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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, The hospital of Halland Kungsbacka, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Stig
    Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Falun Hospital, Falun, Sweden.
    Jendle, Johan
    Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Evaluation of glucose control when a new strategy of increased carbohydrate supply is implemented during prolonged physical exercise in type 1 diabetes2015In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 115, no 12, p. 2599-2607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In healthy individuals, high carbohydrate intake is recommended during prolonged exercise for maximum performance. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), this would alter the insulin requirements. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of high glucose supplementation during prolonged exercise and the glucose control when a novel strategy of increased carbohydrate supply was implemented during prolonged exercise in T1D.

    Methods: Eight subjects with T1D participated in a sports camp including sessions of prolonged exercise and individualized feedback during three consecutive days. This was later followed by a 90 km cross-country skiing race. Large amounts of carbohydrates, 75 g/h, were supplied during exercise and the insulin requirements were registered. Glucose was measured before, during and after exercise aiming at euglycaemia, 4-8 mmol/L (72-144 mg/dL). During the race, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was used as an aspect of safety and to allow direct and individual adjustments.

    Results: Compared to ordinary carbohydrate supply during exercise, the high carbohydrate supplementation resulted in significantly increased insulin doses to maintain euglycaemia. During the cross-country skiing race, the participants succeeded to reach mean target glucose levels; 6.5 ± 1.9 mmol/L (117 ± 34 mg/dL) and 5.7 ± 1.5 mmol/L (103 ± 27 mg/dL) at the start and finish of the race, respectively. Episodes of documented hypoglycemia (<4 mmol/L/72 mg/dL) were rare. CGM was used for adjustments.

    Conclusion: In this study, large carbohydrate supplementation in T1D individuals during prolonged aerobic exercise is safe and allows the subjects to maintain glycaemic control and indicates the feasibility of CGM under these conditions.

  • 2.
    Agvald, Per
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adding, L. Christofer
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kristofer F.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Lars E.
    Centre for Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linnarsson, Dag
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Increased expired NO and roles of CO2 and endogenous NO after venous gas embolism in rabbits2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 210-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is a feared complication in diving, aviation, surgery and trauma. We hypothesized that air emboli in the lung circulation might change expired nitric oxide (FeNO). A single intravenous infusion of air was given (100 mul kg(-1)) to three groups of anaesthetized mechanically ventilated rabbits: (A) one with intact NO production, (B) one with intact NO production and where end-tidal CO(2) was controlled, and (C) one with endogenous NO synthesis blockade (L: -NAME, 30 mg kg(-1)). Air infusions resulted in increased FeNO of the control group from 20 (4) [mean (SD)] ppb to a peak value of 39 (4) ppb within 5 min (P < 0.05), and FeNO was still significantly elevated [27 (2) ppb] after 20 min (P < 0.05). Parallel to the NO increase there were significant decreases in end-tidal CO(2 )(ETCO(2)) and mean arterial pressure and an increase in insufflation pressure. In group B, when CO(2) was supplemented after air infusion, NO was suppressed (P = 0.033), but was still significantly elevated compared with pre-infusion control (P < 0.05). In group C, all animals died within 40 min of air infusion whereas all animals in the other groups were still alive at this time point. We conclude that venous air embolization increases FeNO, and that a part of this effect is due to the concomitant decrease in ETCO(2). Furthermore, an intact NO production may be critical for the tolerance to VGE. Finally, FeNO might have a potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of pulmonary gas embolism.

  • 3.
    Daussin, Frédéric N
    et al.
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France .
    Ponsot, Elodie
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
    Dufour, Stéphane P
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
    Lonsdorfer-Wolf, Evelyne
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
    Doutreleau, Stéphane
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
    Geny, Bernard
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
    Piquard, François
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
    Richard, Ruddy
    CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, Civil Hospital, BP 426, Strasbourg, France; Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
    Improvement of VO2max by cardiac output and oxygen extraction adaptation during intermittent versus continuous endurance training2007In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 377-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of exercise capacity by continuous (CT) versus interval training (IT) remains debated. We tested the hypothesis that CT and IT might improve peripheral and/or central adaptations, respectively, by randomly assigning 10 healthy subjects to two periods of 24 trainings sessions over 8 weeks in a cross-over design, separated by 12 weeks of detraining. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), cardiac output (Qmax) and maximal arteriovenous oxygen difference (Da-vO2max) were obtained during an exhaustive incremental test before and after each training period. VO2max and Qmax increased only after IT (from 26.3 +/- 1.6 to 35.2 +/- 3.8 ml min(-1) kg(-1) and from 17.5 +/- 1.3 to 19.5 +/- 1.8 l min(-1), respectively; P < 0.01). Da-vO2max increased after both protocols (from 11.0 +/- 0.8 to 12.7 +/- 1.0; P < 0.01 and from 11.0 +/- 0.8 to 12.1 +/- 1.0 ml 100 ml(-1), P < 0.05 in CT and IT, respectively). At submaximal intensity a significant rightward shift of the Q/Da-vO2 relationship appeared only after CT. These results suggest that in isoenergetic training, central and peripheral adaptations in oxygen transport and utilization are training-modality dependant. IT improves both central and peripheral components of Da-vO2max whereas CT is mainly associated with greater oxygen extraction.

  • 4.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Department of Statistics, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Physical activity in relation to aerobic fitness and body fat in 14- to 15-year-old boys and girls2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 3-4, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of the relationship between different variables of physical activity and aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescent boys and girls. Activity energy expenditure (AEE), time spent in a sedentary state, and time spent engaged in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, > or = 50% peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) were assessed by the minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring method in 82 randomly selected 14- to 15-year olds (42 boys, 40 girls). Body fat was determined by measuring skinfold thicknesses. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Somatic maturity level was determined by percentages of adult (i.e. 18 years) height attained at examination. AEE was related to aerobic fitness for both genders (boys, r = 0.30, P = 0.056; girls, r = 0.45, P = 0.003). For boys, there was a significant relationship between maturity level and VO2peak (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). For both genders, body fat was significantly and negatively related to VO2peak (r = -0.48 and r = -0.43, P < 0.01). Body fat and maturity explained 47% of the variation in VO2peak in boys, whereas AEE and body fat explained 22% of the variation in VO2peak in girls. No significant associations between physical activity variables and the data on body fat were observed. The total amount of physical activity (AEE) was related to VO2peak, at least in adolescent girls. Although VO2peak seems to be influenced by the maturity level in adolescent boys, the data support the promotion of a daily active lifestyle among young people.

  • 5.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Yngve, Agneta
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Heart rate as an indicator of the intensity of physical activity in human adolescents2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 3-4, p. 244-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were, in a group of adolescents, firstly to identify the absolute heart rates (HR) and the percentages of maximal heart rates (HRmax) corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of peak oxygen uptake (PVO2), secondly to identify absolute and relative (%PVO2) oxygen uptakes (VO2) corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1, and thirdly to examine a possible effect of fatness and fitness on the relationship between HR and VO2. The subjects were 127 (60 boys, 67 girls) adolescents with a mean age of 14.8 (SD 0.3) years. The HR and VO2 were measured by means of an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Linear regressions were performed for the HR-VO2 and VO2-HR relationships using absolute and relative (%HRmax, %PVO2) data for each individual. From these regressions, target HR and VO2 were computed. Average target HR corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of PVO2 were: 119 (SD 9), 145 (SD 9), 171 (SD 8), and 120 (SD 10), 146 (SD 8), 172 (SD 8) beats.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. Average VO2 corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1 were: 22 (SD 5), 30 (SD 5), 38 (SD 6) and 18 (SD 4), 24 (SD 4), 31 (SD 4) mlO2.kg-1.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. An analysis of covariance showed a significant fitness effect (P < 0.001) for predicted VO2 at all HR studied. The results suggest that the use of absolute HR to define exercise intensity levels when assessing young people's physical activity using HR monitoring detracts from the validity of the interpretation of the data.

  • 6.
    Paulsen, G.
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway .
    Hanssen, K. E.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; Ostfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Rönnestad, B. R.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway;Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Kvamme, N. H.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ugelstad, I.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway .
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Strength training elevates HSP27, HSP70 and alpha B-crystallin levels in musculi vastus lateralis and trapezius2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1773-1782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single bout of high-force exercise has been shown to increase the muscle levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Here, changes in the levels of HSPs after 2 and 11 weeks of strength training with either one or three sets per exercise were examined. Fifteen young men (27 +/- A 6 years, 182 +/- A 8 cm and 82 +/- A 13 kg) were randomized to train either one set in lower-body exercises and three sets in upper-body exercises (1L-3UB), or three sets in lower-body exercises and one set in upper-body exercises (3L-1UB). Biopsies from vastus lateralis and trapezius were obtained before, during (2 weeks) and after 11 weeks of strength training (3 bouts per week). The biopsies were analysed for HSP27 (cytosolic and cytoskeletal fractions) and HSP70 and alpha B-crystallin (cytosolic fraction). No evidence for an effect of training volume (1 vs. 3 sets) on the HSP response was found. For all subjects combined, HSP27 [186 +/- A 69% (mean +/- A SD)], HSP70 (146 +/- A 51%) and alpha B-crystallin (184 +/- A 82%) increased in the cytosolic fraction of vastus lateralis after 11 weeks of training. In the trapezius, the only observed increase was for HSP27 in the cytosolic fraction after 2 weeks of training (149 +/- A 59%). However, the trapezius contained somewhat higher levels of HSP70 and alpha B-crystallin than vastus lateralis at baseline. The HSP27 levels in the cytoskeletal compartment did not increase significantly in either muscle. In conclusion, strength training resulted-independent of training volume-in elevated levels of HSP27, HSP70 and alpha B-crystallin in the cytosolic compartment of the vastus lateralis. In the trapezius, only the cytosolic HSP27 levels were increased with training.

  • 7.
    Verney, Julien
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Saafi, Mohamed A.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Denis, Christian
    Combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training improves performance and health parameters in healthy active elderly2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 288-297Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of combined lower body (LB) endurance and upper body (UB) resistance training on endurance, strength, blood lipid profile and body composition in active older men. Ten healthy still active men (73+/-4 years, V(O2) peak: 36 (31-41) ml min-1 kg-1) were tested before and after 14 weeks of combined training (3 times week-1). Training consisted of 3x12 min of high intensity interval training on a bicycle for endurance interspersed by 3x12 min of UB resistance exercises. V(O2) peak during leg cycling and arm cranking, isokinetic torque of knee extensor and shoulder abductor and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of several muscles from UB and LB were measured. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and abdominal fat area were measured on MRI scans. Total body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Blood lipid profile was assessed before and after training. By the end of the training period, V(O2) peak (l min-1) increased significantly by 9 and 16% in leg cycling and arm cranking tests, respectively. Maximal isokinetic torque increased both for the knee extensor and shoulder abductor muscle groups. CSA increased significantly in deltoid muscle. Percentage of body fat decreased by 1.3% (P<0.05) and abdominal fat and SAD decreased by 12 and 6%, respectively (P<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Thus, combined LB endurance and UB resistance training can improve endurance, strength, body composition and blood lipid profile even in healthy active elderly.

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