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  • 1.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. RECETOX Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of brominated flame retardants and their derivatives by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization using gas chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry2017In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 162, p. 618-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A validated method using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC-APCI) to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is presented. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) and other emerging BFRs were included in this study. The method showed good linearity and repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) of all compounds was less than 16%. Repeatability for BFRs was tested on one or two concentration levels of calibration standardswith RSDs for RRFs below 16%. The lowest calibration standards (0.075 –0.1 pg/μL for emerging BFRs, BDE 209 and MeO-PBDEs mixtures, 0.625 –6.25 pg/μL for Br1-9 PBDEs mixtures) were used as instrument detection limits (IDL). The method was applied on biotic samples, including fish, osprey, and seal. In general, BDE209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were detected in 50% of the seal samples. A 100% detection rate was achieved for 6-MeO-BDE47 in all the samples (72 –580 pg/g ww in osprey samples, 24 000 –96 000 pg/g ww in seal samples and 78–99 pg/g ww in fish samples). AllBr3-6PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) were detected in all the samples (ranging from 12 to 20 000 pg/g ww), while BDE183 was detected in 60% of the osprey eggs, 20% of the seal samples and below MDL in all fish samples. The results presented indicate the capability of the GC-APCI-MS/MS system for the detection and quantification of BFRs.

  • 2.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ogar, Anna
    Plant-Microbial Interactions, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus)2015In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 135, p. 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V.

    The limits of detection were usually in the low μg L-1 range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences.

  • 3.
    Liu, Runzeng
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Song, Shanjun
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Guo, Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Determination of nine benzotriazole UV stabilizers in environmental water samples by automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2014In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 120, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method using automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system was developed for the determination of emerging benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZTs) in different environmental water matrices including river water, sewage influent and effluent. Water sample was injected directly and the analytes were preconcentrated on a Polar Advantage II on-line SPE cartridge. After cleanup step the target BZTs were eluted in back flush mode and then separated on a liquid chromatography column. Experimental parameters such as sample loading flow rate, SPE cartridge, pH value and methanol ratio in the sample were optimized in detail. The method detection limits ranged from 0.21 to 2.17 ng/L. Recoveries of the target BZTs at 50 ng/L spiking level ranged from 76% to 114% and the inter-day RSDs ranged from 1% to 15%. The optimized method was successfully applied to analyze twelve water samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants and rivers, and five BZTs (UV-P, UV-329, UV-350, UV-234 and UV-328) were detected with concentrations up to 37.1 ng/L. The proposed method is simple, sensitive and suitable for simultaneous analysis and monitoring of BZTs in water samples.

  • 4.
    Liu, Runzeng
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Song, Shanjun
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gao, Yan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shao, Junjuan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Trace analysis of mono-, di-, tri-substituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates and perfluorinated phosphonic acids in sewage sludge by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 111, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method using ultrasonic extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up pretreatments was developed for the analysis of mono-, di- and tri-substituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (abbreviated as mono-PAPs, di-PAPs and tri-PAPs) and perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the ultrasonic extraction of three mono-PAPs, three di-PAPs and three PFPAs in sludge samples, a mixture of tetrahydrofuran/acetic acid (1:1, v/v) was found to be the most suitable extraction solvent. The subsequently optimized clean-up and enrichment procedures were carried out with weak anion exchange (WAX) cartridges in-line coupled with graphitized carbon black (ENVI-Carb) tubes. Two tri-PAPs were ultrasonically extracted by acetonitrile/tetrahydrofuran (1:1, v/v) and cleaned by mixed-mode anion exchange (MAX) in-line coupled with ENVI-Carb cartridges. The analytes were analyzed by optimized high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method either in negative or positive ionization mode. The method quantification limits (MQLs) of the 11 analytes in sludge ranged from 0.6 to 5.1 ng/g, meanwhile the total recoveries of the pretreatment varied from 24% (6:2 mono-PAP) to 107% (PFDPA). The method was successfully applied to analyze 16 sewage sludge samples collected from seven provinces in China, and two mono-PAPs were identified with concentrations ranging from <MQLs to 10.7 ng/g.

  • 5.
    Parshintsev, J.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hartonen, K.
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kulmala, M.
    Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Riekkola, M. -L
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Solid-phase extraction of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol particles collected with the particle-into-liquid sampler and analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry2010In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 1170-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, collected with the particle-into-liquid sampler at SMEARII station in Finland in mid-August 2007, were analysed for biogenic acids. The sample pretreatment method. comprising solid-phase extraction with anion exchange and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance materials, was optimized. Extraction efficiencies of solid-phase extraction from 10 and 20 ml samples were about 100%, with average relative standard deviation of 8.9%, in concentration range from 12.5 to 50 ng/ml of the acid. Extraction of aldehydes was less successful, with efficiencies from 69 to 163% and average 10% deviation. Pre-treated samples were analysed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ion trap mass spectrometric detection. Limits of detection achieved for organic acids with the analytical procedure developed ranged from 9 to 27 mu g/l of extracted sample, while limits of quantitation were from 31 to 90 mu g/l Oxidation with ozone was used for the preparation of the acid of beta-caryophyllene (beta-caryophyllinic acid), which was also studied in aerosol samples. MS(2) experiments were used to confirm the identification of trans-pinic, trans-pinonic and beta-caryophyllinic acids. Azelaic, hexadecanoic, cis-pinonic,and cis-and trans-pinic acids were quantitated in the samples with use of authentic standards, while the concentrations of trans-pinonic and beta-caryophyllinic acids were determined with cis-pinonic acid as surrogate. Also, the contribution of beta-caryophyllene oxidation products to aerosol organic carbon was evaluated. Aldehydes could not be analysed in real samples due to the insufficient extraction. The particle-into-liquid sampler proved to be suitable for the collection of aerosol particles for the elucidation of daily and diurnal variation of selected species. The optimized sample pretreatment, together with the analysis method, offer a promising approach for the study of aerosol chemical composition, where artifact formation is minimal and time resolution is good.

  • 6.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph Ontario, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph Ontario, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph Ontario, Canada.
    Coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of relevant negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mechanisms2017In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 171, p. 68-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During an investigation of the potential associated with coupling packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds, it was found that negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was a promising ionization technique. In the course of maximizing the responses associated with the target analytes, it proved useful to examine some aspects of the complex nature and reactivity of the corona discharge plasma generated to explain the observed ionization products. Various dopants/reagents were screened for both APCI and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in negative ion mode and mechanisms of ionization involving superoxide were elucidated based on the results obtained. Superoxide formation was found to be temperature dependent and directly related to the intensity of the ion cluster [M-Cl+O](-) obtained for the target DP analytes. Furthermore, triethylamine was identified as a reagent capable of suppressing unwanted side reactions during the ionization process and maximizing response associated with the analytes of interest. The applicability of pSFC-APCI/MS for the separation and detection of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds was demonstrated by analyzing Lake Ontario sediment and comparing the results with values reported in the scientific literature.

  • 7.
    Yu, Miao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Zhang, Aiqian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Qunfang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Structure prediction of methyoxy-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) through GC-MS analysis of their corresponding PBDEs2016In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 152, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is hard to quantify the trace pollutants in the environment without the corresponding reference standards. Structure identifications of unknown organic pollutants are thus of great importance in environmental analysis. As for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) with one substituent of methoxyl group, there are 837 congeners, but only 32 standards are commercially available. In this work, an effective method based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was proposed to predict the potential structures of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs). The mass fragmentation pattern using SIM mode not only provided the useful information on the substitution position of methoxyl group, the number of Br atoms, but also guaranteed the high sensitivity for trace analysis. Br distribution patterns of the unknown MeO-PBDEs were revealed by a linear regression model with dummy variables which described the retention time relationship between MeO-PBDEs and the corresponding PBDEs on different types of GC columns. This method was successfully used to identify three new MeO-PBDEs metabolites of BDE-28 as 4-MeO-BDE-22, 4'-MeO-BDE-25 and 4-MeO-BDE-31 in the pumpkins. Therefore, the newly developed structure prediction model based on GC-MS behavior is helpful in the evaluation of unknown PBDE metabolites in the environment.

  • 8.
    Yun, Zhaojun
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    He, Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Wang, Zhenhua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Evaluation of different extraction procedures for determination of organic Mercury species in petroleum by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry2013In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 106, p. 60-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extraction procedure for extracting organic mercury species including methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg) from petroleum samples was developed. Three extraction methods (shaking, ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction) using different extraction solvents (TMAH, KOH/CH3OH, HCl and acidic CuSO4/KBr) were investigated by comparing the extraction efficiency of the organic mercury species. Microwave assisted extraction at 60 W for 5 min using TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, 25%, m/v) provided the most satisfactory extraction efficiency for MeHg and EtHg in petroleum at 86.7% ± 3.4% and 70.6% ± 5.9%, respectively. Speciation analysis of mercury was done by on-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography with cold vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-CV-AFS). The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze several crude oil and light oil samples. The concentrations of MeHg ranged from under detection limit to 0.515 ng g(-1), whereas EtHg was not detected in the samples. This method can be a very useful tool in evaluating the risk of mercury emissions from petroleum.

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