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  • 1.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Sport Science.
    Addressing gender equality: enactments of gender and hegemony in the educational textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 840-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport is often described as a field containing competitive and hierarchy shaping activities. However, in Sweden and elsewhere, this field is also permeated by democratic principles where, for example, everybody has the right to participate in children’s and youth sports regardless of gender, ethnicity or physical ability. In Sweden, there are distinct objectives for gender equality, where women/girls and men/boys should ideally be treated and recognised equally. The aim of this paper is twofold: to examine how gender is enacted in the textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes and to identify whether any of the enactments reflect a hegemonic masculinity. The textbooks used in two of the most extensive courses arranged by the Swedish Sports Confederation, ‘The Platform’ [Plattformen] and ‘Basic Coach Education’ [Grundtränarutbildning] are in focus. The theoretical framework and methodological approach are inspired by research on sport, gender and the hegemonic masculinity thesis. In the process of analysis, the hegemonic perspective is central. During the analysis, four themes are identified as expressions of a hegemonic masculinity and, thus, as obstacles to gender equality. Firstly, the binary sex norm poses a real challenge for the implementation of gender equality because it helps to shape a hierarchy that privileges men and masculinities. Secondly and thirdly, the themes ‘puberty’ and ‘the coach’ appear to be important, in that they support and contest a gendered hierarchy. Finally, there are examples of men, like sport coaches, appearing as genderless, which is interpreted as a hegemonic acceptance of the category of men (as universal and genderless subjects). By critically illuminating these themes, the paper adds to the wider research field of sport, coaching and education programmes and the complexity of gender mainstreaming in sport.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Parent-created educational practices and conditions for players’ political socialisation in competitive youth games: a player perspective on parents’ behaviour in grassroots soccer2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By recognising young athletes as active socialising agents in their own right and how they experience parents’ behaviour, the article contributes knowledge about parent-created educational practices and conditions for players’ political socialisation in competitive youth games in grassroots soccer. Parents play an important role in the creation of educational practices and the conditions for young people’s political socialisation in sport. Young people’s formation of political identities, values, attitudes and norms, their adaption to, learning about and sometimes changes in the political culture of a community are dimensions that have hitherto not been explored to any great extent in youth sport research. Three types of educational practices are identified in which the conditions for political socialisation are shown to be marked by social cohesion, security and respectability; group segregation, selfishness and manipulation; disrespect, hostility and blame.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Garrison, Jim
    School of Education, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
    Physical education teaching as a caring act: techniques of bodily touch and the paradox of caring2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 591-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate “no touch policies” as a practical teacher concern that includes the body as a location, a source, and a means in educational activity. We argue that to understand issues regarding physical touch within school practice we must conceive it as deeply associated with specific teaching techniques. Thus, the didactical challenge is not found in argumentations about the pro and cons of physical touch, but through analysis of how teachers handle student interaction and teaching intentions.

    We consider teaching as a caring profession. Caring, as a practical teacher concern, requires wisdom regarding the right time to use bodily touch and to refrain from such use. This wisdom involves the ability to discern people’s needs, desires, interests, and purposes in particular situations and act appropriately. From a body pedagogical perspective we approach intergenerational touch not only as a discursive and power related question but as an essential tension in the intersection of the; ambiguity attendant to any intentional act such as teaching, the conflict between the ethics of care and the ethics of justice, and finally, the paradox of caring.

    We draw on interviews with PE-teachers in Swedish primary, secondary, and upper-secondary schools and analyses of a collection of techniques of bodily touch that are established and practiced with specific pedagogical purposes. The results shows PE teacher’s competence in handling different functions of intergenerational touch in relation to three different techniques of bodily touch; 1) Security touch, which is characterized by intentions to handle the fragile; 2) Denoting touch, which is characterized by intentions to handle learning content; 3) Relational touch, which is characterized by caring intentions. Each of these is of importance for the teachers in carrying out their call to teach and each of these relies on professional assessments whether or not it meets its intended purpose.

     

  • 4.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    I am sailing: towards a transactional analysis of 'body techniques'2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 722-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in questions related to embodiment and learning. Within the field of ‘body pedagogics’ great efforts have been made to develop theory and methodology that can deal with the corporeal aspects of experience and knowledge without adopting any form of dualistic conceptions of body/mind and organism/environment. This article connects to this body of research. The purpose is to first present a synthesis of James’ radical empiricism, Dewey’s transactional understanding of experience and learning and Marcel Mauss’ concept of ‘body techniques’ and the notion of education embedded in it. Against the background of this theoretical development, and with a Transactional Model of Analyzing Bodying (TMAB), we then show how we can analytically come to terms with different dualistic problems that research into ‘body pedagogics’ has to deal with. We use an empirical example of dinghy sailing to create knowledge about what we learn when learning embodied knowledge, and how this learning takes place. We argue that experience is an important concept for understanding the acting knowing human being, describing how experience is organized and developed and outlining how this organization can be understood as learning. We hold that situations where someone learns to embody certain knowledge are cases of overt actions, in which we can see what kinds of relations are created and how these relations become meaningful for further action.

  • 5.
    Armour, Kathleen
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Chambers, Fiona
    Sports Studies and Physical Education, School of Education, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Makopoulou, Kyriaki
    School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    What is ‘effective’ CPD for contemporary physical education teachers?: A Deweyan framework2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 799-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely argued that continuing professional development (CPD) for physical education (PE) teachers is important, yet questions remain about ‘effective’ CPD. We consider these questions afresh from a Deweyan perspective. An overview of the CPD/PE-CPD literature reveals conflicting positions on teachers as learners. Considering the nature of contemporary PE, and the learning needs of teachers, we argue that a different model of PE-CPD is required to reflect the dynamic nature of contemporary practice. We propose John Dewey's classic concept of ‘education as growth’ to underpin a new conceptual framework for the design, delivery and evaluation of PE-CPD. We argue that ‘effective’ PE-CPD will not be found in formal policies, structures and processes, however, well-intentioned, unless it (i) focuses on the dazzling complexity of the learning process, (ii) prioritises context and contemporary challenges; (iii) bridges research/theory–practice in innovative ways; and (iv) nurtures the career-long growth of PE teachers.

  • 6.
    Barker, D.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerber, M.
    University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Gerlach, E.
    University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Sattler, S.
    University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Pühse, U.
    University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Youths with migration backgrounds and their experiences of physical education: An examination of three cases2014In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 186-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While understanding young people has never been easy, migration trends make it increasingly difficult. Many classrooms have become culturally heterogeneous and teachers are often faced with pupils with diverse linguistic and cultural heritages. Current scholarship suggests that as a discipline, physical education has not adapted to this diversity. In fact, commentators have suggested that physical education alienates pupils from minority groups and that traditional practices work to maintain cultural difference. The broad objective of this paper is to provide insights into how physical education intersects with biographies shaped by migration. Drawing from a case study investigation, this paper presents interview data from three youths with migration backgrounds living in a German-speaking region of Switzerland. The cases were selected because they highlight various ways in which physical education (PE) comes to make sense for adolescents. The key arguments that we develop are that ethnicity often works at an implicit level in PE, that young people experience the effects of migration backgrounds in diverse ways, and that migrants themselves support official educational discourses that work to disadvantage people with migration backgrounds. A key implication is that in a cultural milieu in which generalisations are normal and sometimes considered desirable, both researchers and practitioners need to be wary of racialising discourses. As an alternative, it is suggested that focusing on individual processes can improve the conceptualisation and implementation of physical education pedagogies.

  • 7.
    Barker, Dean M.
    et al.
    Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Pühse, Uwe
    Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Constructive readings of interactive episodes: Examining ethics in physical education from a social constructionist perspective2013In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 511-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we illustrate how ways of thinking about ethics are tied up with sport and physical education practice and introduce an alternative approach that can help to develop ethical pedagogies. We begin by locating socio-moral education in physical education within historical and contemporary pedagogical scholarship. Our argument is that the work of today's physical educators is still shaped by claims that were made about school sport in the nineteenth century and that sport scholars have long had difficulties proving these claims empirically. Rather than search for data that can confirm or refute claims of moral learning, we examine how incidents related to moral behaviour occur during physical education lessons. To do this we draw on data from an ethnographic investigation of a school in North Western Switzerland. Specifically, we present three episodes of interaction in three different physical education lessons. To make sense of these episodes, we introduce a social constructionist perspective. The main assumptions of this perspective are: (1) meanings are created through dialogue and consensus and are context-relative; (2) interactions between people are joint accomplishments; and (3) contexts affect how people interact with one another. Equipped with a constructionist framework, we then inspect the interactive episodes more closely. We include brief discussions of how constructionist understandings might inform ethics pedagogies in the future, suggesting that practitioners should be cautious of universal understandings of ethics, consider pupils as members of communities that are held together by shared practices, provide space for pupils to position themselves differently during lessons and, finally, account for contextual factors when evaluating pupils' actions.

  • 8.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Annerstedt, Claes
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Learning through group work in physical education: a symbolic interactionist approach2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 604-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with contemporary constructivist pedagogies, students are frequently expected to learn through interaction in physical education (PE). There is a relatively sophisticated body of literature focusing on learning in groups, peer teaching, and cooperative learning. Current research has not, however, focused on how the body is implicated in interactional learning. This is surprising given that much learning in PE is expected to take place in the physical domain. The aim of this paper is to contribute to current theorizing by examining social interactions in PE practice. By drawing on symbolic interactionist theory, we put forward a framework for considering how inter-student interactions occur in a multimodal sense. Key ideas relate to (1) the sequential organization of interactions; (2) the ways in which semiotic resources in different fields are used to elaborate each other; (3) the importance of interpretation as a driver of interaction; (4) the creation of local environments in which participants attend to and work together within a shared world of perception; and (5) the influence of material environments on social interaction. The specific concepts employed are epistemic ecology, epistemic position, and learning trajectory. The paper includes observational data from an investigation of learning in Swedish PE to demonstrate the explanatory power and limitations of the theoretical tenets presented. The paper is concluded with practical implications of understanding group work in a multimodal manner.

  • 9.
    Caldeborg, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Touching the didactic contract: a student perspective on intergenerational touch in PE2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 256-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing anxiety around intergenerational touch in educational settings has both emerged and increased in recent years. Previous research reveals that Physical Education (PE) teachers have become more cautious in their approaches to students and they avoid physical contact or other behaviour that could be regarded as suspicious (Fletcher, 2013; Öhman, 2016; Piper, Garratt, & Taylor, 2013). Some also feel anxious about how physical contact might be perceived by the students. The purpose of this article is to investigate physical contact between teachers and students in PE from a student perspective. This is understood through the didactic contract. For this purpose, focus group interviews using photo elicitation have been conducted with upper secondary school students in Sweden. One of the major findings is that intergenerational touch is purpose bound, that is, physical contact is considered relevant if the teacher has a good intention with using physical contact. The main agreements regarding physical contact as purpose bound are the practical learning and emotional aspects, such as learning new techniques, preventing injury, closeness and encouragement. The didactic contract is in these aspects stable and obvious. The main disagreements are when teachers interfere when the students want to feel capable or when teachers interfere when physical contact is not required in the activity. In these aspects the didactic contract is easily breached. It is also evident that personal preference has an impact on how physical contact is perceived. In conclusion, we can say that physical contact in PE is not a question of appropriate or inappropriate touch in general, but rather an agreement between the people involved about what is expected. Consequently, we should not ban intergenerational touch, but rather focus on teachers’ abilities to deal professionally with the didactic contract regarding physical contact.

  • 10.
    Gonzalez-Calvo, Gustavo
    et al.
    Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Varea, Valeria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Martinez-Alvarez, Lucio
    Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    'I feel, therefore I am': unpacking preservice physical education teachers' emotions2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The teaching profession requires an understanding of teachers' and students' emotions, and teachers' emotions can influence their teaching practice, professional development and pedagogical approaches. Furthermore, emotions are embodied and they may have a detrimental effect on wellbeing if they are not addressed properly. This paper explores the emotional dimensions of preservice primary teachers' practicum experiences in physical education (PE). Body journals were used to collect data which were analysed using a Sociology of Emotions (SoE) approach. The findings revealed that preservice teachers' emotions manifest physically during their practicum, especially at particular junctures, such as at the beginning of their teaching. Preservice teachers felt the need to make a 'good impression' within the school through the regulation of their emotions as they faced continual challenges to succeed in unfamiliar teaching circumstances. The conclusions of this study demonstrate the benefits of providing opportunities for preservice PE teachers to reflect on their emotions during the practicum and the consequences that these may have on their bodies and teaching practices.

  • 11.
    González-Calvo, Gustavo
    et al.
    University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Varea, Valeria
    School of Education, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
    Martínez-Álvarez, Lucio
    University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Health and body tensions and expectations for pre-service physical education teachers in Spain2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 158-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the Physical Education (PE) teacher’s body, particularly for teaching PE, has been highlighted in literature. PE teachers are expected to be clear role models to students through their acts, behaviours and bodies. However, their strong embodied subjectivities, particularly those related to their teaching practices, may be problematised. This paper explores the ways in which a group of 15 pre-service PE teachers from a Spanish university constructed perspectives about the body and health in relation to their professional practices. Body journals were used to collect data, which were analysed using a Deleuze-Guattarian approach. The findings reveal the significant emphasis participants placed on their own bodies while teaching PE and the pressure they felt to conform to certain expectations of their professional roles. In response, we propose critical reflection on the content of Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programmes and incorporation of alternative pedagogical approaches to alleviate the heavy reliance on pre-service teachers’ bodies.

  • 12.
    Goodyear, Victoria A.
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Kerner, Charlotte
    Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University London, London, UK.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Young people’s uses of wearable healthy lifestyle technologies; surveillance, self-surveillance and resistance.2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 212-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An international evidence-base demonstrates that healthy lifestyle digital technologies, like exergames, health-related mobile applications (‘apps’) and wearable health devices are being used more and more within educational settings. Despite this, there is a lack of in-depth empirical evidence on young people’s experiences and uses of healthy lifestyle technologies. In this article we focus on young people’s uses of a wearable health device – Fitbit – and the associated health app. Informed by the work of Foucault, the purpose is to investigate the surveillance, self-surveillance and resistance that occur by young people. One hundred 13–14 years olds (53 females, 47 males), from five physical education classes in two UK schools participated. Data were generated through 8 focus group interviews, and the nominal interview group technique was applied. Data were analyzed using key concepts from Foucault’s theoretical framework. The results demonstrated that, the daily 10,000 step and calorie burning targets set by the Fitbit device encouraged the young people to do more physical activity. Increases in physical activity occurred because of the self-surveillant practices promoted by the Fitbit through; (i) the monitoring and recording of steps and calories burned, and (ii) peer comparison (or monitoring). Surveillance and self-surveillance practices, however, were clearly connected to health equating to fitness and being ‘fit’ or not being ‘fat’. These narrow interpretations of health, equally, underpinned resistance. Daily step and calorie burning targets, (i) did not sustain young people’s engagement with the device beyond a few weeks, (ii) promoted negative feelings, and (iii) the device was resisted because it did not record physical activity accurately as part of young people’s daily lives. In turn, the young people resisted the educational value of the Fitbit and demonstrated a sceptical stance toward introducing health devices in school and physical education settings.

  • 13.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Aesthetic experience as an aspect of embodied learning: stories from physical education student teachers2009In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 265-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore aesthetic experience as an aspect of embodied learning with focus on the moving body. Our theoretical framework is mainly based on the work of John Dewey. In the first part of the article we identify our understanding of central concepts and draw some lines to their implication for physical education (PE). In the second part we then use the theoretical framework in an empirical study inspired by the tradition of pragmatism. The aim is to study how physical education student teachers (PETE students) feel when participating in ball game, and how their feelings are related to the moving activity. Empirical data were mainly generated through observations from two ball game lessons and stories written by 16 PETE students. All stories were subjected to a categorical analysis of content. After analysing the empirical material, four categories emerged built on two pair of words: familiar or unfamiliar, and pleased or displeased. In the discussing section of this article, we put forward that moving activities in PE often are regarded as being technical or instrumental. By using an aesthetic perspective on embodied learning, however, we can go beyond that impression and show other dimensions of participation in ball game. It may become an important shift from exploring performance only to studying learning connected to feelings.

  • 14.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Skating in a life context: examining the significance of aesthetic experience in sport using practical epistemology analysis2011In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 613-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to suggest and illustrate a methodological approach for studies of learning in physical education (PE) and sport pedagogy in order to investigate and clarify the relation between how people learn and the settings or context in which they learn. Drawing on the work of John Dewey, the later works of Ludwig Wittgenstein and socio-cultural approaches, a practical epistemology analysis (PEA) with a focus on aesthetic judgements is suggested as a way of developing a valuable approach for investigating situated learning. The approach is illustrated by an analysis of a biographical story written by the English author Jenny Diski. As can be seen from the illustration, the significance of aesthetic experience for learning is visible when an author tells us about skating as a child. By using PEA to examine aesthetic experience-operationalised through the aesthetic judgements the author includes in the story-we can shed light on the relation between the skater and the situation in which skating takes place. The fact that aesthetic judgements are used by the author normatively to decide what is to be included and excluded in skating, and also that aesthetic judgements are used to make relations between the skater and her life as a whole, facilitates an exploration of the relation between the sports learner and the life situation in which learning is situated.

  • 15.
    McCuaig, Louise
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Health by stealth: exploring the sociocultural dimensions of salutogenesis for sport, health and physical education research2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 111-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport, health and physical education (SHPE) researchers have increasingly embraced the salutogenic model of health devised by Aaron Antonvosky, to re-understand and problematise the relation between movement, physical activity or physical education on one hand, and health on the other. However, contemporary research employing Antonovsky's theories has almost exclusively focused on the sense of coherence scale. In so doing, we suggest salutogenic researchers have missed opportunities to explore the sociological aspects of Antonovsky's work. In responding to this challenge, we demonstrate the generative possibilities posed by social theory for those seeking to inform and design salutogenically oriented SHPE programmes for children and young people. As such, we first review Antonovsky's theory of salutogenesis to highlight the sociocultural aspects of his model. We then draw on these sociocultural underpinnings to propose additional, alternative approaches to salutogenic research in SHPE, according to the theoretical and methodological tools devised by Michel Foucault [1990. The use of pleasure: The history of sexuality (Vol. 2, R. Hurley, Trans.). New York: Vintage Books]. In conclusion, we propose a schedule of research questions to inspire qualitative endeavours that move beyond privileged biomedical perspectives, to investigate health in terms of how individuals live a good life. In short, we contend that such investigations are best achieved when researchers approach ‘health by stealth’.

  • 16.
    McCuaig, Louise
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, St Lucia Qld, Australia.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wright, Jan
    University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Shepherds in the gym: employing a pastoral power analytic on caring teaching in HPE2013In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 788-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on research conducted in Australian Health' and Physical Education (HPE) and Swedish Physical Education and Health (PEH), this paper demonstrates the analytic possibilities of Foucault's notion of pastoral power to reveal the moral and ethical work conducted by HPE/PEH teachers in producing healthy active citizens. We use the pastoral power analytic to make visible the consequences of caring HPE/PEH teaching practices which appear unassailable as producing a general good' for all students. In so doing we undertake the challenge posed by Nealon to be attuned to those social practices that appear beyond reproach as power becomes more effective while offering less obvious potential for resistance'. From this Foucauldian perspective we argue that caring HPE/PEH teachers employ a wide range of normalization tools to interpellate young people into a specific model of normal' healthy living, simultaneously determining those who represent problematic deviations from the norm. We further argue that instead of discarding or ignoring these students, such deviations call upon the HPE/PEH teacher to care more fervently, to employ more intense strategies of individualization such as togetherness, encouragement and familiarity. In conclusion, we highlight the tensions and implications that may result for HPE/PEH teachers and their students.

  • 17.
    McMahon, Jenny
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Assimilating to a boy’s body shape for the sake of performance: three female athletes’ body experiences in a sporting culture2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 157-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores three female swimmers’ relationships with their male coaches and the body practices they were exposed to within Australian swimming. Particular attention is given to how the relationships and practices might relate to gender. Additionally, the article examines how (if at all) the conduct contributed to the social construction of an accepted female swimmer body. Through narrative accounts, the three adolescent female athletes articulate hierarchical male coach–female athlete relationships and specific body encounters they were exposed to and/or engaged with. Their experiences reveal how a sexually maturing body (growing breasts, female body shape and menstruating) was deemed unsuitable for performance and the swimmers were thus encouraged to transform their bodies and behaviours towards that of the boys. Using a feminist Foucauldian perspective, these accounts points to how the three swimmers came to regulate their diet, training and appearance in order to fulfil expectations. This self-regulation is problematic in two ways: first, no scientific evidence shows that a boy like physique is essential for best performance. Second, the stress from being pressured to achieve a particular body, as well as the shame that resulted from being unable to achieve the idealised physique, eventually caused the swimmers to develop an unhealthy relationship with their developing bodies. We highlight how those immersed in sporting contexts should recognise the serious implications of gender practices and power relations underpinning the male coach–female athlete dynamic in competitive sport.

  • 18.
    Pang, Bonnie
    et al.
    School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Penrith NSW, Australia.
    Alfrey, Laura
    Faculty of Education, Monash University (Peninsula Campus), Melbourne VIC, Australia.
    Varea, Valeria
    School of Education, University of New England, Armidale NSW, Australia.
    Young Chinese Australians' subjectivities of ‘health’ and ‘(un)healthy bodies’2016In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1091-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people with English as an Additional Language/Dialect backgrounds are often identified in public health messages and popular media as ‘bodies at risk’ because they do not conform to the health regimens of contemporary Western societies. With increasing numbers of Chinese students in Australian schools, it is necessary to advance teachers' understandings of the ways in which these young people negotiate notions of ‘health’ and ‘(un)healthy bodies’. This paper explores the ways in which young Chinese Australians' understand health and (un)healthy bodies. The data upon which this paper focuses were drawn from a larger scale study underpinned by critical, interpretive, ethnographic methods. The participants in this study were 12 young Chinese Australians, aged 10–15 years, from two schools. Photographs of a variety of bodies were sourced from popular magazines and used as a means of interview elicitation. The young people were invited to comment on the photographs and discuss what ‘health’ and the notion of a ‘(un)healthy body’ meant to them. Foucault's concepts of discursive practice and normalisation are used alongside Chinese concepts of holistic paradigms and Wen–Wu to unpack the young people's subjectivities on health and (un)healthy bodies. The findings invite us to move beyond Western subjectivities of health and (un)healthy bodies and highlight the multidimensional and diverse perspectives espoused by some of the young Chinese Australians in this study. The research findings can inform future policy and practice relevant to the exploration of health and (un)healthy bodies in health and physical education and health and physical education teacher education.

  • 19.
    Pang, Bonnie
    et al.
    School of Science and Health, Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney, Penrith NSW, Australia.
    Varea, Valeria
    School of Education, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
    Cavallin, Sarah
    School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia.
    Cupac, Alexia
    School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia.
    Experiencing risk, surveillance, and prosumption: health and physical education students’ perceptions of digitised health and physical activity data2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 801-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies are now considered important in shaping young people's engagement in and with health and physical activity. Recent discussions show that the use of digital technologies to track health and fitness may over-emphasize the linear understanding of the body and health generally underpinned by Western health ideologies such as healthism. Other studies have shown the increased use of digital technologies in teaching Health and Physical Education (HPE) and as a means to enhance health and increase physical activity. Despite the opportunities and risks apparent in these studies, little is known about how HPE students make choices, negotiate, and resist or embrace the digitalisation of physical activity, exercise, and more broadly health. This study examines HPE students’ meaning making of risk and surveillance associated with the self-digitisation of exercise. The study further investigates how the concept of ‘prosumption’; the production, curation and consumption of self-data within the context of digitised health and physical activity, is understood. Based on the findings, we have constructed a typology of prosumers that can be used as a pedagogical device to illustrate the various kinds of subject positions students take up with digital technology in health and physical activity. This study extends the current understanding of prosumers by identifying the ‘ambivalent prosumer’. The results provide insights that have direct pedagogical implications in HPE teacher education specifically in the areas of knowledge production and consumption of knowledge through digital technology in health and physical activity.

  • 20.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Exploring the relation between physical activity and health: a salutogenic approach to physical education2008In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 267-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes a point of departure in the debate whether physical education should consider a limited or an increased commitment towards public health goals and a public health agenda. The article further discusses the relationship between physical activity and health, and the perspective of health in physical education. This is done through a critique of the dominance of a pathogenic perspective of health, as well as through a salutogenic approach regarding health as a process. A salutogenic approach makes, as suggested in the article, other questions*salutogenic questions* possible. In this sense, physical activity and movement can be regarded as something more than mere protection against disease or overweight, and by posing salutogenic questions we can enrich our understanding of the relation between physical activity and health, and in consequence richness to the perspective of health in physical education. With a salutogenic approach, the pupils’ unique and common experiences of health, movement, body ideals or outdoor-life can meet a wider perspective of health. This would facilitate a health perspective in physical education that draws attention to the qualities, abilities and knowledge that pupils can develop, and, in the name of learning health, point the way to the possible contribution of physical education in pupils’ health development in terms of how physical education can enrich their lives, strengthen them as healthy citizens and contribute to a sustainable (health) development.

  • 21.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical education and the art of teaching: transformative learning and teaching in physical education and sports pedagogy2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 611-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is the Jose Maria Cagigal Scholar Lecture presented at the AIESEP World Congress in Edinburgh 2018. In the paper I argue that the only real sustainable aim for physical education is more physical education, where different ways of being in the world as some-body are both possible and encouraged. To reach this aim, a focus on the art of teaching is vital as a way of critically scrutinising and designing transformative and genuinely pluralistic physical education practices. In order to do this I discuss education as being educative, a certain view of the child as well as teaching as a continuous act of making judgements about the why(s), what(s) and how(s) of education, normative judgements about desirable change. The take home messages involves: (i) reclaiming a certain view of the child in education, (ii) reclaiming the open-endedness of physical education, and (iii) reclaiming the art of teaching in physical education, which is about being educative and making judgements about what to bring to the educational situation. We then must start with the purpose of education - the why - before deciding on the what and how.

  • 22.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Practical epistemologies in physical education practice2013In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 311-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in PE by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students’ and teachers’ actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video sharing website YouTube. YouTube can be understood as a disordered public video archive of (in this case) ongoing PE practices created by both students and teachers. With a transactional understanding, knowing, and in consequence questions of epistemology, can be conceived of as something we do; something practical (Dewey & Bentley 1949). In this paper, practical epistemologies in PE are, in line with Dewey (1938, 1941), investigated by exploring ends-in-view and habits-of-action in students’ and teachers’ actions in PE practice. The practical epistemologies identified in the study are: (i) Knowing by doing correct movements, (ii) Knowing by trying, (iii) Knowing by imitating, (iv) Knowing by praising and cheering, (v) Knowing by cooperating, (vi) Knowing by creating, (vii) Knowing by being changed into gym clothes, (viii) Knowing by acting in a certain locality and (ix) Knowing by resisting. The categories represent different ways of how knowledge is produced and reproduced in PE practice and describe the functions that different actions and actors have in how knowledge is produced and reproduced as well as in the direction this takes.

  • 23.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Learning movement cultures in physical education practice2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 565-572Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Investigating learning in physical education: a transactional approach2011In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest and describe a methodological approach for studies of learning within school physical education (PE) in order to investigate and clarify issues of learning in an embodied practice. Drawing on John Dewey’s work, and especially his use of the concept transaction, a transactional approach is suggested as a way of developing an action-orientated method necessary for investigating learning in PE. The approach is illustrated by extracts from a video analysis of a PE lesson in Sweden, and shows how an analytical focus on meaning making, actions, events and participators in meaning-making processes can help to overcome methodological challenges related to dualist and cognitivist approaches and reach a deeper knowledge of student learning issues in PE.

  • 25.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Armour, Kathleen
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Sport and exercise pedagogy and questions about learning2014In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 885-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important challenge ahead for sport and exercise pedagogy (SEP) researchers is to consider a fresh questions about learning. Learning in the fields of sport, physical activity and physical education (PE) is a particularly complex business. Most existing theories of learning are defined cognitively, yet learning in sport and physical activity contexts is also practical and embodied, and is linked to the powerful wider cultural contexts of sport and related areas such as health. Yet, even though learning in these contexts is particularly complex, practitioners rarely draw upon specific learning theories to ask questions about practice, and researchers in SEP have tended to focus on content and issues of teaching and coaching instead of using learning theories as a way to explore learning or investigate learning. This paper draws on data from a project in Sweden on learning in PE to illustrate the ways in which a learning theory framework can be used to guide research questions, offer important insights into the learning process and make a contribution to the wider literature on learning theory. We also argue that research design grounded in learning theories has the potential to result in greater coherence across studies, thereby offering a more valuable service to practitioners.

  • 26.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Communicating aims and learning goals in phyical education: part of a subject for learning?2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 641-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, the aim of this article is to examine how aims and learning goals are communicated in physical education (PE) practice. A special focus is on scrutinising how teaching practices are framed in terms of whether and how the aims and learning goals are made explicit or not to students. The aim is also to relate these kinds of communications to different movement cultures. The result shows that many of the students taking part in the study do not understand what they are supposed to learn in PE. However, if the goals are well articulated by teachers, the students are more likely to both understand and be aware of the learning outcomes and what to learn in PE. The opposite is also true. If the goals and objectives are not clarified, students find it difficult to state the learning objectives and know what they are supposed to learn.

  • 27.
    Varea, Valeria
    School of Education, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
    Mixed messages: Pre-service Health and Physical Education teachers’ understandings of health and the body and the expectations of the Australian curriculum2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 244-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how a cohort of pre-service Health and Physical Education (HPE) teachers from an Australian university describe and construct their understandings of health and the body. Given that the courses that these undergraduates take in their degree programme present different perspectives on health and the body, a relevant question is to what extent these perspectives adequately equip these future HPE teachers to successfully teach the recently released Australian HPE curriculum. The participants in this study were 14 pre-service teachers, 11 females and 3 males, aged between 18 and 26 at the time of the first interview. The data used for this paper were taken from a larger study and were generated through interviews, the analysis of two undergraduate course profiles and an analysis of the new National HPE curriculum. Results reveal that there are some dominant discourses in health-related courses that may have a significant impact on these students. The purpose of HPE, the role of the HPE teacher and the idea of the HPE teacher as role model are also discussed. The results suggest that pre-service teachers face several challenges and dissonances between what they learn during their undergraduate programme and what the Australian HPE curriculum expects them to teach. How pre-service HPE teachers think about and relate to health and the body is important in terms of how they think about their professional practice and the influence they may have on their future pupils.

  • 28.
    Varea, Valeria
    School of Education, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
    On being a non-white academic in physical education and sport pedagogy2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 325-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversation regarding the challenges and pressures that Early Career Academics (ECAs) face in the current context of the neoliberal university sector has begun to grow generally, and in the field of Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) in particular. However, the additional challenges faced by non-white PESP academics in their early careers have, as yet, been absent from the ECA conversation. In this paper, I draw upon my own experiences as a non-white, female ECA with English as an additional language (EAL), working in the field of PESP in a developed English-speaking country, to explore racialised discourses and practices in the academia. To do so, I make use of a critical whiteness lens and an autoethnographic approach. In the analysis of the narratives, I invite others to reflect on how race is socially constructed, on the ‘extra effort’ that non-white academics with EAL must expend in order to survive colour-blind academia, and on the limited options for agency among non-white ECAs. The paper concludes with reflections on how academics need to open the dialogue ‘just a bit more’ to include non-white academics in the conversation about ECAs working in neoliberal university contexts to create spaces for equitable work.

  • 29.
    Varea, Valeria
    et al.
    School of Education, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
    Pang, B.
    School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia.
    Using visual methodologies to understand pre-service Health and Physical Education teachers’ subjectivities of bodies2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 394-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-cultural theorists have argued that having a diverse understanding of subjectivities of normal/ideal bodies is important for Health and Physical Education (HPE) teachers. When teachers hold a single understanding and perception of normal/ideal bodies, such as a thin body as normal or ideal body, which are usually informed by dominant discourses, they may (re)produce narrow understandings of bodies among their students. This paper focuses on how a group of pre-service HPE specialist teachers (11 females and 3 males, aged between 18 and 26 at the time of the first interview) from an Australian university, discuss issues related to subjectivities of bodies. It draws on visual methodologies and semi-structured interviews to understand how these pre-service HPE specialist teachers construct discourses of bodies. Foucault’s concepts of normalisation, surveillance and biopedagogies are used to explore discursive constructions of bodies, with a particular focus on how some discourses are normalised via surveillance techniques. The results of the study invite us to reflect on how images may promote certain ways of thinking about and considering the body among pre-service HPE specialist teachers. In light of contradictions which were found across the comments of two participants who constructed different discourses during the interviews, we posit that making sense of subjectivities of bodies is complex and often contradictory. Furthermore, the results suggest that photo elicitation is a useful visual method for theorising issues related to bodies. Results can inform teacher education and policy in how to better prepare pre-service HPE teachers to teach about bodies.

  • 30.
    Varea, Valeria
    et al.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; School of Education, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
    Tinning, R.
    School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Coming to know about the body in Human Movement Studies programmes2016In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1003-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how a group of undergraduate Human Movement Studies (HMS) students learnt to know about the body during their four-year academic programme at an Australian university. When students begin an undergraduate programme in HMS they bring with them particular constructions, ideas and beliefs about their own bodies and about the body in general. Those ideas and beliefs are often challenged, disrupted or reinforced according to discourses and practices to which students are exposed and which they experience throughout their programme of study. The courses that these students take in their in HMS degree programme present to them different perspectives about health and the body. Some perspectives take the status of taken-for-granted truths and others are dismissed or ignored. Taking a Foucauldian perspective, this paper explores the dominant discourses and practices to which this group of students was exposed during their four years of academic formation, and the influences that this exposure might have upon their construction of the body and their formation as pre-service Health and Physical Education (HPE) teachers. The participants in this study were 14 students, 11 females and 3 males, aged between 18 and 26 at the time of the first interview. The data used for this paper were taken from a larger study and were analysed using a content analysis approach. Results suggest that some students may be heavily influenced by certain practices and discourses during their programme of studies, and that they embody dominant discourses of health. Furthermore, a possible change of thinking may occur across their academic programme, as a consequence of their engagement with a few alternative discourses presented during their academic programme, disrupting some of their previous beliefs and knowledge.

  • 31.
    Ward, Gavin
    et al.
    Institute of Sport, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom .
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Knowing in primary physical education in the UK: negotiating movement culture2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 588-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to understand how pupils and teachers actions-in-context constitute being-a-pupil and being-a-teacher within a primary school physical education (PE) movement culture. Dewey and Bentley's theory of transaction, which views organism-in-environment-as-a-whole, enables the researcher to explore how actions-in-ongoing activities constitute and negotiate PE movement culture. Video footage from seven primary school PE lessons from a school in the West Midlands in the UK was analysed by focusing upon the ends-in-view of actions as they appeared through the educational content (what) and pedagogy (how) of the recorded PE experiences. Findings indicated that the movement culture within the school was a monoculture of looks-like-sport characterised by the privileging of the functional coordination of cooperative action. Three themes of pupils' and teachers' negotiation of the movement culture emerged U-turning, Knowing the game and Moving into and out of games. This movement culture required teachers to ensure pupils looked busy and reproduced cooperative looks-like-sport actions. In fulfilling this role, they struggled to negotiate between their knowledge of sport-for-real and directing pupils towards educational ends-in-view within games activities. Simply being good at sports was not a prerequisite for pupils' success in this movement culture. In order to re-actualise their knowledge of sport, pupils were required to negotiate the teacher's 'how' and 'what' by exploring what constituted cooperative actions within the spatial and social dimensions of the activities they were set. These findings suggest that if PE is to be more than just the reproduction of codified sport, careful adjustment and consideration of ends-in-view is of great importance. Without regard for the latter there is potential to create significant complexity for both teachers and pupils beyond that required by learning and performing sport.

  • 32. Webb, Louisa
    et al.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Healthy bodies: construction of the body and health in physical education2008In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 353-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be ‘healthy bodies’*for teachers to be ‘appropriate’ physical, fit, healthy and skilful ‘role models’ and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In teachers’ monitoring of students with the intention of regulating health behaviour, however, the surveillance of students’ bodies and associated assumptions about health practices are implicated in the (re)production of the ‘cult of the body’. In this paper, we consider issues of embodiment and power in a subject area where the visual and active body is central and we use data from Australian and Swedish schools to analyse the discourses of health and embodiment in physical education. In both Swedish and Australian physical education there were discourses related to a fit healthy body and an at risk healthy body. These discourses also acted through a range of techniques of power, particularly regulation and normalisation.

  • 33.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Analysing the direction of socialisation from a power perspective2010In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 393-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate an approach that facilitates a study of power and governing processes in teachers' and students' interactive actions and dealings. This approach is inspired by Foucault's work on power and the research field emanating from the concept of governmentality. The approach is illustrated through an analysis of texts of teacher and student interactions derived from video-recorded physical education lessons conducted in Swedish nine-year compulsory schools. This analysis is used to demonstrate how governing processes appear in Physical Education practices, and the socialisation content of this governance. Here the term socialisation content refers to the direction of governance, which constitutes a discursive resource for the constitution of particular forms of subjectivity.

  • 34.
    Öhman, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Ann
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Questioning the no-touch discourse in physical education from a children's rights perspective2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 305-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we question the rationality of ‘no–touch policies’ and offer an alternative approach to the matter of physical contact between teachers and students in the context of physical education in schools. Earlier research has drawn attention to how a discourse of child protection is starting to affect how physical contact is viewed in physical education (PE) practice. The avoidance of intergenerational touch is increasingly justified by referring to the children’s rights agenda. Here, arguments for ‘no-touching’ are linked to children’s right to be protected from harm. In the paper we explore a children’s rights based viewpoint that supports the use of and need for physical contact in PE teaching by developing theoretical and practice based arguments. An alternative children’s rights perspective, based on rights theorising, is used to formulate the theoretical argument. Interviews with 16 PE teachers about their experiences of physical contact in their pedagogical work form the practice-based arguments. The two arguments provide a way of looking at intergenerational touch in education from the vantage point of children’s human right to develop to their full potential, which can support a need for physical touch in pedagogical situations. 

1 - 34 of 34
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