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  • 1.
    Anderson, Cheryl B
    et al.
    epartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Validation of the PDPAR as an adolescent diary: effect of accelerometer cut points2005In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1224-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR) as a physical activity diary in adolescents using two accelerometer intensity classifications.

    METHODS: One hundred eighth graders (47 boys, 53 girls) used the PDPAR as a daily diary and wore MTI accelerometers for four consecutive days. Measured time spent in moderate (> or = 3 METs) and vigorous (> or = 6 METs) activity was based on two published MTI cut-point limits (that of Freedson et al./Trost et al. and that of Puyau et al.). Spearman rank order correlations and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine agreement between MTI and PDPAR diary estimates of activity.

    RESULTS: MTI estimates of mean minutes per day of total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 65.2 (+/-43.2) using the Freedson et al./Trost et al. cutoffs and 17.5 (+/-18.5) using those of Puyau et al., while students self-reported 105.1 (+/-80.1) min.d(-1). Significant relationships were observed between the diary and MTI for total MVPA using either the Freedson et al./Trost et al. (r = 0.42) or Puyau et al. (r = 0.41) cutoff as well as raw counts (r = 0.44). Plots showed reasonable agreement between the diary and Freedson et al./Trost et al. MTI estimates of MVPA for daily totals of < or = 60 min, but the Puyau et al. estimates were consistently lower. Diaries overestimated activity as time increased when compared to either MTI cut point, especially on vigorous activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Time estimates of MVPA differed by assessment tool, but diary estimates showed adequate association with the MTI. Diaries reflected intensity-specific activity, corresponding most closely with the Freedson et al./Trost et al. classification of moderate, but substantially overestimated vigorous activity regardless of cut-point method. This is likely due to the measurement characteristics of the PDPAR, which classifies activities in 30-min blocks, as well as the nature of common activities in which high levels of intensity are not sustained.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Raastad, Truls
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Paulsen, Göran
    Garthe, Ina
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery2008In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 372-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

  • 3.
    Craig, Cora L
    et al.
    Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
    Marshall, Alison L
    chool of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Sjöström, Michael
    PrevNut at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bauman, Adrian E
    Centre for Physical Activity and Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of NSW, Sydney, Australia.
    Booth, Michael L
    Centre for Advancement of Adolescent Health, New Childrens Hospital, Westmead, Sydney, Australia.
    Ainsworth, Barbara E
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Exercise Science, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.
    Pratt, Michael
    Division of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA; 8 Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    PrevNut at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    PrevNut at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sallis, James F
    Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Oja, Pekka
    UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland.
    International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity2003In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1381-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a global concern, but diverse physical activity measures in use prevent international comparisons. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed as an instrument for cross-national monitoring of physical activity and inactivity.

    METHODS: Between 1997 and 1998, an International Consensus Group developed four long and four short forms of the IPAQ instruments (administered by telephone interview or self-administration, with two alternate reference periods, either the "last 7 d" or a "usual week" of recalled physical activity). During 2000, 14 centers from 12 countries collected reliability and/or validity data on at least two of the eight IPAQ instruments. Test-retest repeatability was assessed within the same week. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was assessed at the same administration, and criterion IPAQ validity was assessed against the CSA (now MTI) accelerometer. Spearman's correlation coefficients are reported, based on the total reported physical activity.

    RESULTS: Overall, the IPAQ questionnaires produced repeatable data (Spearman's rho clustered around 0.8), with comparable data from short and long forms. Criterion validity had a median rho of about 0.30, which was comparable to most other self-report validation studies. The "usual week" and "last 7 d" reference periods performed similarly, and the reliability of telephone administration was similar to the self-administered mode.

    CONCLUSIONS: The IPAQ instruments have acceptable measurement properties, at least as good as other established self-reports. Considering the diverse samples in this study, IPAQ has reasonable measurement properties for monitoring population levels of physical activity among 18- to 65-yr-old adults in diverse settings. The short IPAQ form "last 7 d recall" is recommended for national monitoring and the long form for research requiring more detailed assessment.

  • 4.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Karsten
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Wedderkopp, Niels
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water in children2001In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To validate the Computer Science and Application's (CSA) activity monitor for assessment of the total amount of physical activity during two school-weeks in 9-yr-old children and to develop equations to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) from activity counts and anthropometric variables.

    METHODS: A total of 26 children (15 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9.1 +/- 0.3 yr) were monitored for 14 consecutive days. TEE was simultaneously measured by the doubly labeled water method. Averaged activity counts (counts.min(-1)) were compared with data on: 1) TEE, 2) AEE = TEE minus basal metabolic rate (BMR; estimated from predictive equations), and 3) daily physical activity level (PAL = TEE/BMR).

    RESULTS: Physical activity determined by activity counts was significantly related to the data on energy expenditures: TEE (r = 0.39; P < 0.05), AEE (r = 0.54; P < 0.01), and PAL (r = 0.58; P < 0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that TEE was significantly influenced by gender, body composition (body weight or fat free mass), and activity counts (R(2) = 0.54--0.60). AEE was significantly influenced by activity counts and gender (R(2) = 0.45). There were no significant differences between activity counts and PAL in discriminating among activity levels with "low" (PAL < 1.56), "moderate" (1.57 < or = PAL > or = 1.81), and "high" (PAL > 1.81) intensity.

    CONCLUSION: Activity counts from the CSA activity monitor seems to be a useful measure of the total amount of physical activity in 9-yr-old children. Activity counts contributed significantly to the explained variation in TEE and was the best predictor of AEE.

  • 5.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition at Novum, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition at Novum, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition at Novum, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy expenditure assessed by heart rate and doubly labeled water in young athletes2002In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 1360-1366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To compare total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by the FLEX heart rate (HR) method with that measured by the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in young speed skaters. We hypothesized that the accuracy of FLEX HR-estimated TEE would be affected by a) the definition of the FLEX HR and b) the type of training regimen.

    METHODS: Eight young athletes (mean age 18.2 +/- 1.3 yr) underwent measurements during two 10-d training periods: an off-season period with voluntary training (predominantly running) and a preseason period mainly focused on skating technique training. TEE was measured simultaneously by the DLW and FLEX HR methods. FLEX HR1 was defined as the mean of the HRs during all resting calibration activities and the lowest HR during exercising calibration activities. FLEX HR2 was defined as the mean of the highest HR during resting activities and the lowest HR during exercising.

    RESULTS: ANOVA showed that FLEX HR1 was significantly lower than FLEX HR2 (mean of both periods; 77 +/- 5 vs 84 +/- 6 beats.min(-1); P = 0.004). TEE values obtained by DLW were 16.8 +/- 3.8 and 16.9 +/- 2.9 MJ.d(-1) in the two periods, respectively. TEE values calculated from FLEX HR1 were 17.8 +/- 3.6 and 17.4 +/- 2.6 MJ.d(-1), and those from FLEX HR2 17.1 +/- 3.1 and 17.0 +/- 2.7 MJ.d-1, respectively. No significant period (P = 0.83) or method (P = 0.44) effect on TEE was observed.

    CONCLUSION: FLEX HR-estimated TEE was not affected by the definition of the FLEX HR or by the type of training regimen as compared with TEE measured by the DLW method in young athletes.

  • 6.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Impact Of Physical Activity On N-glycan Profile In Older Adults2019In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 542-542Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of regular physical activity (PA) on prevention of chronic diseases are not fully understood. It is currently suggested that N-linked enzymatic glycosylation, a post-translational modification modulating the biological function of several proteins, may contribute to disease development. Nevertheless, the influence of PA on N-glycans in humans has never been explored.

    PURPOSE: To explore serum N-glycan profile in a sample of community-dwelling older women with different objectively assessed PA levels and metabolic risk status.

    METHODS: Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and serum N-glycans analyzed using DSA-FACE technology were assessed in 109 older community-dwelling women (65-70 yrs). Ten peaks, each representing a unique N-glycan structure were detected. Adherence to PA guidelines was determined using accelerometry. Participants daily engaged in 30 minutes of MVPA were classified as meeting PA guidelines.

    RESULTS: Significant differences in N-glycan peaks were indicated when comparing women adhering to the PA guideline to those less active: when adjusted by MetS, a 12% (p = 0.006) and a 13% (p = 0.004) lower level of NA3 (peak 8) and NA4 (peak 10), respectively, were evident among the physically active women compared to those less active. In contrast to findings based on the MVPA threshold, no differences in N-glycan peaks were observed between PA groups when based on the lower intensity threshold, which may indicate that the influence on N-glycan levels by PA is intensity-sensitive.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to PA guidelines is related to a favorable N-glycan profile, regardless of metabolic risk status. This proposed effect on N-glycans only occurs above the moderate PA-intensity threshold. Our findings support the promotion of a physically active lifestyle as a supporting non-pharmacological public health approach.

  • 7.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergens, Oscar
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Chronic Systemic Inflammation, Physical Activity and Skeletal Muscle in Elderly2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 234-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: It t is hypothesized that chronic systemic inflammation is influenced by physical activity level and is involved in the age-related decline in muscle function. The impact of physical activity behaviours on the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in elderly women is investigated. The impact of chronic systemic inflammation on muscle mass and the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind the putative inflammation-mediated action on human muscle cells are explored.

    METHODS: Total amount of sedentary time, 30-minute periods of sedentary time and breaks in sedentary behaviour and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using accelerometry in a cohort of 89 elderly women. Serum HsCRP and TNF-α are were measured. The proliferative and metabolic capacity of human muscle cells obtained from vastus lateralis and exposed to CRP are assessed.

    RESULTS: No variables of sedentary behaviour were significantly associated with the level of CRP or TNF-α. In contrast, time spent in MVPA was inversely associated with the level of CRP, independently of sedentary behaviour and waist circumference, but not TNF-α. Serum CRP levels were inversely associated to skeletal muscle mass. Elevated serum CRP levels were associated to reduced proliferative rate of human muscle cells and changes in the regulation of the size muscle cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elevation in the inflammatory status in elderly is influenced by the amount of time spent in MVPA and exerts detrimental effects on skeletal muscle mass.

  • 8.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Mackey, Abigail
    Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kjaer, Michael
    Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oskarsson, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Holm, Lars
    The effects of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle2008In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice of sports might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. Therefore, we aimed to compare telomere length of a group of power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 8 +/- 3 yr against that of a group of healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis, and the mean and minimum telomeric restriction fragments (TRF) (telomere length) were determined, using the Southern blot protocol previously used for the analysis of skeletal muscle. RESULTS: There was no abnormal shortening of telomeres in PL. On the contrary, the mean (P = 0.07) and the minimum (P = 0.09) TRF lengths in PL tended to be higher than in C. In PL, the minimum TRF length was inversely correlated to the individual records in squat (r = -0.86; P = 0.01) and deadlift (r = -0.88; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results show for the first time that long-term training is not associated with an abnormal shortening of skeletal muscle telomere length. Although the minimum telomere length in PL remains within normal physiological ranges, a heavier load put on the muscles means a shorter minimum TRF length in skeletal muscle.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Bergens, Oscar
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels2018In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1502-1507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the influence of reallocating time spent at different objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviours on markers of systemic inflammation in older women with different levels of metabolic risk.

    METHODS: Accelerometer-based monitoring of PA was conducted in a population of community-dwelling older women (n = 111; age = 65-70 yr) for determination of daily sedentary time, time in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Blood samples were collected for the assessment of the systemic inflammatory markers CRP, fibrinogen and adiponectin. Metabolic risk was assessed by standardized procedures based on definitions for the metabolic syndrome. Data were analysed by linear regression models based on isotemporal substitution analysis.

    RESULTS: Reallocating 30 minutes of sedentary time with either time in LPA (β = -0.47; p<0.05) or MVPA (β = -0.42; p<0.05) was related to reduced fibrinogen level, whereas no corresponding effect was evident when shifting time in LPA with time in MVPA, while holding sedentary time constant. In contrast, reallocating a 30-minute time period in sedentary (β = -0.70; p<0.01) or LPA (β = -0.71; p<0.01) with MVPA was associated with a significant reduction in CRP level, while no impact on CRP was observed when a time period of sedentary behavior was replaced with LPA. Importantly, all significant influences on fibrinogen and CRP by displacement of different PA behaviours remained after adjustment for metabolic risk status among participants. No significant associations with adiponectin were observed.

    CONCLUSION: Altogether, this work supports the existence of different intensity thresholds mediating beneficial effects of PA on important clinical markers of systemic inflammation in older women across different stages of disease prevention.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Tarum, Janelle
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Detrimental Links Between Inflammation and Muscle Mass are Moderated by Physical Activity in Older Adults2019In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 215-215Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While age-related elevations in systemic inflammation may contribute to the accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass, previous findings have been based on a limited number of biomarkers. Moreover, whether links between inflammation and muscle mass are independent of protein intake and habitual physical activity (PA) remain unknown.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to explore links between skeletal muscle mass and inflammatory biomarkers in older women with different metabolic risk status, while accounting for adherence to guidelines on protein intake and PA.

    METHODS: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was assessed in 112 women (67±1.5 years) by bioelectrical impedance together with the equation of Janssen et al. (2002) to obtain muscle mass expressed in relation to body weight. Fasting blood samples were obtained following standardized protocols. Acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen were determined, together with the following inflammatory biomarkers: Adiponectin, Oncostatin-M (OSM), Leukemia inhibitory factor-receptor (LIF-R), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12, and IL-18. Protein intake and PA were determined during 6 days by food record and accelerometry, respectively. Classification of metabolic risk status was based on the metabolic syndrome. Multivariate regression models were used to explore links between SMI and inflammatory biomarkers while adjusting for adherence to PA and protein intake guidelines and metabolic risk status.

    RESULTS: Variations in SMI were inversely linked to levels of CRP (β-coefficient: -0.47; p< 0.05) and OSM (-0.20 p< 0.05), where the OSM link was attenuated after further adjustment for PA. In contrast, positive links between SMI and adiponectin (0.19 p< 0.05) and LIF-R (0.24 p< 0.05) were observed, which both remained significant in fully adjusted models. Links to other biomarkers were non-significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: Several inflammatory markers are linked to skeletal muscle mass in older adults, where detrimental or beneficial actions are indicated depending on the biomarker. While adherence to PA guidelines moderates some of these links, others seem unaffected by either PA and protein intake or metabolic risk status. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms underlying these observations.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical Activity and not Sedentary Time Influence on Metabolic Risk in Older Community-dwelling Women2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 789-789Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of developing the metabolic syndrome increases by older age, where older women typically engage in less health-enhancing physical activity (PA) than men. Whether sedentary behaviors influence on metabolic risk and related components in older adults, and if so to what extent such relationships are independent of PA behavior, remain unclear.

    PURPOSE: To examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviors on metabolic syndrome components and clustered metabolic risk in a sample of older community-dwelling women.

    METHODS: Components of the metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs). Total amount of PA (total counts per day), accumulated time spent in different intensities (sedentary, light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA)), continuous bouts of sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers. Isotemporal substitution models were used to examine influence of PA and sedentary behavior on each componentof the metabolic syndrome and on a clustered metabolic risk score.

    RESULTS: All associations between variables of sedentary behavior and metabolic risk were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts per day was adjusted for. Replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with either LPA or time in sedentary behaviors was related to an increase in WC and clustered metabolic risk score (zMS) (WC: β = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01; zMS: β = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of PA rather than sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of PA with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.

  • 12.
    Rundqvist, Håkan C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tarum, Janelle
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Esbjörnsson, Mona
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Systemic Effect On Myotube Size After Sprint Exercise Combined With Nutrients2018In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 5S, p. 807-807Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study systemic effects of sprint exercise combined with nutrient ingestion on muscle cell hypertrophy. It was hypothesized that the size of human muscle cells increases when they are exposed to post-exercise serum in nutrient but not in placebo condition. Previously studies have shown that oral ingestion of essential amino acids (EAA) and carbohydrate results in higher activation of Akt/mTOR signalling and higher rate of muscle protein synthesis following sprintexercise in humans. Both local and systemic factors may contribute to these effects. Moreover, If the nutrient-induced effects on signalling and muscle protein synthesis result into muscle hypertrophy is not known. In this study we “isolate” the systemic effects by exposing cultured muscle cells for post sprint exercise serum from either nutrient ingestions or placebo.

    METHODS: This study is based on a previous study, were healthy subjects performed three 30-s sprints with 20 minutes rest in between. Subjects ingested a flavoured drink containing EAA and maltodextrin (nutrient) or only flavoured water (placebo) during the sprint exercise session up to 15 min after the last sprint in a randomized order with one month interval. Blood samples were collected before during and up to 200 minutes after the last sprint and were analyzed for EEA, insulin lactate and glucose. Human myoblasts were isolated from vastus lateralis and differentiated into multinucleated myotubes, which were cultured in serum collected from 5 subjects fromthe sprint exercise study described above. Blood samples, obtained at 80 min after the last sprint, were chosen since the peak values for the accumulation of insulin and EAA occur approximately atthat time point.

    RESULTS: Both serum insulin (6-fold; P<0.05) and plasma leucine levels (2.6-fold; P<0.01) were higher after nutrient compared to placebo 80 min post-exercise. Plasma lactate and glucose levels did not differ between the conditions. Myotube size was 16% larger after exposure to post sprint exercise serum obtained during nutrient as compared to placebo (P<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Systemic factors may stimulate muscle hypertrophy after sprint exercise when combined with nutrient ingestion. If such a systemic effect may be counteracted by intracellular metabolic perturbations after sprint exercise is not known.

  • 13.
    Schantz, Peter
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Stigell, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    A criterion method for measuring route distance in physically active commuting2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 472-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    There is a need for accurate, reliable, and feasible methods for determining route distances in physically active transportation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to scrutinize if distances of commuting routes drawn by physically active commuters and measured with a digital curvimetric distance measurement device could serve such a purpose.

    Methods:

    Participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually adjusted maps were sent twice to the participants (n = 133). Commuting routes from home to work were drawn on the maps. These were measured using a digital curvimetric distance measurer that was carefully controlled for validity and reproducibility. Marked points of origin and destination were checked for validity and reproducibility using stated addresses and address geocoding systems. Nineteen participants were followed with a global positioning system (GPS) to control for validity of drawn routes. An analysis of the effect on distance measurements of any deviations between GPS route tracings and drawn routes was undertaken.

    Results:

    No order effects were noted on distance measurements, and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.999 (P ≤ 0.001). The map markings of route origins and destinations were accurate and reproducible. GPS tracings of actual commuting routes taken (n = 19) as displayed in six cases had slight deviations from the routes drawn by the commuters on maps. However, these deviations played an insubstantial role (0.4%) for the distances measured.

    Conclusion:

    When physically active commuters draw their commuting routes on maps, they create a valid and reproducible basis for route distance measurements. In combination with an accurate digital curvimetric distance-measuring device, a potential criterion method for measuring the commuting route distance is established.

  • 14. Tammelin, Tuija
    et al.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Remes, Juha
    Näyhä, Simo
    Physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Finnish youth2007In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1067-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There is general concern about the low level of physical activity and the high amount of time devoted to sedentary behavior among adolescents. This study aimed to determine the proportion of young Finns meeting the current guidelines for youth physical activity (>or= 60 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per day) and TV viewing (< 2 h.d(-1)) and to examine associations between physical activity and different sedentary behaviors. METHODS: The study population consisted of 6928 boys and girls, members of the northern Finland birth cohort 1986 who, in 2001-2002, at age 15-16 yr, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their time spent in moderate to vigorous (MVPA), light (LPA), and commuting (CPA) physical activity, and different sedentary behaviors. RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent of the boys and 50% of the girls reported 60 min or more of total physical activity per day. Only 23% of boys and 10% of girls reported 60 min of MVPA per day. Forty-eight percent of boys and 44% of girls reported more than 2 h of daily TV viewing. High amounts of TV viewing and computer use were associated with lower levels of physical activity in both genders. CONCLUSION: Many adolescents exceeded the recommended level of TV viewing and did not meet current recommendations for health-related physical activity. The inverse associations of physical activity with TV viewing and computer use suggest that measures aimed to reduce sedentary behaviors may, at least partly, increase physical activity among youth.

  • 15.
    Wretenberg, Per
    et al.
    Kinesiology Research Group, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feng, Y.
    Kinesiology Research Group, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arborelius, U. P.
    Kinesiology Research Group, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    High- and low-bar squatting techniques during weight-training1996In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 218-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight Swedish national class weightlifters performed "high-bar" squats and six national class powerlifters performed "low-bar" squats, with a barbell weight of 65% of their 1 RM, and to parallel- and a deep-squatting depth. Ground reaction forces were measured with a Kistler piezo-electric force platform and motion was analyzed from a video record of the squats. A computer program based on free-body mechanics was designed to calculate moments of force about the hip and knee joints. EMG from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris was recorded and normalized. The peak moments of force were flexing both for the hip and the knee. The mean peak moments of force at the hip were for the weightlifters 230 Nm (deep) and 216 Nm (parallel), and for the powerlifters 324 Nm (deep), and 309 Nm (parallel). At the knee the mean peak moments for the weightlifters were 191 Nm (deep) and 131 Nm (parallel), and for the powerlifters 139 Nm (deep) and 92 Nm (parallel). The weightlifters had the load more equally distributed between hip and knee, whereas the powerlifters put relatively more load on the hip joint. The thigh muscular activity was slightly higher for the powerlifters.

  • 16.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjoström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effect of monitor placement and of activity setting on the MTI accelerometer output2003In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 320-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of monitor placement (hip vs back) and of activity setting (treadmill vs track) on the output from the Manufacturing Technology Inc. (MTI), activity monitor (model WAM 7164).

    METHODS: In a laboratory study, 28 subjects (14 men, 14 women) walked at a normal pace, walked at a fast pace, and jogged at a comfortable pace on an indoor track. These activities were repeated on a treadmill using the individual speeds from the track locomotion. Oxygen uptake was measured simultaneously using a portable metabolic system. One activity monitor was worn on the hip and one on the lower back. In a field study, 34 subjects (18 men, 16 women) each wore two monitors (hip and low back placement) for seven consecutive days. In the laboratory study, ANOVA showed significant effects of placement ( P = 0.009) and setting ( P < 0.001), indicating that activity counts differ between different body sites and different settings (track vs treadmill). Gross energy expenditure predictive equations were developed and thereafter evaluated in the field study. Time spent at moderate and vigorous intensity of physical activity was 38% and 85% ( P < 0.001) higher when calculated from the treadmill-based equations as compared to the track-based equations. Free-living physical activity estimates were not affected by the placement.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between activity counts and energy expenditure during laboratory locomotion is placement and setting-specific. When habitual physical activity is assessed in free-living subjects, the treadmill derived relationship between energy expenditure and activity counts may overestimate time spent at moderate intensity of physical activity, whereas the placement of the monitor does not influence on the interpretation of the data.

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