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  • 1.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bøhn, S. K.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Paulsen, G.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, R.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Karlsen, A.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, R.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 600-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

  • 3.
    Crommert, Martin Eriksson
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Family Medicine Research Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, M. M.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, A.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Motor control of the trunk during a modified clean and jerk lift2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 758-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pattern of trunk muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in a somewhat modified version of the clean and jerk lift. Nine healthy physically active male amateurs performed the exercise with a 30-kg barbell. Muscle activity was registered with electromyography from transversus abdominis (TrA) and obliquus internus (OI) using intramuscular electrodes and from rectus abdominis (RA) and erector spinae (ES) with surface electrodes. IAP was recorded with a nasogastric catheter. Measurements were made in various static positions throughout the lift and in the transitional phases separating them, both during lifting and lowering. The results demonstrated that the innermost abdominal muscle, TrA, showed increased activation levels in the two highest positions, whereas ES was most active, together with the highest IAP, in the lowest position. OI and RA showed generally little activation and no obvious trend throughout the lift. The results strengthen the view of a contributing role of TrA to the upright control of the trunk and indicate that the clean and jerk lift might constitute a whole-body exercise, still targeting the TrA muscle, in late-stage rehabilitation, especially for athletes during return to sports.

  • 4.
    Crommert, Martin Eriksson
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld, Australia; Family Medicine Research Centre, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lacourpaille, L.
    Laboratory “Motricité, Interactions, Performance” (EA 4334), University of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Heales, L. J.
    Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld, Australia.
    Tucker, K.
    Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld, Australia.
    Hug, F.
    Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld, Australia; Laboratory “Motricité, Interactions, Performance” (EA 4334), University of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Massage induces an immediate, albeit short-term, reduction in muscle stiffness2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no 5, p. E490-E496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using ultrasound shear wave elastography, the aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the effect of massage on stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and (b) to determine whether this effect (if any) persists over a short period of rest. A 7-min massage protocol was performed unilaterally on MG in 18 healthy volunteers. Measurements of muscle shear elastic modulus (stiffness) were performed bilaterally (control and massaged leg) in a moderately stretched position at three time points: before massage (baseline), directly after massage (follow-up 1), and following 3 min of rest (follow-up 2). Directly after massage, participants rated pain experienced during the massage. MG shear elastic modulus of the massaged leg decreased significantly at follow-up 1 (-5.2 +/- 8.8%, P = 0.019, d = -0.66). There was no difference between follow-up 2 and baseline for the massaged leg (P = 0.83) indicating that muscle stiffness returned to baseline values. Shear elastic modulus was not different between time points in the control leg. There was no association between perceived pain during the massage and stiffness reduction (r = 0.035; P = 0.89). This is the first study to provide evidence that massage reduces muscle stiffness. However, this effect is short lived and returns to baseline values quickly after cessation of the massage.

  • 5.
    Edholm, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Krustrup, P.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, St. Luke’s Campus, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
    Randers, M. B.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Half-time re-warm up increases performance capacity in male elite soccer players2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no 1, p. E40-E49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the acute effects of a half-time re-warm up on performance and movement patterns in soccer match play. Using a crossover design, 22 professional male players performed traditional passive rest (CON) or a low-intensity re-warm up (RW) during the half-time period of two soccer matches. Before and after the first half and before the second half, maximal sprint and jump performance were evaluated. Time-motion analysis of the first 15 min of each half was conducted. Sprint and jump performance were reduced (P < 0.05) by 2.6% and 7.6%, respectively, during the half-time period in CON, whereas sprint performance was maintained and the decrement in jump performance (3.1%; P < 0.05) was lower after RW. No significant interaction for high-intensity running was observed, but less defensive high-intensity running was observed after RW than CON (0.14 ± 0.06 vs 0.22 ± 0.07 km; P < 0.01). Moreover, RW had more possession of the ball in the beginning of the second half. In conclusion, traditional passive half-time rest leads to impaired sprint and jump performance during the initial phase of the second half in professional soccer players whereas a re-warm up effectively attenuates such deteriorations. Less defensive high-intensity running and more ball possession were observed after RW, indicating a game advantage at the onset of the second half.

  • 6.
    Edholm, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

  • 7.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Total daily energy expenditure and patterns of physical activity in adolescents assessed by two different methods1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 257-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring and an activity diary were used simultaneously during three days in 30 randomly selected adolescents (16 boys, 14 girls; mean age 15.0+/-1.0). Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components (energy expenditure during sleep, during rest and in physical activity) and times spent at different intensity levels (sedentary, light, moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity) were compared. TDEE from heart rate monitoring averaged 10.9+/-2.7 MJ x d(-1) compared to 11.3+/-2.3 MJ x d(-1) from the activity diary (NS). The limits of agreement (mean+/-2 SD) were -3.54 MJ x d(-1) and 2.74 MJ x d(-1). There was no significant difference for any of the TDEE components between the methods (MANOVA). A significant method effect (P<0.001) was observed for time spent in sedentary and light physical activity (MANOVA). No significant difference was observed for time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity. According to this, heart rate monitoring and activity diary are comparable for group assessment of TDEE and its components, and for estimating time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity. The activity diary underestimated time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity for inactive subjects and consequently overestimated highly active subjects.

  • 8.
    Eliason, Gabriella
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Abdel-Halim, S.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Arvidsson, B.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical performance and muscular characteristics in different stages of COPD2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 865-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined exercise capacity and muscle morphology in patients with different severities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-three patients and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited. Based on the severity of airflow obstruction, patients were divided into two subgroups. Exercise capacity was determined using a 6-min walk test. Muscle fiber composition, fiber area and number of satellite cells/muscle fiber were determined in muscle biopsies using immunohistochemistry. A progressive decline in exercise capacity was noted with ascending disease severity. Furthermore, a correlation between reduction in exercise capacity and changes in muscle fiber composition was observed in COPD. The group with severe and very severe COPD had a lower proportion of type I and a higher proportion of type IIa fibers compared with the other groups. In severe and very severe COPD, a reduction in fiber area of type IIa fibers was also seen. The number of satellite cells/muscle fiber did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, a decline in exercise capacity occurs already in mild and moderate COPD, indicating that the 6-min walk test is a reliable indicator of disease severity. Furthermore, changes in skeletal muscle morphology are associated with disease severity while muscle regenerative capacity is not altered.

  • 9.
    Hanssen, K. E.
    et al.
    Østfold University College, Halden, Norway; Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Kvamme, N. H.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsen, T. S.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Rønnestad, B.
    Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Ambjørnsen, I. K.
    Østfold University College, Fredrikstad, Norway.
    Norheim, F.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hallèn, J.
    Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Drevon, C. A.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    The effect of strength training volume on satellite cells, myogenic regulatory factors, and growth factors2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 728-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of training volume on activation of satellite cells. Healthy untrained men were randomly assigned into two groups. The 3L-1UB group (n = 10) performed three-set leg exercises and single-set upper body exercises, and the 1L-3UB group (n = 11) performed single-set leg exercises and three-set upper body exercises. Both groups performed three sessions (80-90 min) per week for 11 weeks. Biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis and m. trapezius. The number of satellite cells, satellite cells positive for myogenin and MyoD, and the number of myonuclei were counted. Homogenized muscle was analyzed for myogenin and MyoD, and extracted ribonucleic acid (RNA) was monitored for selected growth factor transcripts. Knee extensor strength increased more in the 3L-1UB group than in the 1L-3UB group (48 ± 4% vs 29 ± 4%), whereas the strength gain in shoulder press was similar in both training groups. The number of satellite cells in m. vastus lateralis increased more in the 3L-1UB group than in the 1L-3UB group. The number of myonuclei increased similarly in both groups. The messenger RNA expression of growth factors peaked after 2 weeks of training. In conclusion, increasing training volume enhanced satellite cell numbers in the leg muscle, but not in the upper body muscle.

  • 10.
    Harridge, S. D. R.
    et al.
    Centre of Human and Aerospace Physiological Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The lingering effects of testosterone abuse: it seems muscles have long memories2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 869-870Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    The biology of satellite cells and telomeres in human skeletal muscle: effects of aging and physical activity2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 39-48Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decline in the neuromuscular function affects the physical performance and is a threat for independent living in later life. The age-related decrease in muscle satellite cells observed by the age of 70 can be specific to type II fibers in some muscles. Several studies have shown that different forms of exercise induce the expansion of satellite cell pool in human skeletal muscle of young and elderly. Exercise is a powerful non-pharmacological tool inducing the renewal of the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is not a stable tissue as satellite cells are constantly recruited during normal daily activities. Satellite cells and the length of telomeres are important in the context of muscle regeneration. It is likely that the regulation of telomeres in vitro cannot fully mimic the behavior of telomeres in human tissues. New insights suggest that telomeres in skeletal muscle are dynamic structures under the influence of their environment. When satellite cells are heavily recruited for regenerative events as in the skeletal muscle of athletes, telomere length has been found to be either dramatically shortened or maintained and even longer than in non-trained individuals. This suggests the existence of mechanisms allowing the control of telomere length in vivo.

  • 12. Mackey, A. L.
    et al.
    Esmarck, B.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Koskinen, S. O. A.
    Kongsgaard, M.
    Sylvestersen, A.
    Hansen, J. J.
    Larsen, G.
    Kjaer, M.
    Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 34-42Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross-sections with a monoclonal antibody against neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and counterstaining with Mayer's hematoxylin. Compared with the pre-training values, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the number of NCAM-positively stained cells per fiber post-training in males (from 0.11+/-0.03 to 0.15+/-0.06; mean+/-SD) and females (from 0.11+/-0.04 to 0.13+/-0.05). These results suggest that 12 weeks of resistance training is effective in enhancing the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscle in the elderly.

  • 13. Mackey, A. L.
    et al.
    Holm, L.
    Reitelseder, S.
    Pedersen, T. G.
    Doessing, S.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Kjaer, M.
    Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 773-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry. A significant main effect of time was observed (P<0.001) for the number of CD56+ cells per fiber (L: from 0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.03; H: from 0.12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells reveals a new aspect of myogenic precursor cell activation and suggests that satellite cells may play a role in skeletal muscle adaptation over a broad physiological range.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Froberg, Karsten
    Riddoch, Chris
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine differences in levels of physical activity (PA), time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary between and within days in children from four European countries, 1954 9 - and 15-year-olds were included. PA was measured during 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days using the manufacturing technology-incorporated (MTI) accelerometer. Average count per minute, time spent sedentary, time spent at MVPA and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were calculated. Data were compared between weekdays and weekend days and between school time and leisure-time. Although not entirely consistent across countries, overall PA, time spent sedentary and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were higher during weekdays compared with weekend days. Differences in overall PA between school time and leisure-time were highly inconsistent between countries. Few children (4-31%) accumulated > or =60 min of MVPA either during school time or during leisure-time. Differences in activity patterns between weekdays and weekend days are explained by less accumulated time in MVPA during weekend days. Weekend days and leisure-time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health-enhancing PA.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Brage, Sören
    Riddoch, Chris
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Wedderkopp, Niels
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several prediction equations developed to convert body movement measured by accelerometry into energy expenditure have been published. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between three different prediction equations, when applied to data on physical activity in a large sample of children. We examined 1321 children (663 boys, 658 girls; mean age 9.6+/-0.4 years) from four different countries. Physical activity was measured by the MTI accelerometer. One equation, derived from doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements, was compared with one treadmill-based (TM) and one room calorimeter-based (CAL) equation (mixture of activities). Predicted physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was the main outcome variable. In comparison with DLW-predicted PAEE, both laboratory-derived equations significantly (P<0.001) overestimated PAEE by 17% and 83%, respectively, when based on a 24-h prediction, while the TM equation significantly (P<0.001) underestimated PAEE by 46%, when based on awake time only. In contrast, the CAL equation agreed better with the DLW equation under the awake time assumption. Predicted PAEE differ substantially between equations, depending on time-frame assumptions, and interpretations of average levels of PAEE in children from available equations should be made with caution. Further development of equations applicable to free-living scenarios is needed.

  • 16. Nyberg, Gisela
    et al.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Marcus, Claude
    Physical activity in children measured by accelerometry: stability over time2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, p. 30-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the stability of objectively measured physical activity in Swedish children and to study variables that predicted physical activity and body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at follow-up. A total of 97 children provided valid repeated measurements of physical activity between 2002 and 2005. The children were on average 7.5 years at baseline (SD+/-0.92) and 9 years at follow-up (SD+/-0.92). The mean follow-up time was approximately 1.5 years (mean 558 days, SD+/-224). An accelerometer (Actiwatch, Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd., Cambridge, UK) was used to measure physical activity during 7 consecutive days. Yearly weight and height were examined and BMI SDS was calculated. Baseline physical activity was significantly correlated with physical activity at follow-up (r=0.59) with a stronger correlation for boys (r=0.72) than for girls (r=0.51). High physical activity levels were more stable (r=0.74) than low physical activity levels (r=0.55). Physical activity at follow-up was explained by physical activity at baseline and season (R(2)=0.46) whereas BMI SDS at follow-up was explained by BMI SDS at baseline and age (R(2)=0.90). The results of this study suggest that physical activity levels are fairly stable in 6-10-year-old children.

  • 17.
    Oskarsson, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Björn-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Pettersson, Kurt
    Handkirugiska kliniken, Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Piehl Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Decreased intramuscular blood flow in patients with lateral epicondylitis2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 211-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate intramuscular microcirculation in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis, mean duration of symptoms of 39 (12-96) months participated. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and none was under treatment for the last 6 months. Isometric handgrip strength, 2-pinch grip strength and muscle strength during radial deviation and dorsal extension was determined. Functional perceived pain was evaluated by a modified BRS and perceived pain during contraction by VAS. Intramuscular and skin blood flow was recorded by a laser-Doppler flowmetry system technique (LDF) during stable temperature condition.

    Intramuscular blood flow was significantly lower in the affected side, 22.7 ± 9.8 PU as compared to 35.2 ± 11.9 PU in the control side (P = 0.01). There was no difference in skin blood flow or temperature between affected and control side. A positive correlation was found between duration of symptoms and the difference in intramuscular blood flow between affected and control arm (r = 0.65, P = 0.06).

    The present data indicate that decreased microcirculation and anaerobic metabolism in ECRB may contribute to the lateral epicondylitis symptoms.

  • 18.
    Oskarsson, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Piehl Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Gustafsson, B-E
    Pettersson, K
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Improved intramuscular blood flow and normalized metabolism in lateral epicondylitis after botulinum toxin treatment2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of elbow pain, and decreased microcirculation in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) has recently been suggested to contribute to the symptoms. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the treatment response after injection of botulinum toxin type A. Ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis and decreased intramuscular blood flow in ECRB participated. Handgrip, 2-pinch grip and muscle strength during radial deviation and dorsal extension of the wrist were recorded. Perceived pain during contraction was evaluated with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and function in daily activities was assessed using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand instrument (DASH) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure instrument (COPM). Intramuscular blood flow was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry, and microdialysis was used to analyze muscle metabolism. The difference in intramuscular blood flow between the control and the affected side had decreased 3 and 12 months after treatment (P=0.03). Lactate concentration at the 12-month follow-up had decreased (P=0.02); perceived pain was reduced and function in daily activities had improved. Injection of botulinum toxin is an alternative treatment for epicondylitis. Symptom relief may be due to enhanced microcirculation causing an aerobic metabolism.

  • 19. Perhamre, S.
    et al.
    Janson, S.
    Norlin, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Klassbo, M.
    Sever's injury: treatment with insoles provides effective pain relief2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 819-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sever's injury (apophysitis calcanei) is considered to be the dominant cause of heel pain among children between 8 and 15 years. The traditional advice is to reduce and modify the level of physical activity. Recommended treatment in general is the same as for adults with Achilles tendon pain. The purpose of the study was to find out if insoles, of two different types, were effective in relieving heel pain in a group of boys (n = 38) attending a Sports Medicine Clinic for heel pain diagnosed as Sever's injury. The type of insole was randomized, and self-assessed pain during physical activity in the treatment phase with insoles was compared with pain in the corresponding pre- and post-treatment phases without insoles. There were no other treatments added and the recommendations were to stay on the same activity level. All patients maintained their high level of physical activity throughout the study period. Significant pain reduction during physical activity when using insoles was found. Application of two different types of insoles without any immobilization, other treatment, or modification of sport activities results in significant pain relief in boys with Sever's injury.

  • 20.
    Perhamre, S.
    et al.
    Centre of Sports Medicine in Värmland, Värmland County Council, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Lundin, F.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Värmland County Council, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Klässbo, M.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Värmland County Council, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Norlin, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    A heel cup improves the function of the heel pad in Sever's injury: effects on heel pad thickness, peak pressure and pain2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 516-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sever's injury (apophysitis calcanei) is considered to be the dominant cause of heel pain among children between 8 and 15 years. Treating Sever's injury with insoles is often proposed as a part of a traditional mix of recommendations. Using a custom-molded rigid heel cup with a brim enclosing the heel pad resulted in effective pain relief without reducing the physical activity level in our previous two studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the heel cup on heel pad thickness and heel peak pressure (n=50). The difference in heel pad thickness and in heel peak pressure using a sports shoe without and with a heel cup was compared. With the heel cup the heel pad thickness improved significantly and the heel peak pressure was significantly reduced. These effects correlated with a significant reduction in pain when using the heel cup in a sports shoe, compared with using a sports shoe without the heel cup. A heel cup, providing an effective heel pad support in the sports shoe, improved the heel pad thickness and reduced heel peak pressure in Sever's injury with corresponding pain relief.

  • 21. Perhamre, S.
    et al.
    Lundin, F.
    Norlin, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Klassbo, M.
    Sever's injury; treat it with a heel cup: a randomized, crossover study with two insole alternatives2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, no 6, p. E42-E47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sever's injury (apophysitis calcanei) is considered to be the dominant cause of heel pain among children. Common advice is to reduce physical activity. However, our previous study showed that application of insoles reduced pain in Sever's injury without having to reduce physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test which of the two insoles, the heel wedge or the heel cup, provided best pain relief during sport activity in boys with Sever's injury (n = 51). There was a crossover design in the first randomized part of the study. In the second part, the boys, 9-14 years, chose which insole they preferred. There was a reduction in odds score for pain to a fifth (a reduction of 80%) for the cup compared with the wedge (P<0.001). When an active choice was made, the heel cup was preferred by >75% of the boys. All boys maintained their high level of physical activity throughout. At 1-year follow-up, 22 boys still used an insole and 19 of them reported its effect on pain as excellent or good (n = 41).

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