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  • 1.
    Chaillou, Thomas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ribosome specialization and its potential role in the control of protein translation and skeletal muscle size2019In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 599-607Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ribosome is typically viewed as a supramolecular complex with constitutive and invariant capacity in mediating translation of mRNA into protein. This view has been challenged by recent research revealing that ribosome composition could be heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity leads to functional ribosome specialization. This review presents the idea that ribosome heterogeneity results from changes in its various components, including variations in ribosomal protein (RP) composition, post-translational modifications of RPs, changes in ribosomal-associated proteins, alternative forms of rRNA and post-transcriptional modifications of rRNAs. Ribosome heterogeneity could be orchestrated at several levels and may depend on numerous factors, such as the subcellular location, cell type and tissue specificity, the development state, cell state, ribosome biogenesis, RP turnover, physiological stimuli and circadian rhythm. Ribosome specialization represents a completely new concept for the regulation of gene expression. Specialized ribosomes could modulate several aspects of translational control, such as mRNA translation selectivity, translation initiation, translational fidelity and translation elongation. Recent research indicates that the expression of Rpl3 is markedly increased, while that of Rpl3l is highly reduced during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Moreover, Rpl3l overexpression impairs the growth and myogenic fusion of myotubes. Although the function of Rpl3 and Rpl3l in the ribosome remains to be clarified, these findings suggest that ribosome specialization may be potentially involved in the control of protein translation and skeletal muscle size. Limited data concerning ribosome specialization are currently available in skeletal muscle. Future investigations have the potential to delineate the function of specialized ribosomes in skeletal muscle.

  • 2.
    Chaillou, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Cheng, Arthur
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A dose of 5,000 km.h of severe hypoxia (at > 5,000 m altitude) is probably required to induce skeletal muscle wasting in humans2017In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 410-410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Chaillou, Thomas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cheng, Arthur J.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integrative biology is needed to understand exercise adaptions from the whole body to the cellular level2016In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 598-599Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Chaillou, Thomas
    et al.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Jackson, J.R.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    England, J.H.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Kirby, T.J.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Richards-White, J.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Esser, K.A.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Dupont-Versteegden, E.E.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    McCarthy, J.J.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Identification of a conserved set of upregulated genes in mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regrowth2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 118, p. 86-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of mouse skeletal muscle undergoing two forms of growth (hypertrophy and regrowth) with the goal of identifying a conserved set of differentially expressed genes. Expression profiling by microarray was performed on the plantaris muscle subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of hypertrophy or regrowth following 2 wk of hind-limb suspension. We identified 97 differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) that were conserved during the two forms of muscle growth. The vast majority (∼90%) of the differentially expressed genes was upregulated and occurred at a single time point (64 out of 86 genes), which most often was on the first day of the time course. Microarray analysis from the conserved upregulated genes showed a set of genes related to contractile apparatus and stress response at day 1, including three genes involved in mechanotransduction and four genes encoding heat shock proteins. Our analysis further identified three cell cycle-related genes at day and several genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) at both days 3 and 10. In conclusion, we have identified a core set of genes commonly upregulated in two forms of muscle growth that could play a role in the maintenance of sarcomere stability, ECM remodeling, cell proliferation, fast-to-slow fiber type transition, and the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. These findings suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased mechanical loading.

  • 5.
    Daussin, Frederic
    et al.
    University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Strasbourg, FRANCE.
    Zoll, Joffrey
    University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Strasbourg, FRANCE.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Dufour, Stephane
    Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, FRANCE.
    Doutreleau, Stephane
    Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, New Civil Hospital, Strasbourg, FRANCE .
    Lonsdorfer, Evelyne
    Physiology and Functional Explorations Department, New Civil Hospital, Strasbourg, FRANCE .
    Ventura-Clapier, Renée
    Inserm UMR-S 769, LabEx LERMIT, Châtenay-Malabry, F-92296, France..
    Mettauer, Bertrand
    Piquard, Francois
    University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Strasbourg, FRANCE.
    Geny, Bernard
    University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Physiology Department, Strasbourg, FRANCE.
    Richard, Ruddy
    Training at high exercise intensity promotes qualitative adaptations of mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle2008In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 104, no 5, p. 1436-1441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored mitochondrial capacities to oxidize carbohydrate and fatty acids and functional optimization of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in athletes who regularly train at high exercise intensity (ATH, n = 7) compared with sedentary (SED, n = 7). Peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2max)) was measured, and muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were collected. Maximal O(2) uptake of saponin-skinned myofibers was evaluated with several metabolic substrates [glutamate-malate (V(GM)), pyruvate (V(Pyr)), palmitoyl carnitine (V(PC))], and the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes II and IV were assessed using succinate (V(s)) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (V(TMPD)), respectively. Vo(2max) was higher in ATH than in SED (57.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 31.4 +/- 1.3 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), P < 0.001). V(GM) was higher in ATH than in SED (8.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.3 micromol O(2).min(-1).g dry wt(-1), P < 0.001). V(Pyr) was higher in ATH than in SED (8.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.5 +/- 0.2 micromol O(2).min(-1).g dry wt(-1), P < 0.05), whereas V(PC) was not significantly different (5.3 +/- 0.9 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.5 micromol O(2).min(-1).g dry wt(-1)). V(S) was higher in ATH than in SED (11.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.0 +/- 0.3 micromol O(2).min(-1).g dry wt(-1), P < 0.001), as well as V(TMPD) (20.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.2 +/- 3.4 micromol O(2).min(-1).g dry wt(-1), P < 0.05). The ratios V(S)/V(GM) (1.3 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1, P < 0.001) and V(TMPD)/V(GM) (2.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 1.8, P < 0.01) were lower in ATH than in SED. In conclusion, comparison of ATH vs. SED subjects suggests that regular endurance training at high intensity promotes the enhancement of maximal mitochondrial capacities to oxidize carbohydrate rather than fatty acid and induce specific adaptations of the mitochondrial respiratory chain at the level of complex I.

  • 6.
    Dufour, Stéphane P
    et al.
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France .
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Zoll, Joffrey
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Doutreleau, Stéphane
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Lonsdorfer-Wolf, Evelyne
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Geny, Bernard
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Lampert, Eliane
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Flück, Martin
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Hoppeler, Hans
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Billat, Véronique
    Laboratoire d'Etudes Physiologiques À l'Exercice, Département des Sciences du Sport et de l'Exercice, Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne, Evry, France .
    Mettauer, Bertrand
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France; Service de Cardiologie, Hôpitaux Civils de Colmar, Colmar, France.
    Richard, Ruddy
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Lonsdorfer, Jean
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôspital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Faculté de Médicine, Institut de Physiologie, Unité Propre de Recherche de l'Enseignement Supérieur Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France; Hôpital de la Robertsau, 83 rue Himmerich, 67091 Strasbourg Cedex, France.
    Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. I. Improvement in aerobic performance capacity.2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 1238-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether a 6-wk intermittent hypoxia training (IHT), designed to avoid reductions in training loads and intensities, improves the endurance performance capacity of competitive distance runners. Eighteen athletes were randomly assigned to train in normoxia [Nor group; n = 9; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) = 61.5 +/- 1.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] or intermittently in hypoxia (Hyp group; n = 9; VO2 max = 64.2 +/- 1.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Into their usual normoxic training schedule, athletes included two weekly high-intensity (second ventilatory threshold) and moderate-duration (24-40 min) training sessions, performed either in normoxia [inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) = 20.9%] or in normobaric hypoxia (FiO2) = 14.5%). Before and after training, all athletes realized 1) a normoxic and hypoxic incremental test to determine VO2 max and ventilatory thresholds (first and second ventilatory threshold), and 2) an all-out test at the pretraining minimal velocity eliciting VO2 max to determine their time to exhaustion (T(lim)) and the parameters of O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics. Only the Hyp group significantly improved VO2 max (+5% at both FiO2, P < 0.05), without changes in blood O2-carrying capacity. Moreover, T(lim) lengthened in the Hyp group only (+35%, P < 0.001), without significant modifications of VO2 kinetics. Despite similar training load, the Nor group displayed no such improvements, with unchanged VO2 max (+1%, nonsignificant), T(lim) (+10%, nonsignificant), and VO2 kinetics. In addition, T(lim) improvements in the Hyp group were not correlated with concomitant modifications of other parameters, including VO2 max or VO2 kinetics. The present IHT model, involving specific high-intensity and moderate-duration hypoxic sessions, may potentialize the metabolic stimuli of training in already trained athletes and elicit peripheral muscle adaptations, resulting in increased endurance performance capacity.

  • 7.
    Dufour, Stéphane
    et al.
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Hopital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Institut de Physiologie Faculté de Médicine, Strasbourg, France.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Institut de Physiologie Faculté de Médicine, Strasbourg, France.
    Zoll, Joffrey
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Richard, Ruddy
    Département de Physiologie et des Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Civil, Strasbourg, France; Institut de Physiologie Faculté de Médicine, Strasbourg, France.
    Comments on Point: Counterpoint "Positive effects of intermittent hypoxia (live high:train low) on exercise performance are/are not mediated primarily by augmented red cell volume''2005In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 2455-2455Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edholm, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Strandberg, Emelie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet2017In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

  • 9.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    In response to Point: Counterpoint: "Satellite cell addition is/is not obligatory for skeletal muscle hypertrophy"2007In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 1105-1105Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, the point: counterpoint issue (1, 5) is addressed solely by referring to studies in humans. The analysis of histological sections from skeletal muscle of power lifters with many years of practice leaves no doubt about the role of satellite cells as myonuclei donors in the hypertrophied muscle fibre. The larger the cross-sectional area of fibres, the higher the number of myonuclei per cross-section (2, 4). Importantly, the strong relationship between the cross-sectional area of fibres and the number of myonuclei (r = 0,86; p < 0.0001) is obtained with a range of areas between 2500 µm2 and 14000 µm2 (4). Existing myonuclei are able to sustain an initial hypertrophy of the muscle fibre as long as the transcriptional activity of existing myonuclei does not reach its maximum (2, 3, 5). Satellite cells become myonuclei donors when fibre size reaches the ceiling size (2, 3, 5). Additionally, we should not forget that satellite cells are also donors of myonuclei to newly generated myotubes (2, 4). The intensity of exercise and the initial fibre area of the subjects included in a training program are important factors governing whether daughter cells generated by satellite cell activation and proliferation provide new myonuclei to existing myofibres or to newly generated myotubes. Finally, in parallel with these events, some of the daughter cells can escape differentiation and facilitate renewal of the satellite cell pool. Efforts should be made to better understand key elements guiding the fate of satellite cells.

  • 10.
    Kirby, T.J.
    et al.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Lee, J.D.
    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    England, J.H.
    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Chaillou, Thomas
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Esser, K.A.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    McCarthy, J.J.
    Center for Muscle Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
    Blunted hypertrophic response in aged skeletal muscle is associated with decreased ribosome biogenesis2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 321-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of skeletal muscle to hypertrophy in response to a growth stimulus is known to be compromised in older individuals. We hypothesized that a change in the expression of protein-encoding genes in response to a hypertrophic stimulus contributes to the blunted hypertrophy observed with aging. To test this hypothesis, we determined gene expression by microarray analysis of plantaris muscle from 5- and 25-mo-old mice subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of synergist ablation to induce hypertrophy. Overall, 1,607 genes were identified as being differentially expressed across the time course between young and old groups; however, the difference in gene expression was modest, with cluster analysis showing a similar pattern of expression between the two groups. Despite ribosome protein gene expression being higher in the aged group, ribosome biogenesis was significantly blunted in the skeletal muscle of aged mice compared with mice young in response to the hypertrophic stimulus (50% vs. 2.5-fold, respectively). The failure to upregulate pre-47S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression in muscle undergoing hypertrophy of old mice indicated that rDNA transcription by RNA polymerase I was impaired. Contrary to our hypothesis, the findings of the study suggest that impaired ribosome biogenesis was a primary factor underlying the blunted hypertrophic response observed in skeletal muscle of old mice rather than dramatic differences in the expression of protein-encoding genes. The diminished increase in total RNA, pre-47S rRNA, and 28S rRNA expression in aged muscle suggest that the primary dysfunction in ribosome biogenesis occurs at the level of rRNA transcription and processing.

  • 11. Mackey, Abigail L.
    et al.
    Kjaer, Michael
    Dandanell, Sune
    Mikkelsen, Kristian H.
    Holm, Lars
    Døssing, Simon
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Koskinen, Satu O.
    Jensen, Charlotte H.
    Schrøder, Henrik D.
    Langberg, Henning
    The influence of anti-inflammatory medication on exercise-induced myogenic precursor cell responses in humans2007In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 425-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread among athletes when faced with muscle soreness or injury, but the effects of NSAIDs on satellite cell activity in humans are unknown. To investigate this, 14 healthy male endurance athletes (mean peak oxygen consumption 62 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered for the study, which involved running 36 km. They were divided into two groups and received either 100 mg indomethacin per day or placebo. Muscle biopsies collected before the run and on days 1, 3, and 8 afterward were analyzed for satellite cells by immunohistochemistry with the aid of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and fetal antigen-1 (FA1) antibodies. Muscle biopsies were also collected from untrained individuals for comparison. Compared with preexercise levels, a 27% increase in the number of NCAM+ cells was observed on day 8 postexercise in the placebo group (P < 0.05), while levels remained similar at all time points in the NSAID group. No change was seen in the proportion of FA1+ cells, although lower levels were found in the muscle of endurance-trained athletes compared with untrained individuals (P < 0.05). These results suggest that ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs attenuates the exercise-induced increase in satellite cell number, supporting the role of the cyclooxygenase pathway in satellite cell activity.

  • 12.
    Marklund, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindvall, Björn
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lindvall, Lisbeth
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Björn
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle in response to an ultraendurance exercise bout in experienced athletes2013In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of a 24-h ultraendurance exercise bout on systemic and local muscle inflammatory reactions was investigated in nine experienced athletes. Blood and muscle biopsies were collected before (Pre), immediately after the exercise bout (Post), and after 28 h of recovery (Post28). Circulating blood levels of leukocytes, creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and selected inflammatory cytokines were assessed together with the evaluation of the occurrence of inflammatory cells (CD3(+), CD8(+), CD68(+)) and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) in skeletal muscle. An extensive inflammatory cell infiltration occurred in all athletes, and the number of CD3(+), CD8(+), and CD68(+) cells were two- to threefold higher at Post28 compared with Pre (P < 0.05). The inflammatory cell infiltration was associated with a significant increase in the expression of MHC class I in muscle fibers. There was a significant increase in blood leukocyte count, IL-6, IL-8, CRP, and CK at Post. At Post28, total leukocytes, IL-6, and CK had declined, whereas IL-8 and CRP continued to increase. Increases in IL-1β and TNF-α were not significant. There were no significant associations between the magnitude of the systemic and local muscle inflammatory reactions. Signs of muscle degenerative and regenerative events were observed in all athletes with various degrees of severity and were not affected by the 24-h ultraendurance exercise bout. In conclusion, a low-intensity but very prolonged single-endurance exercise bout can generate a strong inflammatory cell infiltration in skeletal muscle of well-trained experienced ultraendurance athletes, and the amplitude of the local reaction is not proportional to the systemic inflammatory response.

  • 13.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    et al.
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France .
    Dufour, Stéphane P
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France .
    Zoll, Joffrey
    Service de Cardiologie, Hôpitaux Civils de Colmar, Colmar, France.
    Doutrelau, Stéphane
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France .
    N'Guessan, Benoit
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France .
    Geny, Bernard
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France .
    Hoppeler, Hans
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland .
    Lampert, Eliane
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France.
    Mettauer, Bertrand
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France; Service de Cardiologie, Hôpitaux Civils de Colmar, Colmar, France.
    Ventura-Clapier, Renée
    4U-446 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
    Richard, Ruddy
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie, Strasbourg, France; Hôpital Civil-Service des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, 1 place de l'Hôpital, Strasbourg Cedex, France .
    Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. II. Improvement of mitochondrial properties in skeletal muscle2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 1249-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether adaptations of mitochondrial function accompany the improvement of endurance performance capacity observed in well-trained athletes after an intermittent hypoxic training program. Fifteen endurance-trained athletes performed two weekly training sessions on treadmill at the velocity associated with the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) with inspired O2 fraction = 14.5% [hypoxic group (Hyp), n = 8] or with inspired O2 fraction = 21% [normoxic group (Nor), n = 7], integrated into their usual training, for 6 wk. Before and after training, oxygen uptake (VO2) and speed at VT2, maximal VO2 (VO2 max), and time to exhaustion at velocity of VO2 max (minimal speed associated with VO2 max) were measured, and muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were harvested. Muscle oxidative capacities and sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP (Km) were evaluated on permeabilized muscle fibers. Time to exhaustion, VO2 at VT2, and VO2 max were significantly improved in Hyp (+42, +8, and +5%, respectively) but not in Nor. No increase in muscle oxidative capacity was obtained with either training protocol. However, mitochondrial regulation shifted to a more oxidative profile in Hyp only as shown by the increased Km for ADP (Nor: before 476 +/- 63, after 524 +/- 62 microM, not significant; Hyp: before 441 +/- 59, after 694 +/- 51 microM, P < 0.05). Thus including hypoxia sessions into the usual training of athletes qualitatively ameliorates mitochondrial function by increasing the respiratory control by creatine, providing a tighter integration between ATP demand and supply.

  • 14.
    Strandberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Edholm, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hellmén, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Clin NuDept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

  • 15. Zoll, Joffrey
    et al.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dufour, Stephane
    Flück, Martin
    Reply to Padilla, Hamilton, Lundgren, Mckenzie, and Mickleborough2007In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 103, p. 731-732Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Zoll, Joffrey
    et al.
    Department of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Dufour, Stéphane
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Doutreleau, Stéphane
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Ventura-Clapier, Renée
    Cardiologie Cell. et Moleculaire U-446 Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France .
    Vogt, Michael
    Department of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Hoppeler, Hans
    Department of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Richard, Ruddy
    Service de Physiologie Clinique et des Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires et de l'Exercice, Département de Physiologie Équipe d'Accueil 3072, Strasbourg, France.
    Flück, Martin
    Department of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Dept. of Anatomy, Univ. of Bern, Bern , Switzerland.
    Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. III. Muscular adjustments of selected gene transcripts2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 1258-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesized that specific muscular transcript level adaptations participate in the improvement of endurance performances following intermittent hypoxia training in endurance-trained subjects. Fifteen male high-level, long-distance runners integrated a modified living low-training high program comprising two weekly controlled training sessions performed at the second ventilatory threshold for 6 wk into their normal training schedule. The athletes were randomly assigned to either a normoxic (Nor) (inspired O2 fraction = 20.9%, n = 6) or a hypoxic group exercising under normobaric hypoxia (Hyp) (inspired O2 fraction = 14.5%, n = 9). Oxygen uptake and speed at second ventilatory threshold, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), and time to exhaustion (Tlim) at constant load at VO2 max velocity in normoxia and muscular levels of selected mRNAs in biopsies were determined before and after training. VO2 max (+5%) and Tlim (+35%) increased specifically in the Hyp group. At the molecular level, mRNA concentrations of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (+104%), glucose transporter-4 (+32%), phosphofructokinase (+32%), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (+60%), citrate synthase (+28%), cytochrome oxidase 1 (+74%) and 4 (+36%), carbonic anhydrase-3 (+74%), and manganese superoxide dismutase (+44%) were significantly augmented in muscle after exercise training in Hyp only. Significant correlations were noted between muscular mRNA levels of monocarboxylate transporter-1, carbonic anhydrase-3, glucose transporter-4, and Tlim only in the group of athletes who trained in hypoxia (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the addition of short hypoxic stress to the regular endurance training protocol induces transcriptional adaptations in skeletal muscle of athletic subjects. Expressional adaptations involving redox regulation and glucose uptake are being recognized as a potential molecular pathway, resulting in improved endurance performance in hypoxia-trained subjects.

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