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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Kenttä, Göran
    Johansson, Mathias
    A qualitative analysis of burnout in elite Swedish athletes2008In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Psychology of Sport & Exercise, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 800-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To extend the understanding of burnout in elite athletes, including personal experiences and perceived antecedents.

    Design and Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Swedish 22- to 26-year-old elite athletes who had quit sport due to burnout. The interview transcripts were inductively analyzed using qualitative content analysis,

    Results: The findings support the notion of athlete burnout as a multidimensional syndrome. While stressors like multiple demands. "too much sport," lack of recovery and high expectations were considered primary causes of burnout by the respondents, high motivation, unidimensional athletic identity. self-esteem strivings, high ego goals, negative perfectionist traits and feelings of entrapment were also found to be critical contributors. These restraining factors explained why the athletes continued their participation in sport despite a progressive worsening of their condition, and are therefore potentially crucial in the development of burnout.

    Conclusion: Athlete burnout appears to be it complex interaction of multiple stressors, inadequate recovery and frustration from unfulfilled expectations, which is explained partly by maladaptive perfectionist traits and goals. This process is fuelled by a strong drive to validate self-worth, sometimes in conjunction with feelings of entrapment.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad university, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Skoog, Therése
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City UT, USA.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Hope and athlete burnout: Stress and affect as mediators2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 640-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study we examined the relationship between trait hope and burnout in elite junior soccer players and whether stress and positive and negative affect mediated this relationship.

    Methods: Participants were 238 Swedish soccer players (166 males, 71 females; one did not indicate gender) aged 15-19 years who completed questionnaires measuring trait hope, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation).

    Results: Bivariate correlations were consistent with hope theory contentions indicating significant negative relationships between hope and all three burnout dimensions. The relationship between hope and emotional/physical exhaustion was fully mediated by stress and positive affect. For sport devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment, stress and positive affect partially mediated the relationship with hope. In contrast, negative affect did not mediate the relationship between hope and any of the burnout dimensions.

    Conclusion: The results support earlier findings that hope is negatively related to athlete burnout. Support was also found for the hypothesis that high hope individuals would experience less stress and therefore less burnout. Promoting hope may be relevant in reducing the likelihood of this detrimental syndrome. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Smith, Alan L.
    et al.
    Dept Hlth & Kinesiol, Purdue Univ, W Lafayette IN, USA.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Swedish Winter Sports Res Ctr, Mid Sweden Univ, Östersund, Sweden.
    Hassmen, Peter
    Dept Psychol, Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of adolescent athletes2010In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The role of social environment in fostering athlete burnout is understudied, in particular with regard to the peer social context. We therefore examined the association between perceptions of the peer-created motivational climate and athlete burnout in adolescent athletes while controlling for weekly training hours and perceived stress. We also examined potential gender differences on peer-created motivational climate perceptions. Method: Adolescent athletes (N = 206, M age = 17.2 yr) completed questionnaires assessing weekly training hours and perceptions of stress, task-involving (i.e., improvement, relatedness support, effort) and ego-involving (i.e., intra-team competition and ability, intra-team conflict) peer motivational climate, and burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, sport devaluation). Results: Multivariate multiple regression analysis with training hours, stress, and peer motivational climate variables predicting the burnout components showed a significant multivariate relationship with 24.6% of burnout variance explained. Canonical loadings indicated that lower scores on weekly training hours, higher perceived stress and intra-team conflict peer climate perception scores, and lower improvement, relatedness support, and effort peer climate perception scores associate with higher scores on all burnout components. Intra-team competition and ability did not contribute to prediction of burnout. Stronger prediction was observed for individual compared to team sport athletes. Gender differences were in line with expectations. Males scored higher on the two ego-involving peer motivational climate components, whereas females scored higher than males on effort. Conclusion: The findings offer insight on the potential role of social context in shaping burnout perceptions and suggest that attention to peers in the burnout process is warranted. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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