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  • 1.
    Aggerholm, Kenneth
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Standal, Øyvind
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    On Practising in Physical Education: Outline for a pedagogical model2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 197-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Models-based approaches to physical education have inrecent years developed as a way for teachers and students toconcentrate on a manageable number of learning objectives, and alignpedagogical approaches with learning subject matter and context. Thispaper draws on Hannah Arendt’s account of vita activa to map existingapproaches to physical education as oriented towards: (a) health andexercise, (b) sport and games, and (c) experience and exploration.Purpose: The aim of the paper is to outline a new pedagogical model forphysical education: a practising model. We argue that the form of humanactivity related to practising is not well represented in existingorientations and models. To sustain this argument, we highlight themost central aspects of practising, and at the same time describe centralfeatures of the model.Relevance and implications: The paper addresses pedagogicalimplications the practising model has for physical education teachers.Central learning outcomes and teaching strategies related to fouressential and ‘non-negotiable’ features of the practising model arediscussed. These strategies are: (1) acknowledging subjectivity andproviding meaningful challenges, (2) focusing on content and the aimsof practising, (3) specifying and negotiating standards of excellence and(4) providing adequate time to practising.Conclusion: The practising model has the potential to inform newperspectives on pedagogical approaches, and renew and improveworking methods and learning practices, in physical education.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    A referee perspective on the educational practice of competitive youth games: exploring the pedagogical function of parents, coaches and referees in grassroots soccer2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 615-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Referees, parents and coaches are vital for co-creating the educational practice of competitive games in youth sport and influencing young players’ behaviour, learning and socialisation within the game. Coaches and parents influence players in different ways incompetitive games and their behaviour can be viewed as role-modelling actions that affect players’ observational learning and communicate what is regarded as important and valuable. Referees and refereeing is an under-explored field of research; especially the experiences of referees in youth sport and soccer.

    Purpose: Based on a referee perspective, the aim of the article is to contribute knowledge about the educational practice of competitive games in youth sport with a focus on the pedagogical function of parents, coaches and referees within the context of grassroots youth soccer.

    Theory: Competitive youth games are approached as play activities conditioned by authority and respect for the game and the referee as are presentative of the game and as a person. In the game, players are influenced by the pedagogical function of parents, coaches and referees and their relations direct what is possible to learn and experience. The concepts help us to understand the conditions for competitive youth games and the roles of significant others in co-creating the game as an educational practice.

    Method: The empirical study is part of a research project called Educating for fair play? In this project, the behaviour of parents and coaches in three grassroots soccer clubs in Sweden was explored during the 2017 sports season based on referees’ and players’ perspectives. For this article, the empirical data consists of 17 audio-recorded interviews with a total of 27 referees. A five-step qualitative content analysis has been used to analyse the data.

    Findings and Conclusions: From a referee perspective, the pedagogical function of parents is to act as spectators and as proponents of roler espect and good referee relations. They are expected to encourage and praise the team and its players and to facilitate a friendly and holistic learning atmosphere in which all players, even opponents, are supported and included. The pedagogical function of coaches is to safeguard and promote referee respect, focus on their task as team leaders and player developers, facilitate an atmosphere of civility in which the participants in the game treat each other as worthy autonomous human beings and direct the players to focus on playing the game. Referees’ pedagogical function is to be authorities and representatives of the game, adopt a learning and improving approach, be game managers and enjoyment facilitators, communicate with and instruct and foster players, coaches and parents. By adjusting the expectations, for example of referees’ competence in relation to the level of the competitive game and balancing competitive seriousness and the spirit of play, parents and coaches can co-create an educational practice that emphasises the players’ own development and that of their educative experiences. As game managers, communicators and instructors, referees, with the support of parents and coaches, can orchestrate the game and create a joyful atmosphere of learning and development.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    The ‘body pedagogics’ of an elite footballer’s career path: analysing Zlatan Ibrahimovic’s biography2017In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 502-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pedagogical research on career is encouraged to not limit sport learning to athletic skills, coaching effectiveness and coach–athlete relationships, but to also focus on learning in a multidimensional sense in the context of an athlete’s individual and social biography. This article examines an elite athlete’s career path as a body pedagogic phenomenon involving processes of self-transformation in relation to practical, social and embodied environments.

    Purpose: The purpose is to analyse the career path of the elite footballer Zlatan Ibrahimovic by focusing on how different learning environments relate to different embodiments of techniques and skills and how values and norms shape professionalism.

    Theoretical frameworks: A combined framework of body pedagogics and John Dewey’s theory of aesthetic experience is used to understand an elite career path as a learning trajectory involving different self-transformation means. Hence, the elite athlete is viewed as a career climber who creates his own educational pathway and engages in processes of participating, acquiring and becoming.

    Data analysis: A practical epistemology analysis (PEA) with a focus on aesthetic judgements is used to analyse the narrative of Zlatan’s career path as it is portrayed in the biography I Am Zlatan: My Story on and Off the Field. One major theme is identified, namely that Zlatan develops from being a dribbler to a striker. Against this background, Zlatan Ibrahomovic’s self-transformation is scrutinised in relation to three different sub-themes (suburb, arena and team) in three different ways (auto-didactic, education and educator) to create distinct and heterogeneous forms of knowledge in support of professional artistry.

    Results: The analysis offers an elaborated empirical description of how the means and ends of self-transformation develop reciprocally throughout Zlatan’s elite career and how this relates to practical, social and embodied environments. Examples of body pedagogic outcomes are: (1) different commitments to training, team culture and the coach–athlete relationship (social), (2) that Zlatan uses his dribbling skills more purposefully for scoring goals and satisfying the coach (embodied) and (3) that he is able to win different leagues and titles with different teams (practical).

  • 4.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Risberg, Jonas
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The walking rhythm of physical education teaching: an in-path analysis2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 402-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While studies of teaching frequently preserve an interest in teacher-pupil encounters that take place in certain spots, this article shows how teachers' can be understood as in-path instructors, which is significant for student-based learning. This complements studies that have mainly focused on teachers instructional work taking place at certain spots.

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe how a PE teacher's rhythmic labouring of the diverse settings in the gym creates a learning environment. By examining emplacement (spatial) and empacement (temporal) as important aspects of how learning environments are constituted, this article contributes a framework for studying and analysing a teacher's work from a moving vantage point.

    Conclusions: Based on a video ethnographic approach and using a wearable camera attached to the teacher's chest, the analysis of a station-wise lesson show how the teacher frequently covers a large part of the room and creates a web of educational challenges and possibilities. These brief encounters are identified as important tools that support each pupil's rhythm and engagement in the learning activities and maintain the corporate rhythm of a class. Furthermore, by analysing the teacher's temporal and spatial walking technique, which helps the pupils to transit between and accomplish practical exercises, the article highlights how the teacher's ability to support pupils' progression partly builds on a regional knowledge that is cultivated by the array of encounters.

  • 5.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aggerholm, Kenneth
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    standal, Øyvind
    Faculty of Public Health, Inland Norway University College of Applied Science, Elverum, Norway; Faculty of Teacher Education, Osloand Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Developing the practising model in Physical Education: An expository outline focusing on movement capability2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical educators currently have a number of pedagogical(or curricular) models at their disposal. While existing models have beenwell-received in educational contexts, these models seek to extendstudents’ capacities within a limited number of ‘human activities’(Arendt, 1958). The activity of human practising, which is concerned withthe improvement of the self, is not explicitly dealt with by current models.Purpose: The aim of the paper is to outline how a model of humanpractising related to movement capability could be enacted in physicaleducation.Findings: Building on a theoretical exposition of human practisingpresented in a separate paper, this paper provides a practically orienteddiscussion related to: (1) the general learning outcomes as well asteaching and learning strategies of the model; (2) an outline of fiveactivities that describe how the model could be implemented; and (3)the non-negotiable features of the model.Discussion: The model’s potential contribution to the ongoingrevitalization of PE as an institutionalized educational practice isdiscussed. Points concerning how the model relates to wider physicalcultures, its position regarding transfer of learning, standards ofexcellence, and social and cultural transmission are considered.Conclusion: The paper is concluded with some reflections onpedagogical models generally and how they relate to the pedagogicalmodel of practising movement capability presented in this paper.

  • 6.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Annerstedt, Claes
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Inter-student interactions and student learning in health and physical education: a post-Vygotskian analysis2015In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 409-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Group work is often used in Physical Education (and Health – HPE). In this paper, we propose that despite: (1) its widespread use; (2) advances surrounding HPE models that utilize group strategies; and (3) a significant amount of literature dealing with group work in other school subjects, we do not have a particularly good theoretical understanding of group learning in HPE.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose one way of conceptualizing individual learning in peer interaction based on three tenets of post-Vygotskian theory that relate to the zone of proximal development (ZPD); namely that in learning situations: (i) group members engage in shared communication; (ii) expert–novice relationships can develop and change during group activities and (iii) constructing knowledge can be thought of as reaching agreement.

    Participants and setting: Empirical material was generated with eight different HPE classes in lower and upper secondary schools in Sweden. Schools were selected in a way that maximized variation and were distributed across four geographic locations with varying sizes and types of communities.

    Data collection: Observational material was produced at each of the sites with the use of two cameras: one stationary and the other mobile. Stationary filming maintained a wideangled focus and captured the entire class. Mobile filming focused on different groups working within the classes. During mobile filming, between two and five students were generally in the frame and filming was directed at sequences in which a group of students worked together on a specific task.

    Data analysis: Analysis of the data focused on two kinds of incidents. The first

    comprised a sequence in which two or more students were interacting to complete a

    task which they could not immediately do and were engaged in collective

    signification by talking about or doing the activity in mutually compatible ways.

    These conditions were sufficient in our view to signal the creation of a ZPD. The

    second kind of incident fulfilled the first criteria but not the second – i.e. the students

    were interacting but not in mutually compatible ways.

    Findings: A post-Vygotskian interpretation of three group work sequences draws

    attention to: (i) the flexible and fluid nature of ‘expertness’ as it exists within groups;

    (ii) the unpredictable nature of member interactions and (iii) the challenging role that

    teachers occupy while trying to facilitate group work.

    Conclusion: Such an interpretation contributes to a growing understanding of group

    work and helps HPE practitioners to make the most of a teaching strategy which is

    already used widely in schools.

  • 7.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rynne, Steven B.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Lee, Jessica
    School of Medicine, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Learning cultures and cultural learning in high-performance sport: opportunities for sport pedagogues2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schubring, Astrid
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moving into and out of high-performance sport: the cultural learning of an artistic gymnast2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-performance sport has been described as a formative environment through which athletes learn sporting skills but also develop athletic selves. Within this process, career movements related to selection for and de-selection from representative teams constitute critical moments. Further, retirement from sport can be problematic as the athletic self becomes ‘obsolete’. This dilemma is acute in sports that demand an early entry, extreme time investments and a high risk of retirement before adulthood. Women's artistic gymnastics (WAG) is such a sport.

    Purpose and scope: This article considers an artistic gymnast's (Marie) experiences of movement into and out of this sport. Marie's construction and reconstruction of her athletic self when she entered gymnastics at the age of six, relocated to a different city in order to train with the national team at the age of 15, and retired from the sport one year later receives particular attention.

    Method and theoretical perspective: An in-depth biographical interview was conducted with Marie. Further, the first author's personal knowledge of this gymnast's career experiences was used for contextualisation. The analysis of data involved the identification of learning outcomes during her time in high-performance WAG and post-retirement. Storied accounts surrounding the key learning experiences were compiled. In order to understand Marie's learning, cultural perspective of learning developed by education scholars and the respective metaphors of ‘learning as becoming’ and ‘horizons for action’ and ‘horizons of learning’ are employed.

    Findings: Marie's choice of relocating to train with the national team involved her assuming a temporary orientation towards the requirements of the high-performance WAG context she entered. To achieve this, Marie suppressed the dispositions she had brought to this setting and adjusted her training philosophy, relationship with her coach, diet and socialising. Further, despite Marie intending to only momentarily adjust to the practices of the high-performance context, her learning was deep. Upon retiring from gymnastics, she could not leave the high-performance gymnastics self behind. The subsequent process to adjust to life without gymnastics was difficult and testing, and could only be realised with professional treatment.

    Conclusion: Learning in sport is not limited to athletic skills. Athletes’ selves are formed in interaction with sporting contexts and actors. This embodiment can become durable and cause significant conflict when moving out of sport. To handle life without sport, adjustment may be challenging and lengthy.

    Recommendations: Sporting cultures should allow for more interactive learning and athlete diversity. Coaching practices that allow athletes to voice difficulties should be provided. Athletes should be encouraged to reflect upon their sporting experiences and upon leaving high-performance sport, should be (professionally) supported.

  • 9.
    Lindgren, R.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Implementing the Movement-Oriented Practising Model (MPM) in physical education: empirical findings focusing on student learning2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the existence of numerous pedagogical models, Aggerholm, Standal, Barker and Larsson [2018. Aggerholm, K., O. Standal, D. M. Barker, and H. Larsson. 2018. "On Practising in Physical Education: Outline for a Pedagogical Model." Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 23 (2): 197-208] recently made a case for the introduction of a new model. Based on the work of German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk, the Movement-Oriented Practising Model (MPM) contains a philosophical rationale, a set of guiding principles, and an illustration of how lessons based on the model could look in the classroom. This paper reports empirical findings from an investigation in which the model was employed. The aim was to discern how students' movement dispositions develop when they take part in lessons guided by the MPM.

    Method: Empirical material was produced with one ninth-grade class that took part in ten lessons based on the MPM. Three types of empirical material were generated through observations, focus group interviews, and textual work produced by students. Analysis of the combined data was informed by Gilbert Ryle's [2009. The Concept of Mind. New York: Routledge] theory of knowing and dispositions.

    Findings: Four descriptive cases are presented. Each case focuses on a student's dispositional development over the course of the ten lessons. Dispositional development involved changes in: the ways students moved, the students' approaches to practicing and performing, and the ways the students described themselves and their learning.

    Discussion: The findings are discussed in relation to the philosophy and guiding principles of the MPM. Specifically, we consider: (1) how students developed in unique and personal ways during the module, (2) how dispositional development may not always be observable when students participate in lessons based on the MPM, and, (3) how time impacts upon learning when employing the MPM.

    Conclusion: Reflections on practical implications associated with the MPM are put forward and questions for further scholarly consideration are raised.

  • 10.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring the educational landscape of juggling - challenging notions of ability in physical education2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on physical education (PE) shows a prevalence of narrow and reductionist views on what counts as ability. These views tend to privilege certain students and marginalize others, and often equate ability with technique-based sport performance. A lot of research is still directed towards the above problem. However, very few have devoted time and energy to actually resolving this problem. If no alternatives to narrow and reductionist views of ability are presented, then research will struggle to make a difference to the practice of PE. Assuming that movement is a key element in PE, the question of what counts as ability in PE is, we argue, a question of what capabilities a learner needs to develop in order to move in different ways. Investigating what movement capability can mean will provide possibilities for discussing and negotiating the meaning of ability in PE when the learning goal is something other than technique-based sport performance.

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further advance the knowledge base of what movement capability can mean within the context of PE. By achieving this aim, we intend to challenge narrow views on ability and thereby provide enhanced possibilities for PE to make a difference for students' abilities through education.

    Theory and method: The process of coming to know something can be seen as exploring, with all senses, a landscape. Exploration involves recognizing details and nuances of the landscape and their relationships to one another. In this investigation, we examine what there is to know in the landscape of juggling using Ryle's and Polanyi's notions of knowing and learning. In line with a focus on the learners' perspectives, interviews and observations were conducted with students whilst they were coming to know juggling. Ethnographic-type conversations were used to help students describe what they seemed to know or were aiming to know. Students were invited to write diaries with a focus on their experiences during the learning process, which we hoped could extend our insights regarding the experiential aspects in learning.

    Findings: Findings of the investigation suggest that in the group of students, four significant ways of knowing the landscape of juggling are important: grasping a pattern; grasping a rhythm; preparing for the next throw and catch and navigating one's position and throwing. The research challenges the narrow view on ability as technique-based sport performance by providing examples of what movement capability can mean in terms of knowing a movement landscape alternatively to knowing a specific movement 'in the right way.'

  • 11.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Healthying physical education: on the possibility of learning health2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As part of the annual activities at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, the Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Special Interest Group (SIG) organises a so-called Invisible College, where a Scholar Lecture is delivered by a researcher who has made a significant contribution to the field. This paper is the 2018 Scholar Lecture.

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to discuss two concepts and the relations between them – health and learning.

    Key concepts: In the paper, the metaphor of the swimmer in the river, as introduced by Antonovsky, is used in order to go beyond individualistic, dualistic and instrumental notions of health and education. I argue for a move away from a notion of teaching young people how to be healthy through the deployment of ready-made educational packages, towards acknowledging health education as a societal responsibility, where it is recognised that sociocultural and economic contexts afford diverse opportunities to be healthy and to learn to live healthy lives, however these are construed.

    Discussion and conclusion: Rather than confining health and health education to the prevention of premature death and disease, I discuss health, in relation to learning, as always being in the process of becoming. The health resources for living a good life can then be found in the ‘river’, with the ‘swimmer’, and in the relation between the ‘river’ and the ‘swimmer’. In this way, health can manifest itself in many different ways. I ask why we even attempt to talk about health in the singular when talking about different diseases. Is health rather a plural? Is it even a noun? Or is it something we do – a verb? If the latter, health education can be conceived of as a practice – ‘healthying’ – rather than a fixed, static outcome set up by research and public health policies as something to achieve in education.

  • 12.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    PE on YouTube: investigating participation i physical education practice2013In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 42-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this article, students’ diverse ways of participating in physical education (PE) practice shown in clips on YouTube were investigated. YouTube is the largest user-generated video sharing website on the Internet, where different video content is presented. The clips on YouTube, as used in this paper, can be seen as a user-generated archive of ongoing PE practices that can enrich our understanding of how students participate in PE, as well as what they participate in.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study were to analyse students’ diverse ways of participating in PE in order to say something about its practice.

    Research design: A transactional approach, which takes action in ongoing activities as the point of departure, were was used as a theoretical framework, and the sample used consisteds of student- and teacher posted video clips from 285 PE lessons in 27 different countries.

    Data analysis: In the analysis, students’ and teachers’ actions-in-ongoing-events were explored in terms of how they participate in the sociocultural practice of PE in terms of students’ and teachers’ habits-of-action. In this way, PE as a sociocultural practice can be investigated. In the analysis students’ and teachers’ actions-in-ongoing-events were coded in terms of how they participated in ways that were stable or ‘normal’, and which made the situation become stable.

    Findings: In transactional studies an effort is put forth to empirically describing and categorising the results of the analysis from the functions the actions constitute in a certain situation. In this study this implied categorising how actions, in the constant flow of actions, contributed to other actions being oriented in a specific direction in a certain situation, including both spoken and embodied actions in the studied event. Three Four major themes emerged from the analysis; Doing sport, Trying and having fun, and Training fitness, and two minor themes Warming up, and Dancing emerged from the analysis. Each theme describes how students and teachers participate and how they through their participation shape the content of PE practice.

    Conclusion: Questions of knowledge in PE can be seen as manifested in students’ and teachers’ ways of being and acting, as well as their ability to participate in the ongoing PE practices. By using a transactional approach the study explored how PE practice is established, maintained and shaped through students’ and teachers’ actions-in-context. The consequences of the study indicate that PE and what is regarded as relevant knowledge in PE practice can be constituted in several different ways. PE is about diverse ways of participating, and in this diversity PE is constituted in a manifold of ways in its practice. These participatory processes contribute to the constitution of PE as a socio-cultural practice, and students know PE practice through these processes.

  • 13.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Swedish physical education research2008In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 295-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article does not have an abstract.

  • 14.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Different versions of assessment for learning in the subject of physical education2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment for learning (AfL) is now marketed across the Western world as a key to an improved goal attainment in most school subjects. The concept has also attracted increased interest in the international research field of physical education (PE) in recent years. According to (Chan, K., P. J. Hay, and R. Tinning. 2011. “Understandingthe Pedagogic Discourse of Assessment in Physical Education.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education 2 (1): 3–18) assessment both influences the teaching and learning process and defines its product, which is referred to as the ‘backwash effect’. Contrasting versions of AfL will therefore have different consequences, regarding the constitution of teacher and student subjectivities as wellas characteristics of the subject content. These consequences can be understood in terms of didactics, which in a European research tradition focuses on the relationship between teacher, student and subject content (Hudson, B., and M. A. Meyer, eds. 2011. Beyond Fragmentation:Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe. Opladen and FarmingtonHills: Barbara Budrich Publishers).

    Purpose and research question: The purpose of the study is to identify teacher and student subjectivities as well as subject content, constituted through different versions of AfL in school PE. The identification of the different versions of AfL and the relations established through each of them is facilitated by the research question: ‘What is performed and produced in the formative assessment practice of PE?’ The findings are then discussed on the basis of the question: ‘Assessment for what learning?’

    Methods: In order to answer the research question, a mixed method of lesson observations and semi-structured interviews was used (cf. Patton,M. Q. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed.Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Inc). Thirteen PE lessons were observed at two different upper secondary schools, involving four classes attaining both vocational and pre-university programmes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 of the students and their two male PE teachers. The empirical material consisted of field notes and transcriptions of the interviews, with an emphasis on the latter. In the first step of the analysis the material was categorised by means of the five key strategies of AfL (Wiliam, D. 2011. “What is Assessment forLearning?” Studies in Educational Evaluation 37: 3–14. Elsevier), in order to identify different ways of realising the concept in the subject of PE. The second step was a combination of a performativity (Ball, S. J. 2003.“The Teacher’s Soul and the Terrors of Performativity.” Journal of Education Policy 18 (2): 215–228) and a didactic (Hudson, B. 2002.“Holding Complexity and Searching for Meaning: Teaching as Reflective Practice.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 34 (1): 43–57) analysis, which clarified the relations established under different circumstances in the formative assessment practice.

    Findings: The findings highlight five versions of AfL in PE, named after their most prominent features or functions, AfL as: (i) Empowerment, (ii)Physical Activation, (iii) Constructive Alignment, (iv) Grade Generation, (v) Negotiation. ‘Among the products of discursive practices are the very persons who engage in them’ (Davies, B., and R. Harré. 2001.“Positioning: The Discursive Production of Selves.” In Discourse Theoryand Practice, edited by M. Wetherell, S. Taylor, and S. J. Yates. London:Sage, 263). Accordingly, different teacher and student subjectivities as well as characteristics of the subject content are constituted in each of these fabrications.

    Conclusions: The so-called ‘backwash effect’ (Torrance, H. 2012.“Formative Assessment at the Crossroads: Conformative, Deformativeand Transformative Assessment.” Oxford Review of Education 38 (3): 323–342. London: Routledge) implies that the contrasting versions of AfL promote different kinds of learning, such as: (i) increased autonomy, (ii) participation in a community of practice, (iii) acquisition of prescribedabilities, (iv) criteria compliance, (v) group development. However, the big idea of AfL is to adapt the teaching to the students and not the students to the standards.

  • 15.
    Ward, Gavin
    et al.
    Department of Sport and Physical Activity, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, United Kingdom.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Transactions in primary physical education in the UK: a smorgasbord of looks-like-sport2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 137-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Crum proposes the term ‘movement culture’ as a means to best understand the relationships between PE and wider movement practices. Learning within movement culture is practical and embodied, and integral to the cultural and institutional contexts within which PE is situated. 

    Purpose: Using visual data gathered from PE lessons within a UK primary school this paper aims to identify movement cultures across the observed PE lessons, and understand how these movement cultures are shaped and maintained by analysing how teachers and pupils' actions-in-on-going-events make the movement cultures something ‘in-common’. 

    Participants, research design and data collection: A mixture of Year 5 and 6 PE lessons were video recorded within a primary school in the West Midlands. Careful attention was paid to the ethical considerations involved in the collection and storage of the data. 

    Data analysis: By dissolving the dualism between an individual and their environment, Dewey and Bentley's (1949/1991) transactional theory of learning supports an analysis of action in context. Application of this theory enables the researcher to explore actions-in-on-going activities and understand how this action shapes the movement culture within which it occurs. In this process we did not use theory to deduce the participants' intensions or potential changes in their cognitive structures; rather it was the functions' actions constituted in the observed situation, which lead the analysis. 

    Findings: The existence of a multi-activity idea of sampling different sports within this study of primary PE amounted to eating from a smorgasbord where the flavours of the dishes initially looked different, but actually tasted the same. Each dish was differentiated by the use of contrasting equipment, physical locations and named activities. In reality what was realised was a diluted, repetitive and overriding flavour of looks-like-sport. Pupils were tasked with actions which functioned to produce a stage managed show of controlled activity. This was supplemented by their compliance to strict behaviour codes and by attempting to make highly cooperative tasks and games work. This was aided by the adoption and acceptance of different roles. Succeeding within this movement culture demanded an implicit understanding of the need to coordinate actions with others cooperatively. 

    Conclusions: The standout flavour within this smorgasbord involved gymnastics, where the removal of competition and provision of space for pupils to re-actualise their knowledge, created an interesting blend of pupil engagement, sustained physical activity, creativity, inclusion and cooperation. These interesting flavours may have been curtailed by a need to replicate movements acceptable to doing gymnastics-for-real and suggests that other forms of looks-like-sport may have the potential to elicit similar action. Continued investigation of the directions of actions-in-context-in-PE-settings would aid our understanding of the creation, nature and reproduction of learning experiences within this looks-like-sport movement culture. More specifically, analysis of the educational content and pedagogy of the recorded PE lessons within this school would support our understanding of how teachers and pupils negotiate the complex mix of educational, sport and health discourses that constitute the looks-like-sport movement culture.

  • 16.
    Öhman, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Feel good—be good: subject content and governing processes in physical education2008In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 365-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this paper a study of both subject content and governing processes in Swedish physical education is presented. The reason why an analysis of both content and processes is of special interest is that it makes it possible to understand the encounter between the institutional level and the practice of education.

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is threefold: (1) to analyse the subject content in physical education through identifying discourses embedded in its practice; (2) to illustrate how the subject content is created/re-created in physical education practice through various governing processes; and (3) to discuss how governing processes also become content through the

    socialization of students in terms of becoming a certain type of social citizen.

    Research design and data collection: The empirical material used is collected in connection with a national evaluation of physical education in Sweden, commissioned by the Swedish Government and the Swedish National Agency for Education. This paper uses local curriculum documents from 72 schools and 15 video-recorded physical education lessons from five schools. A starting point for the methodological framework is discourse theory and the governing perspective developed by Michel Foucault (1978/1991, 1980, 1982/2002). The governing perspective is used as a methodological tool, and we work with two overarching analysis themes: one oriented towards what pupils are governed, in terms of discourses embedded in physical education, and the other how the identified discourses are created/re-created in the practice of physical education. We also use the methodological framework as a tool to discuss how the governing processes also become content—a content of socialization.

    Findings: The results show that physical exertion and active participation are the main threads that run though the analysed material. In connection with physical exertion and active participation, pupils are also encouraged to cooperate with others and to compete. The content of socialization is primarily directed towards different components of willingness, for example a will to do one’s best and a will to try, where the pupils are expected to be participatory, take responsibility and govern their own actions in the direction of that which is most reasonable.

    Conclusions: A clear message is communicated in physical education in Sweden—be active and work up a sweat. This is also concerned with fostering good character, i.e. creating correct attitudes and approaches through physical activity—be an active and willing person. Physical education is consequently a place where both political volition and the creation of today’s citizens are staged. It is thus not only physical exertion—the physiological effects of exercise and involvement in sports and physical education—that is in the foreground of the activities we study in physical education. It is also about becoming a certain type of social citizen.

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