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  • 1.
    Aarskog, Eirik
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Life Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Spord Borgen, Jorunn
    Department of Sports, Physical Education and Outdoor Studies, University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    'When it's something that you want to do.': Exploring curriculum negotiation in Norwegian PE2022In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 640-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Student participation in curriculum negotiation has been widely regarded as beneficial for student engagement, motivation, and learning. Within the physical education (PE) context however, several scholars claim that these benefits are seldom realized. Interestingly, most investigations into curriculum negotiation in PE focus on teacher actions and behavior. Investigations of students' actions in curriculum negotiation are rare. Further, while much of the literature claims curriculum negotiation is potentially beneficial for student learning, few of the conceptual and analytical frameworks utilized within previous PE literature are based on explicit learning theories.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore student participation in curriculum negotiation in Norwegian PE through the lens of an explicit learning theoretical perspective.

    Method: A 10th grade class with 23 students (age 15-16) and an 8th grade class with 30 students (age 13-14) from 2 different schools, and their respective teachers were recruited for the project. Within these classes, participatory observation, video observations, and stimulated recall interviews were conducted to produce empirical material related to curriculum negotiation. The material then underwent qualitative thematic analysis where select parts of John Dewey's educational philosophy were used as the analytical framework.

    Results and discussion: With a basis in the analytical framework developed from Deweyan educational philosophy, the results show that students within the two contexts participate in both explicit and implicit forms of curriculum negotiation. Explicit curriculum negotiations to a large degree appear to be governed by the teachers and are deemed by teachers to be part of strategies for upholding Norwegian legislations and recommendations for including students in curricular decision-making. While not as easily noticeable, implicit forms of negotiations were more prominent within the explored contexts. The analysis also suggests that from a Deweyan perspective, possibilities to increase learning through curriculum negotiations occur when teachers notice, help, and guide students in their own reflective processes surrounding how to act in PE. Such pedagogical action makes implicit negotiations occurring more explicit, and explicit negotiations more intelligent.

  • 2.
    Aggerholm, Kenneth
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Standal, Øyvind
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    On Practising in Physical Education: Outline for a pedagogical model2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 197-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Models-based approaches to physical education have inrecent years developed as a way for teachers and students toconcentrate on a manageable number of learning objectives, and alignpedagogical approaches with learning subject matter and context. Thispaper draws on Hannah Arendt’s account of vita activa to map existingapproaches to physical education as oriented towards: (a) health andexercise, (b) sport and games, and (c) experience and exploration.Purpose: The aim of the paper is to outline a new pedagogical model forphysical education: a practising model. We argue that the form of humanactivity related to practising is not well represented in existingorientations and models. To sustain this argument, we highlight themost central aspects of practising, and at the same time describe centralfeatures of the model.Relevance and implications: The paper addresses pedagogicalimplications the practising model has for physical education teachers.Central learning outcomes and teaching strategies related to fouressential and ‘non-negotiable’ features of the practising model arediscussed. These strategies are: (1) acknowledging subjectivity andproviding meaningful challenges, (2) focusing on content and the aimsof practising, (3) specifying and negotiating standards of excellence and(4) providing adequate time to practising.Conclusion: The practising model has the potential to inform newperspectives on pedagogical approaches, and renew and improveworking methods and learning practices, in physical education.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    A referee perspective on the educational practice of competitive youth games: exploring the pedagogical function of parents, coaches and referees in grassroots soccer2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 615-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Referees, parents and coaches are vital for co-creating the educational practice of competitive games in youth sport and influencing young players’ behaviour, learning and socialisation within the game. Coaches and parents influence players in different ways incompetitive games and their behaviour can be viewed as role-modelling actions that affect players’ observational learning and communicate what is regarded as important and valuable. Referees and refereeing is an under-explored field of research; especially the experiences of referees in youth sport and soccer.

    Purpose: Based on a referee perspective, the aim of the article is to contribute knowledge about the educational practice of competitive games in youth sport with a focus on the pedagogical function of parents, coaches and referees within the context of grassroots youth soccer.

    Theory: Competitive youth games are approached as play activities conditioned by authority and respect for the game and the referee as are presentative of the game and as a person. In the game, players are influenced by the pedagogical function of parents, coaches and referees and their relations direct what is possible to learn and experience. The concepts help us to understand the conditions for competitive youth games and the roles of significant others in co-creating the game as an educational practice.

    Method: The empirical study is part of a research project called Educating for fair play? In this project, the behaviour of parents and coaches in three grassroots soccer clubs in Sweden was explored during the 2017 sports season based on referees’ and players’ perspectives. For this article, the empirical data consists of 17 audio-recorded interviews with a total of 27 referees. A five-step qualitative content analysis has been used to analyse the data.

    Findings and Conclusions: From a referee perspective, the pedagogical function of parents is to act as spectators and as proponents of roler espect and good referee relations. They are expected to encourage and praise the team and its players and to facilitate a friendly and holistic learning atmosphere in which all players, even opponents, are supported and included. The pedagogical function of coaches is to safeguard and promote referee respect, focus on their task as team leaders and player developers, facilitate an atmosphere of civility in which the participants in the game treat each other as worthy autonomous human beings and direct the players to focus on playing the game. Referees’ pedagogical function is to be authorities and representatives of the game, adopt a learning and improving approach, be game managers and enjoyment facilitators, communicate with and instruct and foster players, coaches and parents. By adjusting the expectations, for example of referees’ competence in relation to the level of the competitive game and balancing competitive seriousness and the spirit of play, parents and coaches can co-create an educational practice that emphasises the players’ own development and that of their educative experiences. As game managers, communicators and instructors, referees, with the support of parents and coaches, can orchestrate the game and create a joyful atmosphere of learning and development.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    The ‘body pedagogics’ of an elite footballer’s career path: analysing Zlatan Ibrahimovic’s biography2017In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 502-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pedagogical research on career is encouraged to not limit sport learning to athletic skills, coaching effectiveness and coach–athlete relationships, but to also focus on learning in a multidimensional sense in the context of an athlete’s individual and social biography. This article examines an elite athlete’s career path as a body pedagogic phenomenon involving processes of self-transformation in relation to practical, social and embodied environments.

    Purpose: The purpose is to analyse the career path of the elite footballer Zlatan Ibrahimovic by focusing on how different learning environments relate to different embodiments of techniques and skills and how values and norms shape professionalism.

    Theoretical frameworks: A combined framework of body pedagogics and John Dewey’s theory of aesthetic experience is used to understand an elite career path as a learning trajectory involving different self-transformation means. Hence, the elite athlete is viewed as a career climber who creates his own educational pathway and engages in processes of participating, acquiring and becoming.

    Data analysis: A practical epistemology analysis (PEA) with a focus on aesthetic judgements is used to analyse the narrative of Zlatan’s career path as it is portrayed in the biography I Am Zlatan: My Story on and Off the Field. One major theme is identified, namely that Zlatan develops from being a dribbler to a striker. Against this background, Zlatan Ibrahomovic’s self-transformation is scrutinised in relation to three different sub-themes (suburb, arena and team) in three different ways (auto-didactic, education and educator) to create distinct and heterogeneous forms of knowledge in support of professional artistry.

    Results: The analysis offers an elaborated empirical description of how the means and ends of self-transformation develop reciprocally throughout Zlatan’s elite career and how this relates to practical, social and embodied environments. Examples of body pedagogic outcomes are: (1) different commitments to training, team culture and the coach–athlete relationship (social), (2) that Zlatan uses his dribbling skills more purposefully for scoring goals and satisfying the coach (embodied) and (3) that he is able to win different leagues and titles with different teams (practical).

  • 5.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Risberg, Jonas
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The walking rhythm of physical education teaching: an in-path analysis2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 402-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While studies of teaching frequently preserve an interest in teacher-pupil encounters that take place in certain spots, this article shows how teachers' can be understood as in-path instructors, which is significant for student-based learning. This complements studies that have mainly focused on teachers instructional work taking place at certain spots.

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe how a PE teacher's rhythmic labouring of the diverse settings in the gym creates a learning environment. By examining emplacement (spatial) and empacement (temporal) as important aspects of how learning environments are constituted, this article contributes a framework for studying and analysing a teacher's work from a moving vantage point.

    Conclusions: Based on a video ethnographic approach and using a wearable camera attached to the teacher's chest, the analysis of a station-wise lesson show how the teacher frequently covers a large part of the room and creates a web of educational challenges and possibilities. These brief encounters are identified as important tools that support each pupil's rhythm and engagement in the learning activities and maintain the corporate rhythm of a class. Furthermore, by analysing the teacher's temporal and spatial walking technique, which helps the pupils to transit between and accomplish practical exercises, the article highlights how the teacher's ability to support pupils' progression partly builds on a regional knowledge that is cultivated by the array of encounters.

  • 6.
    Backman, E.
    et al.
    School of Education, Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Re-thinking pedagogical content knowledge for physical education teachers: implications for physical education teacher education2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 451-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this conceptual paper, we contribute to the discussion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physical education and physical education teacher education (PETE). There are two main limitations in the work inspired by Shulman’s [1987. “Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform.” Harvard Educational Review 57 (1): 1–21] concepts content knowledge (CK) and PCK. First, CK is exclusively interpreted as knowledge in and about movement, and excludes knowledge through movement. Second, contemporary understandings of CK and PCK have been mainly from a behaviour analytic perspective. By only adopting a behavioural perspective of CK, i.e. a perspective which aims to change students’ behaviours without necessarily changing knowledge or understanding, pre-service teachers are unlikely to reflect on context and culture or how these affect the students with whom they will work.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to add a new perspective to the contemporary discussion of PCK in physical education and PETE through elaborating on how PCK could be conceptualised ‘phronetically’. We believe that contextual and situational foci of a phronetic approach constitute an important dimension of teacher knowledge, and that this dimension is not captured or made visible by behaviour analytic discourse of PCK in movement cultures.

    Method: For the conceptual task of expanding our understanding of PCK, we have been inspired by Thomas [2007. Education and Theory: Strangers in Paradigms. Berkshire: McGraw Hill], Shoemaker, Tankard, and Lasorsa [2004. How to Build Social Science Theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage], and Whetten [1989. “What Constitutes a Theoretical Contribution?” Journal Academy of Management Review 14 (4): 490–495] and their ideas of building theory through borrowing, reflective thinking, and metaphors.

    Results: We outline four major assumptions made about PCK in the behaviour analytic research on physical education and PETE: 1. Physical education teachers must know how to perform activities with the correct technique, know the tactics and have knowledge about rules and etiquette; 2. Physical education teachers must know how to detect errors and design task progressions. 3. Physical education teachers must know how to select and modify appropriate tasks as well as give feedback. 4. Physical education teachers’ level of CK and PCK can be quantitatively measured.

    Conclusions: From a phronetic perspective, we suggest that PCK could also involve: contextual characteristics for ‘new’ and integrative movement cultures; interpretation of students’ actions; identification and action on diversity during physical education teaching; development of a sensitivity for morally ‘right’ actions; and management of uncertainty involved in physical education teaching.

  • 7.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    School of Education and Learning, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    How does physical education teacher education matter?: A methodological approach to understanding transitions from PETE to school physical education2023In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 411-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this paper, we will address the question of how physical education teacher education (PETE) matters and suggest one way to explore the potential impact of PETE. A distinguishing feature of the studies of PETE's impact on physical education is that they either include perspectives from preservice teachers involved in PETE courses or perspectives from physical education teachers in schools looking back at their education. Longitudinal attempts to follow preservice teachers’ journey from education to workplace, in order to grasp how they perceive the relation between teacher education and teaching practice in schools, and the transition between these contexts, are few and far between. This gap of knowledge is a missing piece of the puzzle to further develop PETE, and to inform life-long professional development for teachers.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we develop and present a methodological approach for investigating the transition of content areas from courses in PETE into teaching practice in school physical education. Second, we will illustrate the potential utility of this methodological approach in longitudinal studies by showing how one particular content area, Assessment for Learning (AfL), was investigated through the use of methods and theories described in the first part of this paper.

    Methodology: The suggested longitudinal approach involves Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews with pre- and postservice teachers, observations and communication with groups of students and teachers through social media. The construction, recontextualisation and realisation of pedagogic discourses regarding content areas are suggested to be analysed through a combination of Bernstein's concept of the pedagogic device and Ball's concept of fabrication.

    Results and Conclusions: The longitudinal design and the suggested methodology can provide answers to how content areas are transformed in and between PETE and school physical education. A combination of the theoretical perspectives of Bernstein and Ball enables us to say something not only about how pedagogic discourses regarding content areas are constructed, recontextualised and realised in PETE and school physical education, but also about what content areas become in terms of fabrications in the transition between these contexts. To conclude, we argue that the methodological research design can be used to explore different content areas in PETE and that this methodology can contribute to knowledge about how PETE matters for school physical education.

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    How does physical education teacher education matter?: A methodological approach to understanding transitions from PETE to school physical education
  • 8.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aggerholm, Kenneth
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    standal, Øyvind
    Faculty of Public Health, Inland Norway University College of Applied Science, Elverum, Norway; Faculty of Teacher Education, Osloand Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Developing the practising model in Physical Education: An expository outline focusing on movement capability2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical educators currently have a number of pedagogical(or curricular) models at their disposal. While existing models have beenwell-received in educational contexts, these models seek to extendstudents’ capacities within a limited number of ‘human activities’(Arendt, 1958). The activity of human practising, which is concerned withthe improvement of the self, is not explicitly dealt with by current models.Purpose: The aim of the paper is to outline how a model of humanpractising related to movement capability could be enacted in physicaleducation.Findings: Building on a theoretical exposition of human practisingpresented in a separate paper, this paper provides a practically orienteddiscussion related to: (1) the general learning outcomes as well asteaching and learning strategies of the model; (2) an outline of fiveactivities that describe how the model could be implemented; and (3)the non-negotiable features of the model.Discussion: The model’s potential contribution to the ongoingrevitalization of PE as an institutionalized educational practice isdiscussed. Points concerning how the model relates to wider physicalcultures, its position regarding transfer of learning, standards ofexcellence, and social and cultural transmission are considered.Conclusion: The paper is concluded with some reflections onpedagogical models generally and how they relate to the pedagogicalmodel of practising movement capability presented in this paper.

  • 9.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, G.
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Larsson, H.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introduction to the PESP special issue: 'Developing movement capability in physical education'2021In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Annerstedt, Claes
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Inter-student interactions and student learning in health and physical education: a post-Vygotskian analysis2015In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 409-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Group work is often used in Physical Education (and Health – HPE). In this paper, we propose that despite: (1) its widespread use; (2) advances surrounding HPE models that utilize group strategies; and (3) a significant amount of literature dealing with group work in other school subjects, we do not have a particularly good theoretical understanding of group learning in HPE.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose one way of conceptualizing individual learning in peer interaction based on three tenets of post-Vygotskian theory that relate to the zone of proximal development (ZPD); namely that in learning situations: (i) group members engage in shared communication; (ii) expert–novice relationships can develop and change during group activities and (iii) constructing knowledge can be thought of as reaching agreement.

    Participants and setting: Empirical material was generated with eight different HPE classes in lower and upper secondary schools in Sweden. Schools were selected in a way that maximized variation and were distributed across four geographic locations with varying sizes and types of communities.

    Data collection: Observational material was produced at each of the sites with the use of two cameras: one stationary and the other mobile. Stationary filming maintained a wideangled focus and captured the entire class. Mobile filming focused on different groups working within the classes. During mobile filming, between two and five students were generally in the frame and filming was directed at sequences in which a group of students worked together on a specific task.

    Data analysis: Analysis of the data focused on two kinds of incidents. The first

    comprised a sequence in which two or more students were interacting to complete a

    task which they could not immediately do and were engaged in collective

    signification by talking about or doing the activity in mutually compatible ways.

    These conditions were sufficient in our view to signal the creation of a ZPD. The

    second kind of incident fulfilled the first criteria but not the second – i.e. the students

    were interacting but not in mutually compatible ways.

    Findings: A post-Vygotskian interpretation of three group work sequences draws

    attention to: (i) the flexible and fluid nature of ‘expertness’ as it exists within groups;

    (ii) the unpredictable nature of member interactions and (iii) the challenging role that

    teachers occupy while trying to facilitate group work.

    Conclusion: Such an interpretation contributes to a growing understanding of group

    work and helps HPE practitioners to make the most of a teaching strategy which is

    already used widely in schools.

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    Fulltext
  • 11.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, A.
    Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Korp, P.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fit for the job? How corporeal expectations shape physical education teachers' understandings of content, pedagogy, and the purposes of physical education2023In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 29-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People often expect physical education teachers to look fit and athletic, to do lots of physical activity, and to eat well. While ample research exists on physical education teachers' bodies, relatively few scholars have investigated how physical educators relate corporeal expectations to broader ideas about subject content, pedagogy, and the purposes of the school subject.

    Aim: The specific aim of the paper is to identify the assumptions about content, pedagogy, and educational purposes that teachers make when they talk about a perceived need for physical educators to look fit and athletic.

    Method: To frame our work theoretically, we draw from a Swedish didaktik of physical education tradition and employ Bakhtin's concept of speech genres, and Wertsch's concept of privileging. Our empirical material consists of transcripts generated from 6 focus group and 6 individual interviews (24 teachers in total, average age of 40 years, average teaching experience 11 years).

    Findings: Data suggest that when teachers use an 'athletic-looking teacher as healthy role model' speech genre, they tend to privilege: (1) a particular version of health as subject content that involves not being too overweight and maintaining physical functionality in sports. This content is based on biomedical conceptions of health which foreground exercise, eating and weight, and a pathogenic reduction of risk; (2) particular pedagogies in PE that put the teacher at the centre of the pedagogical situation, and; (3) a certain educational purpose in PE, which is to educate citizens for healthy lives through participation in sport. With respect to this purpose, increasing body weight enters the genre as a potential obstacle for educational success.

    Discussion: The findings raise questions concerning appropriate curricular content and its relation to teacher identities. They suggest that learning possibilities may be missed when certain content, pedagogies, and outcomes are privileged. The findings also indicate how wider voices are implicated in the speech genre.

    Conclusion: The paper is concluded with reflections on the possibility for change regarding expectations of physical education teachers' bodies and pedagogies.

  • 12.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rynne, Steven B.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Lee, Jessica
    School of Medicine, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Learning cultures and cultural learning in high-performance sport: opportunities for sport pedagogues2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schubring, Astrid
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moving into and out of high-performance sport: the cultural learning of an artistic gymnast2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-performance sport has been described as a formative environment through which athletes learn sporting skills but also develop athletic selves. Within this process, career movements related to selection for and de-selection from representative teams constitute critical moments. Further, retirement from sport can be problematic as the athletic self becomes ‘obsolete’. This dilemma is acute in sports that demand an early entry, extreme time investments and a high risk of retirement before adulthood. Women's artistic gymnastics (WAG) is such a sport.

    Purpose and scope: This article considers an artistic gymnast's (Marie) experiences of movement into and out of this sport. Marie's construction and reconstruction of her athletic self when she entered gymnastics at the age of six, relocated to a different city in order to train with the national team at the age of 15, and retired from the sport one year later receives particular attention.

    Method and theoretical perspective: An in-depth biographical interview was conducted with Marie. Further, the first author's personal knowledge of this gymnast's career experiences was used for contextualisation. The analysis of data involved the identification of learning outcomes during her time in high-performance WAG and post-retirement. Storied accounts surrounding the key learning experiences were compiled. In order to understand Marie's learning, cultural perspective of learning developed by education scholars and the respective metaphors of ‘learning as becoming’ and ‘horizons for action’ and ‘horizons of learning’ are employed.

    Findings: Marie's choice of relocating to train with the national team involved her assuming a temporary orientation towards the requirements of the high-performance WAG context she entered. To achieve this, Marie suppressed the dispositions she had brought to this setting and adjusted her training philosophy, relationship with her coach, diet and socialising. Further, despite Marie intending to only momentarily adjust to the practices of the high-performance context, her learning was deep. Upon retiring from gymnastics, she could not leave the high-performance gymnastics self behind. The subsequent process to adjust to life without gymnastics was difficult and testing, and could only be realised with professional treatment.

    Conclusion: Learning in sport is not limited to athletic skills. Athletes’ selves are formed in interaction with sporting contexts and actors. This embodiment can become durable and cause significant conflict when moving out of sport. To handle life without sport, adjustment may be challenging and lengthy.

    Recommendations: Sporting cultures should allow for more interactive learning and athlete diversity. Coaching practices that allow athletes to voice difficulties should be provided. Athletes should be encouraged to reflect upon their sporting experiences and upon leaving high-performance sport, should be (professionally) supported.

  • 14.
    Bergentoft, H.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Annerstedt, C.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker, D
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Holmqvist, M.
    Department of School Development and Leadership, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Teachers' actor-oriented transfer of movement pedagogy knowledge in physical education2022In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical education (PE) teachers in practically all countries are expected to help their students develop movement capability. To achieve this objective, teachers need certain knowledge and competencies. The question of how PE teachers should develop their capacities to achieve this task has received only limited research attention.

    Aim: The broad objective of this paper is to contribute to the literature on how PE teachers can develop knowledge and competencies in the area of movement capability related to students' learning. The specific aim is to identify aspects of the design of instruction in physical education that enhance teachers' actor-oriented transfer of movement pedagogy knowledge, during a collaborative professional development intervention.

    Method: The study is an analysis of three conducted learning studies in PE at upper secondary schools in Sweden. The studies involved seven PE teachers from two different schools. Our empirical material consists of (a) notes from team meetings (n = 14), (b) lesson plans (n = 9), (c) video-recorded and transcribed lessons (n = 9), and (d) results of students' learning outcomes (n = 9).

    Findings: PE teachers' analysis of their own teaching sequences in teams supported their actor-oriented transfer of movement pedagogy knowledge, which developed their abilities to further elaborate their instruction in new teaching situations. Moreover, teachers gained insights into how to further develop the quality of instructional design as expansions of earlier experiences. Lastly, a relationship between PE teachers' actor-oriented transfer and students' increased learning of movements was found.

    Conclusion: Our conclusion is that collaborative professional development for PE teachers, which supports actor-oriented transfer, should be offered to enhance teachers' movement pedagogy knowledge.

  • 15.
    Casey, Ashley
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK.
    MacPhail, Ann
    Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Between hope and happening: Problematizing the M and the P in models-based practice2021In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Advocacy through the work of many scholars in physical education and sport pedagogy highlights a significant direction towards which physical education is moving in light of calls for change. Importantly, and despite the 'newness' of the terms, 'pedagogical models' and 'Models-based Practice' (MbP) are beginning to shape the vocabulary of physical education and sport pedagogy.

    Purpose: To ask what happens if we take some of the 'good stuff associated with models and apply it in a different way while also taking some of the critical points raised towards models into consideration. Put simply, we (as scholars with different views on MbP) want to step off the beaten track to take a road less travelled and engage in a respectful, agonistic debate about the 'M' and the 'P' in MbP.

    Key arguments: From a practical perspective, the diversity of the language used in describing models and practices in physical education indicates both a growing excellence and tradition in the field and a degree of confusion. A number of phrases are currently used to identify the same concept with individuals unaware of alternative language use. At the heart of this paper lies the manner in which one interprets the use of the terms 'model', 'practice' and 'practise'.

    Discussion: Given the 'hope' inherent in pedagogical model development and implementation, we acknowledge that many of the negative or unintended consequences often arise as a result of the 'happening' both in research and in practice. However, by thinking in terms of what it is in students' actions that teachers and researchers should pay attention to in order for them to see what students learn, and in what direction this learning is developing, we are better able to see the outcomes of using MbP. In this way, the hope embedded in the chosen model, and the happenings teachers or researchers aspire to see, could be better aligned. Modelling and practicing through the focus on adaption and negotiation in various complex contexts has the potential to expand the field more than blueprints that potentially narrow the field.

    Conclusions: By recognising the dangers inherent in an essentialist notion of models (i.e. by nouning or proper nouning them), and by remembering the roles set aside for teachers in the development of pedagogical models, it is important that the practising of MbP always retains a very real sense of becoming. By continuing to problematize the M and the P, and by engaging in respectful and agonistic debate, we are better able to unite the hope and the happening of MbP.

  • 16.
    Engdahl, C.
    et al.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundvall, S.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    'Free but not free-free': teaching creative aspects of dance in physical education teacher education2023In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a global consensus that stimulating and fostering children's creativity in education is crucial. Addressing creativity has become an imperative in educational policies and in school curricula internationally. School-based physical education (PE), and specifically the teaching area of dance, has been identified as an important pedagogical setting within which to develop creativity. Existing studies have suggested, however, that dance is seldom taught in PE in ways that acknowledge creative aspects of movement learning. Scholars have claimed that teaching pre-arranged dances with predetermined movement outcomes dominate dance teaching in PE. Furthermore, studies have asserted that the overarching regulative principles of PE and PETE that privilege sport skills and physical exercise hinder creative movement learning. Still, dance teaching is frequently seen as part of expressive dance teaching in PE and PETE and is regarded as holding potential in the area of education for creativity. Little scholarly attention has been given to how teacher educators approach creative aspects in dance teaching.

    Purpose: This article aims to create insights into how PETE teacher educators understand and work with creative aspects of dance in their educational practice.

    Method and theory: To address our aim, we investigate how teacher educators describe their teaching of creative aspects of dance. To do this, empirical material was generated through qualitative interviews with PE teacher educators from each of the PETE institutions in Sweden. The theoretical concepts of smooth and striated spaces and experimentation by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari were used to guide the analysis of how the PETE educators described their teaching of creative aspects of dance. Deleuze and Guattari developed a framework that concerned questions of creativity and newness. Despite this conceptual framework having not yet been used in dance education in PE and PETE, their writing fits well when analysing questions of creativity in an educational context.

    Findings: We identified three major themes relating to creativity in the empirical material: (a) creative aspects of expressive dance; (b) challenges that teacher educators face when introducing movement exploration in expressive dance to their students, and; (c) the teacher educators' pedagogical work with students.

    Discussion: The results of this study show that teaching expressive dance can take teaching in PE and PETE in new directions. The results provide insights into alternative ways of teaching in these educational settings that can counter the dominant ways of teaching dance. Results suggest that teacher educators operate in various striated spaces that are shaped by expectations and conventions. In such spaces, the educators aim to create momentary passages of smoothening that open up for experimentation and the development of students' creativity. The results also suggest that expressive dance in PE and PETE emphasizes creative movement learning through which students learn to operate within new and unpredictable situations.

  • 17.
    Janemalm, Lucas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Transformation of complex movements from policy to practice: a discourse analysis of Swedish physical education teachers’ concepts of moving2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 410-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: How teachers enact policy has been of significant interest to educational scholars. In physical education research, scholars have identified several factors affecting the enactment of policy. These factors include but are not limited to: structural support available for teachers, provision of professional development opportunities, the nature of the policy, and the educational philosophies of the teachers. A recurring conclusion drawn in this scholarship is that official documentation and teachers’ work often diverge, sometimes in profound ways.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how physical education teachers in Sweden describe their enactment of policy regarding the concept complex movement, which features in the latest Swedish curriculum.

    Methods: Interview data were generated with six specialist physical education teachers. Three questions guided the interviews: What is complex movement? What is not complex movement? And, can you give examples from your teaching of complex movement? Data were analyzed using a discourse analytic framework. Meaning was understood as a production of dialectical relationships between individuals and social practices. Two key concepts were utilized: intertextuality, which refers to the condition whereby all communicative events, not merely utterances, draw on earlier communication events, and interdiscursivity, which refers to discursive practices in which discourse types are combined in new and complex ways.

    Results: We identified three discourses regarding the teachers’ enactment of policy: (1) Complex movement as individual difficulty, (2) Complex movement as composite movements, and (3) Complex movement as situational adaptation. Several features were common to all three discourses: they were all related to issues of assessment; they suggested that complex movement is something students should be able to show or perform, and; they left open room for practically any activity done in physical education to be considered complex.

    Discussion: Three issues are addressed in the Discussion. The first concerns the intertextual nature of the teachers’ statements and how the statements relate to policy and research. The second concerns the way that knowledge, and specifically movement knowledge, becomes problematic in the teachers’ statements about complex movement. The third concerns more broadly the language used to describe the relationship between policy and practice.

    Conclusions: We propose that modest levels of overlap between teachers’ discursive resources, policy, and research is unsurprising. In line with earlier research, we suggest that the notion of ‘enactment’ is a more productive way to describe policy-oriented practice than notions such as ‘implementation’ or ‘translation’, which imply a uni-directional, linear execution of policy.

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    Transformation of complex movements from policy to practice – a discourse analysis of Swedish physical education teachers’ concepts of moving
  • 18.
    Lindgren Fjellner, Robin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Varea, Valeria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    How physical education teachers are positioned in models scholarship: a scoping review2022In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite increasing support for models in physical education, ambiguity exists concerning the role of teachers in the implementation of models. Very generally, some scholarship seems to suggest that teachers should work as technicians and use models in an instrumental manner. Other scholarship suggests that teachers should use models in ways that are responsive to the contexts in which they are working. This suggestion positions teachers more as craftspeople. Ambiguity is problematic given that teachers have been identified as 'key players' when it comes to the implementation of models. How teachers are positioned in research may have a significant impact on further research and pedagogical practices.

    Purpose: This paper has two specific aims. First, we aim to provide a detailed map of how scholars have positioned teachers within physical education models literature. Second, we aim to provide a reinterpretation of our findings using Deweyan theory.

    Data production: The scoping review conducted here is based on the framework provided by Arksey and O'Malley [2005. "Scoping Studies: Towards a Methodological Framework." International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8 (1): 19-32]. It involved: (1) the development of a research question which was: in which ways does PE models literature position teachers? (2) the identification of potentially relevant literature through searches of the Web of Science, SPORT Discus and Google Scholar databases. The search terms used were: 'Physical education' AND 'Models-based practice;' OR; 'Pedagogical model;' OR; 'Instructional model;' OR; 'Curriculum model;' OR; 'Model;' OR; 'Teacher,' and literature needed to be published between 2010 and 2021 in English, (3) the selection of literature for the review. This occurred as an iterative process that involved going back and forth between the potentially relevant literature and our research question, (4) charting of the literature, done through inductive thematic analysis. This involved a close inspection of the included texts and the identification of recurring types of positioning in the corpus, and (5) a theoretical reinterpretation of teacher positioning achieved in models scholarship.

    Findings: In the physical education scholarship on pedagogical models, teachers are positioned as: (1) resistant to using models; (2) incapable of using models correctly; (3) mechanical reproducers of models; (4) struggling implementers of models; (5) needing models to change their ordinary practices; (6) capable of using models correctly with support; (7) adapters of models, and (8) collaborators with researchers when implementing models.

    Discussion: Three issues are raised for discussion. The first relates to the potential disempowerment of teachers achieved by models. The second relates to the relationship between teachers and researchers. The third relates to how models themselves are conceived.

    Conclusion: The paper is concluded with two general reflections that follow from the issues raised in the discussion.

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    How physical education teachers are positioned in models scholarship: a scoping review
  • 19.
    Lindgren, R.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Implementing the Movement-Oriented Practising Model (MPM) in physical education: empirical findings focusing on student learning2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 534-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the existence of numerous pedagogical models, Aggerholm, Standal, Barker and Larsson [2018. Aggerholm, K., O. Standal, D. M. Barker, and H. Larsson. 2018. "On Practising in Physical Education: Outline for a Pedagogical Model." Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 23 (2): 197-208] recently made a case for the introduction of a new model. Based on the work of German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk, the Movement-Oriented Practising Model (MPM) contains a philosophical rationale, a set of guiding principles, and an illustration of how lessons based on the model could look in the classroom. This paper reports empirical findings from an investigation in which the model was employed. The aim was to discern how students' movement dispositions develop when they take part in lessons guided by the MPM.

    Method: Empirical material was produced with one ninth-grade class that took part in ten lessons based on the MPM. Three types of empirical material were generated through observations, focus group interviews, and textual work produced by students. Analysis of the combined data was informed by Gilbert Ryle's [2009. The Concept of Mind. New York: Routledge] theory of knowing and dispositions.

    Findings: Four descriptive cases are presented. Each case focuses on a student's dispositional development over the course of the ten lessons. Dispositional development involved changes in: the ways students moved, the students' approaches to practicing and performing, and the ways the students described themselves and their learning.

    Discussion: The findings are discussed in relation to the philosophy and guiding principles of the MPM. Specifically, we consider: (1) how students developed in unique and personal ways during the module, (2) how dispositional development may not always be observable when students participate in lessons based on the MPM, and, (3) how time impacts upon learning when employing the MPM.

    Conclusion: Reflections on practical implications associated with the MPM are put forward and questions for further scholarly consideration are raised.

  • 20.
    Mustell, Jan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    How ball games experts legitimate ball games knowledge within Swedish physical education teacher education2022In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Various forms and types of knowledge have enjoyed legitimacy in physical education (PE) since sports techniques became the orienting idea for PE in economically advanced countries in the mid-twentieth century. The forms and types of knowledge granted legitimacy at any one moment are dependent on a range of socio-discursive factors. In this paper, we consider ball games knowledge within the Swedish PE teacher education context in the 2020s.

    Purpose: The specific aim of the paper is to generate insights into how ball games experts within PE teacher education define legitimate ball games knowledge. Our proposition is that by examining the ways these experts define ball games knowledge, physical education teacher educators may develop more nuanced understandings of how and why knowledge comes to be seen as legitimate.

    Methods: In order to conceptualize experts' knowledge of ball games, Shulman's concepts of content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) were employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two teacher educators who specialized in ball games education from three different PETE institutions in Sweden (n = 6). The interviews focused on the PETE educators' understandings of ball games and how they prepared preservice teachers to teach ball games.

    Findings: The PETE educators defined ball games CK as: (1) understanding of games as a cultural phenomenon, (2) tactical understanding of games, and (3) embodied understanding of how to play ball games. The PETE educators defined ball games PCK as: (1) using ball games to meet different curricular goals, (2) focusing on tactical understanding with a small number of concepts, (3) adapting teaching so that all pupils are included, and (4) managing competition.

    Conclusions: Four issues related to the legitimacy of this knowledge are raised. The issues concern the ways in which: (1) a complementary sport discourse is permeated by educational discourse to achieve legitimacy; (2) CK and PCK are designed to achieve legitimacy with different stakeholders; (3) public health discourse is not used to develop legitimacy for ball games knowledge, and (4) historical factors continue to affect experts' understandings of ball games. The central conclusion drawn from the investigation is that ball games experts engage in a complex process of discursive negotiation when defining the knowledge with which they work.

  • 21.
    Nyberg, G.
    et al.
    School of Education, Health and Social Sciences, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, H.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Learning in the educational landscapes of juggling, unicycling, and dancing2021In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Movement learning has been thoroughly investigated in the area of motor learning research. Although existing studies have contributed to a substantial understanding of motor learning, many have been criticized for their reliance on experimental designs where learning is decontextualized, simplified, and investigated in laboratory settings. Researchers have claimed that motor learning theories emanating from such studies are grounded on a dualistic approach to learning and that the theories are often difficult to apply in educational settings. More pedagogically-inspired studies of movement education have investigated movement learning, but the majority of this research has focused on teaching. This focus has left the process of learning somewhat unexplored. There is thus a need for empirical studies that investigate students' learning processes in educational contexts.

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore, analyze, and understand how learners develop their movement capability when they are provided opportunities to choose different ways of learning activities.

    Theory and method: We combine Ryle's and Polanyi's ideas concerning practical knowledge with Hirst's and Carlgren's idea of knowing as familiarity with a landscape. Ryle's notion of 'intelligent practice' is used in thinking of the kinds of actions individuals might engage in. Characterizing features of intelligent practice includes being sensitive to one's own actions, changing one's behavior as the result of mistakes, and profiting from the examples of others. We understand the development of movement capability as continuously expanding one's ability to discern nuances and their relationships. This perspective fits well with Polanyi's notion of focal and subsidiary awareness. Taken together Ryle's, Polanyi's, Hirst's, and Carlgren's notions related to knowing and learning inform our perspective on learning in movement education. Based on this perspective on knowing and learning, an action-oriented study was conducted. The researchers created pedagogical modules and collaborated with teachers and university educators to develop learning sequences in line with the needs of their respective groups. With each group, we produced data based on video and field notes. Three successful learners were chosen and followed in-depth with regard to their learning actions.

    Findings: The findings show the learners' varying ways of exploring a movement landscape as playing around in the terrain; checking the map; investigating one chosen path; occupying the vantage point; imitating and actively observing. The findings suggest that oscillating between varying kinds of learning actions is an additional characterizing feature of 'intelligent practice.'

    Discussion: The findings demonstrate how the learning of movement capability could occur when providing opportunities to engage in 'intelligent practice' while at the same time directing their focal awareness toward what is most beneficial to them. Opposed to a 'step-by-step' approach to learning, the learners come to know a movement landscape as extending one's capability to discern and differentiate details, nuances, and their relationships.

    The findings suggest that it may be beneficial for learners to get opportunities to oscillate between different kinds of learning actions.

  • 22.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring the educational landscape of juggling: challenging notions of ability in physical education2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on physical education (PE) shows a prevalence of narrow and reductionist views on what counts as ability. These views tend to privilege certain students and marginalize others, and often equate ability with technique-based sport performance. A lot of research is still directed towards the above problem. However, very few have devoted time and energy to actually resolving this problem. If no alternatives to narrow and reductionist views of ability are presented, then research will struggle to make a difference to the practice of PE. Assuming that movement is a key element in PE, the question of what counts as ability in PE is, we argue, a question of what capabilities a learner needs to develop in order to move in different ways. Investigating what movement capability can mean will provide possibilities for discussing and negotiating the meaning of ability in PE when the learning goal is something other than technique-based sport performance.

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further advance the knowledge base of what movement capability can mean within the context of PE. By achieving this aim, we intend to challenge narrow views on ability and thereby provide enhanced possibilities for PE to make a difference for students' abilities through education.

    Theory and method: The process of coming to know something can be seen as exploring, with all senses, a landscape. Exploration involves recognizing details and nuances of the landscape and their relationships to one another. In this investigation, we examine what there is to know in the landscape of juggling using Ryle's and Polanyi's notions of knowing and learning. In line with a focus on the learners' perspectives, interviews and observations were conducted with students whilst they were coming to know juggling. Ethnographic-type conversations were used to help students describe what they seemed to know or were aiming to know. Students were invited to write diaries with a focus on their experiences during the learning process, which we hoped could extend our insights regarding the experiential aspects in learning.

    Findings: Findings of the investigation suggest that in the group of students, four significant ways of knowing the landscape of juggling are important: grasping a pattern; grasping a rhythm; preparing for the next throw and catch and navigating one's position and throwing. The research challenges the narrow view on ability as technique-based sport performance by providing examples of what movement capability can mean in terms of knowing a movement landscape alternatively to knowing a specific movement 'in the right way.'

  • 23.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Healthying physical education: on the possibility of learning health2019In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As part of the annual activities at the British Educational Research Association (BERA) conference, the Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Special Interest Group (SIG) organises a so-called Invisible College, where a Scholar Lecture is delivered by a researcher who has made a significant contribution to the field. This paper is the 2018 Scholar Lecture.

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to discuss two concepts and the relations between them – health and learning.

    Key concepts: In the paper, the metaphor of the swimmer in the river, as introduced by Antonovsky, is used in order to go beyond individualistic, dualistic and instrumental notions of health and education. I argue for a move away from a notion of teaching young people how to be healthy through the deployment of ready-made educational packages, towards acknowledging health education as a societal responsibility, where it is recognised that sociocultural and economic contexts afford diverse opportunities to be healthy and to learn to live healthy lives, however these are construed.

    Discussion and conclusion: Rather than confining health and health education to the prevention of premature death and disease, I discuss health, in relation to learning, as always being in the process of becoming. The health resources for living a good life can then be found in the ‘river’, with the ‘swimmer’, and in the relation between the ‘river’ and the ‘swimmer’. In this way, health can manifest itself in many different ways. I ask why we even attempt to talk about health in the singular when talking about different diseases. Is health rather a plural? Is it even a noun? Or is it something we do – a verb? If the latter, health education can be conceived of as a practice – ‘healthying’ – rather than a fixed, static outcome set up by research and public health policies as something to achieve in education.

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    Healthying physical education: on the possibility of learning health
  • 24.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    PE on YouTube: investigating participation i physical education practice2013In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 42-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this article, students’ diverse ways of participating in physical education (PE) practice shown in clips on YouTube were investigated. YouTube is the largest user-generated video sharing website on the Internet, where different video content is presented. The clips on YouTube, as used in this paper, can be seen as a user-generated archive of ongoing PE practices that can enrich our understanding of how students participate in PE, as well as what they participate in.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study were to analyse students’ diverse ways of participating in PE in order to say something about its practice.

    Research design: A transactional approach, which takes action in ongoing activities as the point of departure, were was used as a theoretical framework, and the sample used consisteds of student- and teacher posted video clips from 285 PE lessons in 27 different countries.

    Data analysis: In the analysis, students’ and teachers’ actions-in-ongoing-events were explored in terms of how they participate in the sociocultural practice of PE in terms of students’ and teachers’ habits-of-action. In this way, PE as a sociocultural practice can be investigated. In the analysis students’ and teachers’ actions-in-ongoing-events were coded in terms of how they participated in ways that were stable or ‘normal’, and which made the situation become stable.

    Findings: In transactional studies an effort is put forth to empirically describing and categorising the results of the analysis from the functions the actions constitute in a certain situation. In this study this implied categorising how actions, in the constant flow of actions, contributed to other actions being oriented in a specific direction in a certain situation, including both spoken and embodied actions in the studied event. Three Four major themes emerged from the analysis; Doing sport, Trying and having fun, and Training fitness, and two minor themes Warming up, and Dancing emerged from the analysis. Each theme describes how students and teachers participate and how they through their participation shape the content of PE practice.

    Conclusion: Questions of knowledge in PE can be seen as manifested in students’ and teachers’ ways of being and acting, as well as their ability to participate in the ongoing PE practices. By using a transactional approach the study explored how PE practice is established, maintained and shaped through students’ and teachers’ actions-in-context. The consequences of the study indicate that PE and what is regarded as relevant knowledge in PE practice can be constituted in several different ways. PE is about diverse ways of participating, and in this diversity PE is constituted in a manifold of ways in its practice. These participatory processes contribute to the constitution of PE as a socio-cultural practice, and students know PE practice through these processes.

  • 25.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Swedish physical education research2008In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 295-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article does not have an abstract.

  • 26.
    Thorén, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    School of Health Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    What physical education becomes when pupils with neurodevelopmental disorders are integrated: a transactional understanding2021In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 578-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research on inclusive physical education (PE) has often focused on pupils with visible physical disabilities and how best to facilitate and adapt PE so that they can play an active role in the educational situation. Many lessons about inclusion have emerged from this important field. However, less is known about more ‘invisible’ variations. In Sweden, many pupils who are diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), are integrated into mainstream classes. These pupils are often more sensitive to demands and stressful situations and struggle to decode social interactions. When it comes to lessons in PE, little is known about how pupils with NDD experience the educational situation and what they need to do to be successful in PE.

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to explore what PE practices become in classes in which pupils with NDD are integrated in terms of inclusion or exclusion processes. Drawing on the work of John Dewey, we suggest a transactional perspective on inclusion. This facilitates a non-dualistic exploration of inclusive PE and makes it possible to take the experiences of pupils with NDD and their peers into account.

    Methods: In the article we use a transactional framework with a focus on experiencemeaning-making and habits using the following analytical questions: (i) What are the experiences of integrated PE? (ii) How do these events appear as inclusive? (iii) How do they appear as exclusive? The data generation consisted of 9 field observations and 13 individual interviews with pupils aged between 10 and 11 years in three classes in two different schools in one municipality. The municipality was awarded a grant by the Swedish authorities to work towards the creation of more favourable school situations for pupils with NDD. Three classes in which pupils with NDD diagnoses were integrated in PE were selected.

    Findings: The study identified four PE practices in which inclusion and exclusion processes were prominent: (i) to organise, (ii) to cooperate, (iii) to sweat and (iv) to win. ‘To organise’ is a comprehensive practice that is transactionally identified and foregrounded by teachers’ actions. The other three are embedded in the practice ‘to organise’, which foregrounds pupils’ actions. The study shows that pupils are included in a certain kind of PE practice when it becomes an organised practice of sweating, competing and cooperating.

    Conclusion: The study reveals that some of the inclusive practices that are designed to support pupils with NDD exclude other pupils with or without NDD. Accordingly, working in an integrated way can be both inclusive and exclusive. It would thus seem that successful inclusive education in PE is as much about group dynamics as about ‘individual pupils with problems’. In order to achieve inclusion, teachers need to focus on actively communicating with pupils, colleagues and parents, on how and what to teach and on what students are supposed to learn.

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    What physical education becomes when pupils with neurodevelopmental disorders are integrated: a transactional understanding
  • 27.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Different versions of assessment for learning in the subject of physical education2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment for learning (AfL) is now marketed across the Western world as a key to an improved goal attainment in most school subjects. The concept has also attracted increased interest in the international research field of physical education (PE) in recent years. According to (Chan, K., P. J. Hay, and R. Tinning. 2011. “Understandingthe Pedagogic Discourse of Assessment in Physical Education.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education 2 (1): 3–18) assessment both influences the teaching and learning process and defines its product, which is referred to as the ‘backwash effect’. Contrasting versions of AfL will therefore have different consequences, regarding the constitution of teacher and student subjectivities as wellas characteristics of the subject content. These consequences can be understood in terms of didactics, which in a European research tradition focuses on the relationship between teacher, student and subject content (Hudson, B., and M. A. Meyer, eds. 2011. Beyond Fragmentation:Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe. Opladen and FarmingtonHills: Barbara Budrich Publishers).

    Purpose and research question: The purpose of the study is to identify teacher and student subjectivities as well as subject content, constituted through different versions of AfL in school PE. The identification of the different versions of AfL and the relations established through each of them is facilitated by the research question: ‘What is performed and produced in the formative assessment practice of PE?’ The findings are then discussed on the basis of the question: ‘Assessment for what learning?’

    Methods: In order to answer the research question, a mixed method of lesson observations and semi-structured interviews was used (cf. Patton,M. Q. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed.Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Inc). Thirteen PE lessons were observed at two different upper secondary schools, involving four classes attaining both vocational and pre-university programmes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 of the students and their two male PE teachers. The empirical material consisted of field notes and transcriptions of the interviews, with an emphasis on the latter. In the first step of the analysis the material was categorised by means of the five key strategies of AfL (Wiliam, D. 2011. “What is Assessment forLearning?” Studies in Educational Evaluation 37: 3–14. Elsevier), in order to identify different ways of realising the concept in the subject of PE. The second step was a combination of a performativity (Ball, S. J. 2003.“The Teacher’s Soul and the Terrors of Performativity.” Journal of Education Policy 18 (2): 215–228) and a didactic (Hudson, B. 2002.“Holding Complexity and Searching for Meaning: Teaching as Reflective Practice.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 34 (1): 43–57) analysis, which clarified the relations established under different circumstances in the formative assessment practice.

    Findings: The findings highlight five versions of AfL in PE, named after their most prominent features or functions, AfL as: (i) Empowerment, (ii)Physical Activation, (iii) Constructive Alignment, (iv) Grade Generation, (v) Negotiation. ‘Among the products of discursive practices are the very persons who engage in them’ (Davies, B., and R. Harré. 2001.“Positioning: The Discursive Production of Selves.” In Discourse Theoryand Practice, edited by M. Wetherell, S. Taylor, and S. J. Yates. London:Sage, 263). Accordingly, different teacher and student subjectivities as well as characteristics of the subject content are constituted in each of these fabrications.

    Conclusions: The so-called ‘backwash effect’ (Torrance, H. 2012.“Formative Assessment at the Crossroads: Conformative, Deformativeand Transformative Assessment.” Oxford Review of Education 38 (3): 323–342. London: Routledge) implies that the contrasting versions of AfL promote different kinds of learning, such as: (i) increased autonomy, (ii) participation in a community of practice, (iii) acquisition of prescribedabilities, (iv) criteria compliance, (v) group development. However, the big idea of AfL is to adapt the teaching to the students and not the students to the standards.

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    Different versions of assessment for learning in the subject of physical education
  • 28.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Sciences and School of Teacher Education, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Sciences and School of Teacher Education, Falun, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Exploring Movement Composition in the transition from physical education teacher education to school PE2022In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scholars have suggested that students’ views of what is important for them to know as Physical Education (PE) teachers are a result of what is assessed in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE). Thus, there is a risk that students will reproduce content areas such as sports and assess sport-techniques without much critical consideration. In this study, however, the risk of reproducing what is prioritised in PETE is seen as an opportunity regarding the potential reproduction of other content areas than sports. Based on the regulative principles of PE and PETE that privilege sport skills and hinder creative movement learning, we focus on a content area in PETE that provides opportunities for students to engage in creative collaboration and examine how this content area is realised in school PE. Hence, we have chosen to explore ‘Movement Composition’, a content area which has a long tradition at one of the PETE universities in Sweden. Based on an overarching interest in whether and how PETE matters, this exploratory study focuses on the potential transferability of Movement Composition as a particular content area in the transition from PETE to PE.

    Purpose and research question: The purpose of this study is to explore Movement Composition as a content area undergoing the transition from PETE to school PE. The research question is: How is the pedagogic discourse of Movement Composition constructed, recontextualised and realised in the transition from PETE to school PE?

    Methods: Data was generated through an interview with one of the initiators of Movement Composition. Stimulated Recall interviews and Zoom interviews were also conducted with a group of five PETE students and three experienced PE teachers. In addition, documents such as the study guide, course literature, and written assignments associated with Movement Composition in the PETE programme were included in the empirical material. In the analysis, the combination of Bernstein’s pedagogic device and the Swedish didactics of PE research tradition was used to identify the pedagogic discourse of Movement Composition in the transition from PETE to school PE.

    Findings: The findings show how the pedagogic discourse of Movement Composition as a content area is constructed, recontextualised and realised in the transition from PETE to school PE. The construction of Movement Composition as a pedagogic discourse in PETE is about how the content area (the what) is selected and organised for pedagogical purposes. The recontextualisation of Movement Composition is about how the pedagogic discourse is interpreted and translated in relation to the PE syllabus. The realisation of Movement Composition involves how the content area in PETE is implemented in PE practice.

    Conclusions: This exploratory study has shown that what is articulated as a relevant content area and the way it is taught, learned, and assessed in PETE in many regards survives the transition to school PE. The transition from PETE to school PE does not only involve reproduction of sports and sport-techniques from one context to another. PETE also contributes to the use of creative, collaborative, and student-centred learning tasks in school PE.

  • 29.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Primary and Secondary Teacher Education, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Nyberg, G.
    Department of Sport and Health Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Larsson, H.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessment for and of learning in nonlinear movement education practices2023In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Principles such as instructional alignment and step-by-step progression are often seen as crucial features of good assessment practices in school physical education (PE). These features are problematic from nonlinear educational perspectives, which are based on the idea that movement learning cannot be expected to take place in the same manner for all students. Without some resolution of the contradiction between nonlinear pedagogies and principles of good assessment, the likelihood of physical educators fully embracing any kind of nonlinear approach to movement education remains doubtful.

    Purpose and research question: Our purpose in this paper is to illustrate how assessment for and of learning (AfL and AoL) can look when implemented in nonlinear movement education practices.  

    Methods: Illustrations of AfL and AoL are drawn from an investigation in which one educator implements a nonlinear movement education module. The module focuses on juggling for students at high school (grade nine students aged approximately 15 years). The module provided students with 10 x 50-minute lessons to explore juggling. Data were generated through observations (film clips and field notes) and ethnographic-type interviews that were conducted with the students during the lessons.

    Findings: In the context of the nonlinear movement education module, AfL became: Interacting with students in joint exploration; Introducing learning strategies; Encouraging students to clarify and verbalize the object of learning; Helping students identify critical aspects of the movement activity, and; Inviting students to consider alternative learning trajectories. The educator then evaluates the students’ learning experiences in the context of a group performance at the end of the module. This performance can be seen as an instance of holistic assessment within a nonlinear movement education practice. 

    Conclusions: The suggested holistic perspective on PE assessment could help educators to: circumvent dichotomies such as mind-body and theory-practice; approach students as active meaning-makers; re-frame students’ actions as emergent and context-dependent; and replace direct instruction with explorative teaching and learning methods. The major contribution of this study is that it shows how assessment for and of learning can be implemented in nonlinear movement education practices within a linear, goal-related and criterion-referenced, education system.

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  • 30.
    Varea, Valeria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    González-Calvo, Gustavo
    Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    García-Monge, Alfonso
    Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Exploring the changes of physical education in the age of Covid-192022In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical education(PE) has been traditionally considered as a practical and ‘hands-on’ subject in schools, where close proximity and physical contact is common, particularly in Spain which has a high proximity culture. Significantly, the delivery of PE has changed because of the Covid-19 pandemic, and this brings significant consequences for pre-service PE teachers.

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to explore the changes of PE during Covid-19 and the effects on pre-service teachers.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were used to produce data with a group of 12 pre-service PE teachers from Spain (four women and eight men) who were undertaking their practicum in PE when the Covid-19 lockdown was imposed in Spain [14 March 2020]. Dredging was used as an analytical technique to identify the relations and affects that comprised assemblages of bodies, things and social formations.

    Findings: Results suggest that pre-service teachers are having difficulties in re-assembling PE in the age of Covid-19, and that this produces the affects of precarity, fear and insecurity. Furthermore, the PE re-assemblage also results in a shift of pedagogical affects. The participants particularly struggled to think on a PE assemblage that does not include the affect of physical encounters with their students. The new assemblage of PE also included encounters with digital technologies, which allowed for particular openings and closings for a re-alignment into the shifted PE.

    Conclusions: Pre-service teachers were unfamiliar with the way the PE assemblage has shifted, and this shifting affected their ability to produce affects in the ‘new PE’. The new PE assemblage leads to a significant change in the culture of PE teaching in Spain, where physical contact between teachers and students was previously normal and taken for granted.

  • 31.
    Ward, Gavin
    et al.
    Department of Sport and Physical Activity, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, United Kingdom.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Transactions in primary physical education in the UK: a smorgasbord of looks-like-sport2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 137-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Crum proposes the term ‘movement culture’ as a means to best understand the relationships between PE and wider movement practices. Learning within movement culture is practical and embodied, and integral to the cultural and institutional contexts within which PE is situated. 

    Purpose: Using visual data gathered from PE lessons within a UK primary school this paper aims to identify movement cultures across the observed PE lessons, and understand how these movement cultures are shaped and maintained by analysing how teachers and pupils' actions-in-on-going-events make the movement cultures something ‘in-common’. 

    Participants, research design and data collection: A mixture of Year 5 and 6 PE lessons were video recorded within a primary school in the West Midlands. Careful attention was paid to the ethical considerations involved in the collection and storage of the data. 

    Data analysis: By dissolving the dualism between an individual and their environment, Dewey and Bentley's (1949/1991) transactional theory of learning supports an analysis of action in context. Application of this theory enables the researcher to explore actions-in-on-going activities and understand how this action shapes the movement culture within which it occurs. In this process we did not use theory to deduce the participants' intensions or potential changes in their cognitive structures; rather it was the functions' actions constituted in the observed situation, which lead the analysis. 

    Findings: The existence of a multi-activity idea of sampling different sports within this study of primary PE amounted to eating from a smorgasbord where the flavours of the dishes initially looked different, but actually tasted the same. Each dish was differentiated by the use of contrasting equipment, physical locations and named activities. In reality what was realised was a diluted, repetitive and overriding flavour of looks-like-sport. Pupils were tasked with actions which functioned to produce a stage managed show of controlled activity. This was supplemented by their compliance to strict behaviour codes and by attempting to make highly cooperative tasks and games work. This was aided by the adoption and acceptance of different roles. Succeeding within this movement culture demanded an implicit understanding of the need to coordinate actions with others cooperatively. 

    Conclusions: The standout flavour within this smorgasbord involved gymnastics, where the removal of competition and provision of space for pupils to re-actualise their knowledge, created an interesting blend of pupil engagement, sustained physical activity, creativity, inclusion and cooperation. These interesting flavours may have been curtailed by a need to replicate movements acceptable to doing gymnastics-for-real and suggests that other forms of looks-like-sport may have the potential to elicit similar action. Continued investigation of the directions of actions-in-context-in-PE-settings would aid our understanding of the creation, nature and reproduction of learning experiences within this looks-like-sport movement culture. More specifically, analysis of the educational content and pedagogy of the recorded PE lessons within this school would support our understanding of how teachers and pupils negotiate the complex mix of educational, sport and health discourses that constitute the looks-like-sport movement culture.

  • 32.
    Öhman, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Feel good—be good: subject content and governing processes in physical education2008In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 365-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this paper a study of both subject content and governing processes in Swedish physical education is presented. The reason why an analysis of both content and processes is of special interest is that it makes it possible to understand the encounter between the institutional level and the practice of education.

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is threefold: (1) to analyse the subject content in physical education through identifying discourses embedded in its practice; (2) to illustrate how the subject content is created/re-created in physical education practice through various governing processes; and (3) to discuss how governing processes also become content through the

    socialization of students in terms of becoming a certain type of social citizen.

    Research design and data collection: The empirical material used is collected in connection with a national evaluation of physical education in Sweden, commissioned by the Swedish Government and the Swedish National Agency for Education. This paper uses local curriculum documents from 72 schools and 15 video-recorded physical education lessons from five schools. A starting point for the methodological framework is discourse theory and the governing perspective developed by Michel Foucault (1978/1991, 1980, 1982/2002). The governing perspective is used as a methodological tool, and we work with two overarching analysis themes: one oriented towards what pupils are governed, in terms of discourses embedded in physical education, and the other how the identified discourses are created/re-created in the practice of physical education. We also use the methodological framework as a tool to discuss how the governing processes also become content—a content of socialization.

    Findings: The results show that physical exertion and active participation are the main threads that run though the analysed material. In connection with physical exertion and active participation, pupils are also encouraged to cooperate with others and to compete. The content of socialization is primarily directed towards different components of willingness, for example a will to do one’s best and a will to try, where the pupils are expected to be participatory, take responsibility and govern their own actions in the direction of that which is most reasonable.

    Conclusions: A clear message is communicated in physical education in Sweden—be active and work up a sweat. This is also concerned with fostering good character, i.e. creating correct attitudes and approaches through physical activity—be an active and willing person. Physical education is consequently a place where both political volition and the creation of today’s citizens are staged. It is thus not only physical exertion—the physiological effects of exercise and involvement in sports and physical education—that is in the foreground of the activities we study in physical education. It is also about becoming a certain type of social citizen.

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