

    Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12-18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up.

    Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem.

    Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

  • 2. Eklund, Mona
    et al.
    Örnsberg, Lena
    Ekström, Christina
    Jansson, Birgitta
    Kjellin, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Outcomes of activity-based assessment (BIA) compared with standard assessment in occupational therapy2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 196-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at investigating the outcomes of an activity-based assessment (BIA) compared with standard assessment (SA) for evaluating clients undergoing psychiatric occupational therapy. Patients admitted to a psychiatric occupational therapy unit were randomized into the BIA or the SA assessment. The outcome indicators were (a) clients' satisfaction with the occupational therapy during the assessment period, (b) clients' awareness of capacities and occupational problems, (c) satisfaction with the assessment among the referring physicians, and (d) outcomes of the intervention following the assessment, in terms of changes in occupational performance and satisfaction. The groups did not differ in awareness of occupational problems, but the BIA group was more satisfied than the SA group with the support of their contact person and with the group leader during the period of assessment. Furthermore, physicians receiving feedback on patients in the BIA group were more satisfied than those receiving feedback on patients in the SA group. However, the groups did not differ concerning change during the treatment period in occupational performance or satisfaction. Thus, there was no difference between the assessment methods regarding the outcomes of the treatment following assessment. Minor advantages from the patients' perspective were found, in terms of better satisfaction in the BIA group, and from the referring physicians' perspective the BIA clearly seemed more satisfying than the SA. Thus, the findings showed that the BIA possessed better qualities than the SA regarding the indicators pertaining to satisfaction, but not concerning awareness of capacities and problems or the outcome of the subsequent treatment. 

  • 3.
    Frisk, Margot
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Helena
    Arbets- och miljömed. kliniken, USÖ.
    Kiviloog, Jaak
    Lungkliniken, USÖ.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kamwendo, Kitty
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stridh, Göran
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    An investigation of the housing environment for persons with asthma and persons without asthma2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 4-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is a chronic disease affected by environmental factors that may increase symptoms that impact on a persons' well-being. An important issue in occupational therapy is to improve the relationship between a person's functional capacity and the physical environment. The aim of the study was to compare the housing environment of persons with asthma (cases, n=49) and persons without asthma (controls, n=48), with regard to building construction and condition, physical, chemical and biological factors, and cleaning routines. A secondary aim was to compare different types of accommodation within cases and controls. A specialist team, including a construction engineer, a biological scientist, and an occupational therapist, conducted the study. Data were collected using protocols, as well as a number of established technical methods from the field of occupational and environmentsl medicine. The primary results showed no major differences in the housing environment between the two groups. However, in individual homes environmental factors at levels that could increase symptoms were identified. When single-familyhouses were compared with multi-family houses, significant differences were found indicating that preventive interventions may be needed in some single-family houses. Further studies are needed to clarify the person-environment relationship for persons with asthma, focusing on their ability to perform daily activities.

  • 4.
    Hillborg, Helene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden; Nord Sch Publ Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Towards a working life?: Experiences in a rehabilitation process for people with psychiatric disabilities2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 149-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to reveal the meaning some people with psychiatric disabilities assigned to important personal experiences in relation to an ongoing rehabilitation process. The data comprises open-ended interviews of eight participants. A hermeneutic approach together with a content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results indicated the importance of not relying on simplified prognoses early in a rehabilitation process when assessing rehabilitation measures and/or work capacity. The phenomenon of rehabilitation seemed to be very complex, diverse, and changed over time depending on different circumstances that arose during the rehabilitation process. These circumstances arose on individual, contextual as well as structural levels and all had an impact on the outcomes. The results also indicated that it seemed to be possible to achieve success, change attitudes, and create a positive image of a future related to a working life if the support was perceived as relevant and the activities undertaken were perceived as contributing to achievement of the individual's goals. Regardless of which path the informants later chose these factors were seen to support an empowerment process and active participation in their own rehabilitation.

  • 5.
    Holmqvist, Kajsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Kamwendo, Kitty
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Occupational therapists' descriptions of their work with persons suffering from cognitive impairment following acquired brain injury2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how Swedish occupational therapists’ describe their work with persons suffering from cognitive impairment following acquired brain injury. A qualitative descriptive approach was used and interviews were conducted with 12 occupational therapists working in community and county council care. Qualitative content analysis was used and revealed three main themes: 1) “To make the invisible visible”, 2) “To collaborate- a prerequisite for success” and 3) “Dilemmas to handle”. The findings showed a complex scenario where the occupational therapists worked to make the cognitive impairments visible to themselves, the clients, and persons close to the client. Collaboration was perceived as a key factor. The dilemmas concerned different aspects in the rehabilitation process, which affected the occupational therapists’ work with the clients. Identified areas in need of improvement are prioritisations and additional education regarding both intervention methods and theory. A reluctance to use standardised assessments was expressed and research that identifies and overcomes those hindrances in clinical practice is needed. Therapeutic use of self was described as important. To understand and illuminate the occupational therapists’ comprehension of the concept further research is required.  

  • 6.
    Holmqvist, Kajsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kamwendo, Kitty
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Occupational therapists' practice patterns for clients with cognitive impairment following acquired brain injury: development of a questionnaire2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 150-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clients with cognitive impairment following acquired brain injury (CIABI) are a common group to receive occupational therapy services. Research has shown that occupational therapy has a positive effect on occupational performance for these clients, but the exact nature of the interventions is not clearly described and needs to be better understood and defined. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an empirically derived questionnaire for the purpose of surveying occupational therapists' (OTs') practice patterns in relation to CIABI. The questionnaire was developed from the results of a former qualitative study. It was evaluated for content validity by a group of six OT researchers with experience in CIABI, using the content validity index (CVI). Reliability was evaluated by a test-retest design with a group of 51 OTs. Data were analysed by non-parametric statistical methods. Initially the questionnaire consisted of 90 items dealing with OT practice and nine demographic questions. After the reliability and content validity process the OT practice items were reduced to 44. The revised questionnaire will be used to survey and explicitly describe occupational therapy practice for clients with CIABI.

  • 7.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Developement of the experience of occupational performance questionnarie: validity and reliability in a sample of individuals with severe mental disorders2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a new tool called the Experiences of Occupational Performance Questionnaire (EOPQ) and also to investigate whether there were any gender differences in the answers. The EOPQ was completed by 32 women and 73 men with severe mental disorders, who participated in an occupation arranged by the healthcare system in Sweden. The EOPQ was originally developed from interviews with six women participating in occupational therapy. An analysis of the content validity of the EOPQ was performed with the help of seven occupational therapists. Forty-six of the 49 items in the EOPQ were valued as representative of the concept occupation as a resource in therapy. Principal component analysis performed in two steps yielded seven factors called: "Satisfaction with own ability"; "Confidence in own ability"; "Capability to perform"; "Challenge"; "Ability to handle difficult situatio"; "Forgetting time and self"; and "Identification with others". The internal consistency calculated by Cronbach's &#102 values varied between 0.63 and 0.91 in the seven factors. No gender differences were found on the factor level but differences in five items were found. The results showed that EOPQ could be used as a tool to measure therapeutic potentials in occupations and could also contribute to knowledge to secure the use of occupations as a therapeutic resource for individuals with severe mental disorders.

  • 8.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mullersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna/Västerås.
    Occupation as described by occupational therapy students in Sweden: A follow-up study2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the second in a series of studies carried out in Sweden concerning the dimensions of the concept occupation. The specific aim of this study was to explore new and confirm previously found dimensions of the concept of occupation in the context of occupational therapy. Occupational therapy students, a few weeks from their completion of studies, were asked to write down spontaneously what they personally considered to be occupation. Forty-two women and three men, aged between 25 and 33 years, participated. Grounded theory with the constant comparative method was used to analyse the data. A coding scheme of 40 codes was used to compare new data with previously found data concerning the concept of occupation as described by occupational therapy students. Six new codes concerning occupation expanded the dimensions of the concept. Five of those were found within the doing and context dimensions. These codes defined occupation as something that depends on who is performing the occupation and where the occupation is performed. Thus, occupation is not a permanent state but also very much depends on subjective experience. Additional studies with experienced occupational therapists have been planned to further expand these findings and aim to give a stronger foundation to the concept of occupation built on empirical grounds.

  • 9.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola.
    An integrative review combined with a semantic review to explore the meaning of Swedish terms compatible with occupation, activity, doing and task2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The aims of this study were to explore the intended meaning of the terms “occupation”, “activity”, “doing”, and “task” used in international occupational therapy literature and from this perspective explore which Swedish terms best capture these meanings. A literature review of occupational therapy-related journals was performed to gain a basic understanding of the term occupation and related terms. In addition, a semantic review was used: English and Swedish dictionaries were reviewed to explore the semantic meaning of the English terms “occupation”, “activity”, “doing”, and “task”, and the Swedish terms “aktivitet”, “syssla/sysselsättning”, “görande”, and “uppgift”. A comparison was also performed by searching for parallels between the results of the literature review, the semantic definitions of the English and Swedish terms and the comprehensive meaning of the Swedish terms aktivitet and syssla/sysselsättning. An overarching idea of the concept of occupation was found in the literature review and for the purposes of this study we have identified this as Occupation for survival. From this overarching idea, three themes were identified: The feature of occupation, Impact of occupation and Occupation an occupational therapy concept. Each theme could be subdivided into sub-themes. The Swedish term aktivitet was found to have more power, strength, and spirit connected to the synonyms found in the semantic analysis than to those connected with the Swedish term syssla/sysselsättning. According to the findings in this study we found that the term “aktivitet” is the best comparable term in Swedish to the English term “occupation”.

  • 10.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel Kristina
    et al.
    Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lidström-Holmqvist, Kajsa
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    White, Suzanne
    Occupational therapy program, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn NY, USA.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Assessment of time management skills: psychometric properties of the Swedish version2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Persons with impaired time management skills are often in need of occupational therapy. Valid and reliable instruments to assess time management and organizational skills are needed for the evaluation of intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Assessment of Time Management Skills (ATMS-S) for persons with and without impaired time management skills.

    METHOD: A total of 238 persons participated in the study, of whom 94 had self-reported impaired time management skills due to mental disorders such as schizophrenic spectrum or neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and mild intellectual disabilities, and 144 persons had no reported impaired time management skills. Rasch analysis was used to analyze data.

    RESULTS: Three subscales were detected: the time management subscale with 11 items, the organization & planning subscale with 11 items, and the subscale of regulation of emotions with 5 items, with excellent to acceptable psychometric properties. The conclusions were that: ATMS-S is a valid instrument for self-rating of time management, organization & planning and for the regulation of emotions. ATMS-S can be useful for persons with mental disorders including mild neurodevelopmental disorders.

  • 11.
    Jönsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Neurology, Orebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Older people readmitted to hospital for acute medical care: Implications for occupational therapy2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare ADL, cognitive function, risk of pressure sores, malnutrition and falls in older people readmitted to hospital.

    Methods: This was a comparative study. Persons ≥ 75 years, who were readmitted to hospital, were assessed using the ADL-taxonomy and the Mini Mental State Examination. Risks of pressure sores, malnutrition and falls were assessed using Risk Assessment Pressure Sores, Short-Form Mini Nutritional Assessment and Downton Fall Risk Index. Data for comparison for ADL were obtained from an earlier study and risk assessments from a national quality register.

    Results: Sixty persons were included whose median age was 84 years. The patients had a median of four diagnoses. The mean hospital stay was five days. Most patients were independent in food intake. There was a high degree of dependency in other ADL activities. Nineteen out of 48 patients had 24 point or lower in MMSE. Compared to an age-matched sample, these patients showed a higher risk of pressure sores, risk of falls and dependency in ADL.

    Conclusion: There is of importance to assess ADL, cognition, risk of falls and pressure sores to determine the needs of older people who are admitted to hospitals. Such assessments, and necessary interventions taken, may prevent unnecessary readmissions.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Törnquist, Kristina
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    What do Swedish occupational therapists feel about research?: A survey of perceptions, attitudes, intentions, and engagement2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify Swedish occupational therapists' perceptions and attitudes to research-related activities as well as the therapists' present engagement in future plans for research. A follow up design was used, and the study was undertaken between 1997 and 2003. A total of 425 and 442 Swedish occupational therapists responded to a postal questionnaire (response rate 74.4% and 70.4%). Questions regarding research-related activities were measured on a Likert-type scale, whereas questions referring to attitudes towards research used a semantic differential scale. There were small differences between the two surveys. The result showed that occupational therapists considered research-related activities to be an important part of their development of the professional role and status. Reading research literature to update knowledge was the most important research activity and the second most important activity was applying research findings to improve occupational therapy practice. High workload and lack of time were the most commonly mentioned barriers to participation in research- related activities. Occupational therapists read a large variety of journals, preferably in Swedish. The barriers to participation in research-related activities did not change from 1997 to 2003. The fact that occupational therapists reported reading research as rating highly gives hope for the future development of the occupational therapy profession and practice.

  • 13.
    Kjellin, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Cizinsky Sjödahl, Rosmarie
    Eklund, Mona
    Activity-based assessment (BIA)-inter-rater reliability and staff experiences2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The BIA method, based on assessment of patients in activities, was developed to enable reliable assessment of clients' occupational functioning. The method evaluates the patient's ego functions and capacity for activity and participation. The aims of this study were to examine inter-rater reliability for the BIA method and to compare the experiences of staff working with the BIA with those of staff using standard assessment (SA). In SA, the patient's activity problems and capacities were assessed without using any structured protocol. Four staff members worked according to the BIA method and eight according to SA. The estimation of reliability was based on data from 14 patients who went trough the BIA and were assessed by five staff members. These assessments resulted in all in about 400 statements, which were classified and compared for agreement between raters. In order to address the aim concerning staff experiences, a questionnaire was filled out anonymously by the staff. The inter-rater reliability of the nine ego functions varied from 0.76 to 1.00. The scale was deemed appropriate by the BIA staff and they had significantly higher median ratings on work satisfaction and appropriateness than the SA staff. In conclusion, the inter-rater reliability of the BIA was found to be good. The BIA method also seems to have a high degree of appropriateness, constituting a promising assessment tool when occupational functioning is addressed.

  • 14.
    Lidström-Holmqvist, Kajsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The ADL taxonomy for persons with mental disorders: adaptation and evaluation2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 524-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of occupation-focused instruments to assess Activities of Daily Living (ADL) that are intended for persons with mental disorders. The ADL Taxonomy is an instrument that is widely-used within clinical practice for persons with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to adapt the ADL Taxonomy for persons with mental disorders and evaluate its validity.

    METHODS: An expert group of Occupational Therapists (OTs) from psychiatric care adapted the ADL Taxonomy to fit the client group, including creating three new items. OTs in psychiatric care collected client data and evaluated the instrument for usability. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the contruct validity of 16 activities separately.

    RESULTS: The OTs collected 123 assessments from clients with various mental disorders. Ten activities had excellent, and four had acceptable, psychometric properties with regard to item and person fit and unidimensionality. The activity managing the day/time gave complex results and would benefit from further development. The OTs found the test version intelligible, relevant and easy to use.

    CONCLUSIONS: The ADL Taxonomy for persons with mental disorders has 16 activities with three to six actions each, and is now ready for clinical use.

  • 15.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Brunt, David
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Rask, Mikael
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Schröder, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Quality of community-based day centre services for people with psychiatric disabilities: psychometric properties of the Quality in Psychiatric Care - Daily Activities (QPC-DA)2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the instrument Quality in Psychiatric Care - Daily Activities (QPC-DA) and to briefly describe the day centre attendees' perception of the quality at community-based day centre services.

    Methods: A sample of 218 attendees from 14 community-based day centre services in seven municipalities in Sweden participated in the study.

    Results: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the QPC-DA consists of six dimensions and has a factor structure that to a large extent corresponds to that found in other studies of quality in psychiatric care settings, such as inpatient, outpatient, forensic inpatient, and housing support for people with psychiatric disabilities. The internal consistency of the factors was satisfactory and thus the QPC-DA showed adequate psychometric properties. The attendees' ratings of quality of community-based day centre services were generally high. The highest rating was for the encounter dimension and the lowest for the participation and the secluded environment dimensions, indicating areas for improvement.

    Conclusion/significance: The QPC-DA includes important aspects of the attendees' assessment of quality of community-based day centre services and offers a simple and inexpensive way to evaluate quality from their perspective.

  • 16.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rask, Mikael
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Brunt, David
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Schröder, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Care and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Gjövik, Norway.
    The attendees' view of quality in community-based day centre services for people with psychiatric disabilities2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Community-based day centres in Sweden are well-established arenas for psychiatric rehabilitation, but little is known of the attendees' perception of the quality of the service provided. The aim of the study was thus to describe and investigate the quality of the services in community-based day centre for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Methods: A sample of 218 attendees in 14 community-based day centre services in Sweden completed the Quality in Psychiatric Care - Daily Activities (QPC-DA).

    Results: The results showed that people with psychiatric disabilities perceived the quality of community-based day centre services as high. Most notably, quality of service was rated higher by those with lower educational level, had waited shorter time to attend the centre, and had better mental and physical health. However, particularly aspects of a secluded environment and participation (information) may be areas with potential for improvement.

    Conclusion/Significance: From an occupational science perspective, the results adhere to the importance of occupational balance, with periods of rest/privacy during the time at the centre.

  • 17.
    Mundhenke, Lotta
    et al.
    Child and Youth Habilitation Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Child and Youth Habilitation Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Liselotte M. N.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöqvist Nätterlund, Birgitta
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Experiences of Swedish children with disabilities: activities and social support in daily life2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, ISSN 11038128, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 130-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe experiences of everyday activities and social support in daily life in children with disabilities.

    METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 33 children (14 girls and 19 boys, aged 7-13 years) with physical, intellectual, or neuro-psychiatric disability. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: In many ways, the children described themselves as being like any other child or adolescent. Their narratives showed that they had developed strategies to cope with the consequences of their disability, both socially and in the performance of daily activities. The children received social support in everyday activities, mainly from their family and close friends. Meeting other children with the same disability supported opportunities for identification. However, their experiences of everyday activities were in many cases associated with sadness, especially when they could not participate in activities with their peers.

    CONCLUSIONS: According to the children's statements, it is important for people close to these children, both habilitation staff and others, to take responsibility for improving emotional, informative, and instrumental support in order to enable the children to perform and participate in everyday activities.

  • 18. Müllersdorf, Maria
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Occupation as described by academically skilled occupational therapists in Sweden: a Delphi study2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to continue the process of exploring and understanding the concept of occupation in a Swedish occupational therapy context and from an expert perspective. Thirteen eligible occupational therapists active in Sweden, all academically skilled and who had published articles concerning the concept of occupation or activity, were invited to take part in the study. Eight were willing to participate representing different parts of Sweden. A three-round Delphi study was conducted in which the participants reflected on 46 statements derived from a core category and five categories concerning the concept of occupation, extracted from previous studies in this project. The participants gave 124 comments on 44 of the 46 statements. Results revealed new statements, mainly concerning the intentional aspect of occupation and occupation in a structural hierarchy. Comments also contributed with rephrased statements promoting clarity. A total of 54 statements were then ranked on a four-point Likert scale of which 47 reached consensus among participants. Seven statements were not supported to a level of consensus. Four of them dealt with how and if values and individual judgements influence what are viewed as occupations. To continue the developing process, studies in occupational therapy praxis have to be performed.

  • 19.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Occupation as described by novice occupational therapy students in Sweden: the first step in a theory generative process grounded in empirical data2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A core assumption in occupational therapy is that occupation enhances health. This study is one of a series of planned studies carried out in Sweden, with the overall aim to develop a theory, based on empirical grounds, concerning the dimensions of occupation that may be useful in occupational therapy. The specific aim for this study is to examine the dimensions of occupation as generally understood among novice occupational therapy students. Grounded Theory was the chosen method. Data were collected among occupational therapy students. The students wrote down spontaneously what they considered to be included in activity. A preliminary core category ‘‘The what, why, and how of occupation’’ and five other categories emerged from the analysis: (1) The doing and context of occupation; (2) Motive for occupation; (3) Time and place for occupation; (4) Type of participation; and (5) Outcome of occupation. Relationships between the categories were established between the Motive for occupation and Outcome of occupation, which constitute a kind of prerequisite for occupation. The three remaining categories: The doing and context of occupation, Time and place for occupation, and Type of participation established a form for occupation. In conclusion, the study results illuminated the richness of the concept of occupation and support the core assumption in occupational therapy that occupation enhances health.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Pia
    et al.
    Tandemkliniken, Tvååker Primary Health Care Centre, Varberg, Sweden; Research and Development Unit, Primary Health Care, General Practice and Public Health, Falkenberg, Sweden; Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Baigi, Amir
    Research and Development Unit, Primary Health Care, General Practice and Public Health, Falkenberg, Sweden; Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Swärd, Leif
    Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Möller, Margareta
    Centre for Caring Sciences, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    Research and Development Unit, Primary Health Care, General Practice and Public Health, Falkenberg, Sweden; Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lateral epicondylalgia: a structured programme better than corticosteroids and NSAID2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 404-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate whether patients with lateral epicondylalgia had less pain or function loss two years following treatment by a structured programme and if the number of recurrent episodes and sick leave days differed compared with a control group.

    Subjects: All of the patients were diagnosed by a physician with the diagnosis code M77.1 (lateral epicondylitis). The intervention group (n = 103) was treated by a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with a home training programme that included ergonomic advice. Wrist supports and/or night bandages were also available. Controls (n = 194) were diversely treated by different professionals.

    Major findings: In the total study group (n = 297), 54% of the patients experienced pain and 55% experienced function loss after two years. The intervention group had less pain than patients treated with corticosteroid injections (p < 0.0001) or NSAIDs (p = 0.048) and experienced better function than those treated with corticosteroid injections (p = 0.002). The intervention group had a lower recurrence (p < 0.0001) and fewer sick leave days at the time of the visit to the health care centre (p = 0.005).

    Principal conclusions: A structured treatment programme was more effective than corticosteroid injections and NSAIDs. Patients did not require additional treatment or sick leave and had learned self-treatment of the disorder.

  • 21.
    Pettersson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Iwarsson, Susanne
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Brandt, Åse
    The National Board of Social Services, Odense, Denmark.
    Norin, Lizette
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Månsson Lexell, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Men's and women's perspectives on using a powered mobility device: benefits and societal challenges2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 438-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how men and women experience their use of powered wheelchairs (PW) and powered scooters (PS) in everyday occupations, in the home and in society at large.

    METHODS: A qualitative research approach with focus-group methodology was used. Four focus groups were created, with men and women as well as PW and PS users in different groups. Applying a descriptive approach, data were analysed according to the principles described by Krueger.

    FINDINGS: Three categories emerged and revealed that even though use of PW and PS increased independence and enabled everyday occupations, participants struggled to be independent powered mobility device (PMD) users. They experienced many accessibility problems in dwellings and in society, described similarly by users of PW and PS. Men and women experienced their use of (PMD) differently, especially in relation to the service delivery process.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study contributes with new knowledge on accessibility for PW and PS users and related service delivery processes, stating that gender differences regarding provision and training must be taken into account. Occupational therapists can contribute to an enhanced understanding of PMD users' challenges in person-environment-occupation transactions in the home and society, and thereby promote occupational justice for PMD users.

  • 22.
    Pettersson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Slaug, Björn
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Granbom, Marianne
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kylberg, Marianne
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Iwarsson, Susanne
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Housing accessibility for senior citizens in Sweden: Estimation of the effects of targeted elimination of environmental barriers.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To estimate the effects of targeted elimination of environmental barriers (EB) in the ordinary housing stock in Sweden, and to explore the estimated effects on accessibility at a population level in relation to (a) residents with different functional profiles, (b) different housing types and (c) building periods.

    METHOD: Data on dwellings from existing Swedish research databases were utilized. EB and accessibility were assessed by means of the Housing Enabler instrument. In simulations of EB removal, five items that correspond to the most common housing adaptations were selected. The simulations were applied to four functional profiles of different complexity.

    RESULT: EB known to be commonly removed by housing adaptations exist in large proportions of the existing ordinary housing stock. Estimated targeted elimination of selected barriers would have the largest accessibility effects for the more complex functional profiles. The effects would be consistently larger for one-family houses, and for all types of dwellings built before 1960.

    CONCLUSIONS: The elimination of the EB most commonly addressed by housing adaptations could result in a reduction of the housing accessibility problems that community-living older people are facing. For society to solve the housing situation for the ageing population well-informed and efficient upgrading of ordinary housing is imperative.

  • 23.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Berndtsson, Inger
    Appelros, Peter
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Lifeworld perspectives on assistive devices: lived experiences of spouses of persons with stroke2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 159-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how spouses of persons with a disability following stroke describe their lived experiences regarding assistive devices in everyday life. A phenomenological lifeworld approach was used and conversational interviews were conducted with 12 spouses. Their lived experiences of assistive devices were explored in relation to four lifeworld existentials intertwined in everyday life. The results showed that lived body concerns aspects of feelings, habits, and incorporation of the devices with one's own body. The devices are, from the spouses' perspective, a prerequisite for their partner with stroke living at home. Successively the devices are incorporated into the couples' homes, and they provide a new view of the environment, aspects related to lived space. The devices bring about a changed relation to lived time, related to past, present, and future. Further, lived human relation concerns changed relationships to husbands/wives with stroke, including a great responsibility due to the devices and their usage. The results also included stigmatizing aspects and a twofold relationship to health professionals regarding participation in decisions about prescribing assistive devices. Understanding the unique meaning of assistive devices from the spouses' perspective is vital for occupational therapists prescribing such devices.

  • 24.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Viktor
    Skövde Municipality Rehab, Skövde, Sweden.
    Frisk, Margot L. A.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    ICF from an occupational therapy perspective in adult care: an integrative literature review2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 260-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its launch there has been increasing interest in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) within occupational therapy (OT). The aim of this study was to perform an integrative literature review, in order to present an overview of knowledge, where the ICF constitutes a significant part in relation to OT. A systematic literature search, covering the period 2001–2008, was performed in the databases MEDLINE, AMED, and CINAHL. A total of 112 articles were included and the majority had exploratory and descriptive designs. The results showed that ICF was valuable for research, clinical practice, and education. ICF was used to link existing instruments and to construct new outcome measures. Occupational therapists have been members of expert groups involved in the development of Core Sets for certain health conditions. Several positive aspects were described, e.g. an effective medium for communication at different levels. Many limitations were mentioned, such as unclear concepts and lack of subjective experiences. Suggestions for improvements were described. The conclusion was that the ICF has been used for a broad spectrum of purposes. The results indicated that further research is needed concerning application of the ICF in clinical practice and education.

  • 25.
    Spang, Lisa
    et al.
    Örebro Municipality, Örebro, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Kajsa
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Occupational therapy practice in emergency care: occupational therapists' perspectives2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 345-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Emergency care takes place in a complex work environment that is characterized by critically ill patients, short hospital stays, and a wide variety of different healthcare professionals. Studies of occupational therapists’ (OTs) experiences of working within emergency care have shown that they often experience difficulties in explaining the essence of occupational therapy and have to justify their approaches. Much effort has been made in Sweden to help OTs dispel the notion that occupational therapy is difficult to explain, and the aim of this study was to describe how Swedish OTs perceive their work in emergency care.

    Method: A qualitative descriptive approach was taken, and 14 interviews were conducted with OTs working in emergency care. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

    Results: The overall theme that emerged was “Feeling established through deliberate occupation-based work”. The underlying categories showed different strategies used by the OTs to provide occupational therapy in an emergency care context. Deliberate strategies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of occupational therapy and its approaches to patients and other health care professionals, and this resulted in the OTs feeling both established and needed. Unlike the OTs in previous studies, the Swedish OTs experienced no difficulties in explaining occupational therapy and could make convincing arguments for their interventions. Parallel to their clinical work, the OTs worked with on-going development to find ways to improve their approaches.

    Conclusions: In summary, these Swedish OTs seem to have been provided with a professional language and the knowledge required to establish themselves in an emergency care setting.

  • 26. Söderback, Ingrid
    et al.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    von Essen, Louise
    Stein, Franklin
    Cancer patients´ and their physicians´ perceptions of the formers' need for occupational therapy2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were to identify cancer patients" need for occupational therapy by (a) describing their and their physicians" perceptions of the former"s needs (b) exploring whether patients and physicians agree on the patient"s need for occupational therapy, and (c) identifying the factors related to the physicians" and the patients" perceptions of patient needs. One-hundred-and-two patients with a cancer disease and the 11 physicians responsible for them completed the “Occupational Therapy Needs Assessment” during a visit to a medical consultation unit. Fifty-six percent of the patients felt a need for occupational therapy. In 59% of cases, their physicians judged that there was a need for occupational therapy. Patients and physicians both judged that those patients who were older than 66 years and in the active phase of the disease needed therapy more than those patients under 66 years and not in an active phase of the disease. More patients judged by their physicians to have more than 6 months to live needed occupational therapy more than those judged to have less than 6 months. In conclusion, it seems that occupational therapy is felt by cancer patients and their physicians to be underutilised.

  • 27.
    Tollén, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kamwendo, Kitty
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Elderly persons' expectations of day-care rehabilitation2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore elderly persons' conceptions of what they expected to gain from attending day-care rehabilitation centres (DCR). A purposeful sampling procedure was employed. Interviews with 22 prospective elderly day-care patients were carried out and analysed according to a phenomenographic approach. The analysis yielded eight categories. Two categories, Social contact and Exercise, described what the elderly persons expected to encounter. The remaining categories, A change from the monotony of everyday life, An opportunity to be yourself, A balm for the body, A safety net, A mastery of everyday activities, and An energizing spark, described the meanings of the encounters. Two categories were attributed to the elderly persons' physical presence at the centre and the gains were expected to end when the programme ended. In three categories the expected improvements were projected into the future and were expected to last. The findings imply that follow-up home visits and suggestions for alternative social activities in order to provide stimulation and social equality would be a valuable complement to the DCR programme. Rehabilitation personnel need to consider the ambivalent view on assistive devices as well as the elderly person's need for continuity when setting goals and planning individual programmes.

  • 28.
    Törnquist, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Therapy, Örebro University College of Health and Caring Sciences, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Social Work, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sonn, Ulla
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Towards an ADL taxonomy for occupational therapists2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, p. 20-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main concepts in occupational therapy is human occupation. In occupational therapy there is a need for a common conceptual framework to assess and describe the ability of patients to perform occupational activities of daily living. The aim of this report was to develop a taxonomy concerning the activities of daily living (ADL). In the taxonomy, occupation has been defined and related to common concepts of disability. Ordinary ADL terms have been categorized into three levels: occupational forms, activities and actions. Different actions are components of and subordinated to superior activities. Experience shows that the ADL taxonomy contributes to a valid (content and construct) assessment of ADL, a common language for OTs and to a clearer picture of the patient's performance in daily life activities.

  • 29.
    Widehammar, Cathrine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lidström-Holmqvist, Kajsa
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Pettersson, Ingvor
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Attitudes is the most important environmental factor for use of powered mobility devices - users' perspectives2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Different factors in the environment influence the use of powered wheelchairs or powered scooters, i.e. powered mobility devices (PMDs), but there is limited knowledge about how these factors interact and if any factor has a greater impact. According to the ICF the environment consists of five areas.

    Aim: To describe users' experiences of how environmental factors from all ICF areas influence the use of PMDs.

    Methods: Descriptive qualitative design including 14 interviews with PMD users, analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: Use of PMDs means a conditional freedom depending on the interaction of several environmental factors. Regardless of environmental factor the societal attitudes were always present, directly or indirectly, and influenced the participants' feeling of being included and involved in society. The environmental factors and how they influence PMD use are described in four categories, comprising the following subjects: societal attitudes, the service delivery process, accessibility to the physical environment and financial resources.

    Conclusion: The findings show that societal attitudes influence all other factors, directly by others people's attitudes, or indirectly by how legislation and guidelines are formulated, interpreted and applied. Therefore, a change of societal attitudes seems necessary to increase accessibility and participation for PMD users.

  • 30.
    Yilmaz, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Josephsson, Staffan
    Institutionen för arbetsterapi, neurotec, Karolinska Institutet.
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Participation by doing: Social interaction in everyday activities among persons with schizophrenia2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 162-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia inpacts on social functioning and participation in everyday life. However, there is limited research describing how persons with schizophrenia interact with others when performing daily activities. The aim of this study is to describe how persons with interact with others while performing everyday activities in different contexts in terms of facilitating and hindering factors. Repeated participant observation of four persons with schizophrenia were conducted in their environment. The observed activities and social interactions were chosen from the participant's daily routines. Fieldnotes were taken during the observations. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Two themes constitute the main result: Facilitating social interaction in activity performance and Hindering social interaction in activity performance. These two themes serve as headings for sub-themes representing factors influencing social interaction in activity performance. Through a further analysis of the themes the following dichotomous context were identified as influential: meningful/not meaningful activity being performed; attitudes were trusting/lacking trust; and location, at home/outside the home. Conclusion: If the facilitating contextual factors are considered for each individual when planning and performing everyday activities together with others there is a possibility to improve social interaction skills and thereby participation.

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