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  • 1. de Boer, Jacob
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Special Issue Tools for the Reach Programme - Analytical Methods for the Evaluation of Industrial Contaminants: Foreword2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 301-301Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dunstan, Jody
    Waters Corporation, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ruzzin, Jerome
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada; Montreal Diabetes Research Centre at the Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM) Montréal QC, Canada; Nutrition Department of Université de Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada; Endocrinology Division, Montreal University Hospital, Montréal QC, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1453, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300 pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r2) >0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4 pg/μL) and CS 3 (4 pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS.

  • 3.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of brominated dioxins and furans by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 376-384Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the available literature on the analysis of brominated dibenzo-p dioxins and furans(PBDD/Fs) by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).Sample extraction and clean up, injection techniques, chromatographic separation, labelled standardsand QA/QC works are discussed. Furthermore, full separation of PBDD/Fs from polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) during clean up and control of possible chromatographic interference of PBDEs duringinstrumental analysis as well as possible actions to further enhance the quality of published data arediscussed in detail.

  • 4.
    Hartonen, Minna
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Ruskeepää, Anna-Liisa
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1293, p. 142-149, article id S0021-9673(13)00567-0Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was applied in the quantification and identification of organic compounds in patient-matched human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples. Concentrations of 21 amino and hydroxyl acids varied from 0.04 to 77ng/μl in CSF and from 0.1 to 84ng/μl in serum. In total, 91 metabolites out of over 1200 detected were identified based on mass spectra and retention indices. The other metabolites were identified at the functional group level. The main metabolites detected in CSF were sugar and amino acid derivatives. The CSF and serum had clearly distinct metabolic profiles, with larger biological variation in the serum than in CSF. The GC×GC-TOFMS allowed detection and identification of several metabolites that have not been previously detected in CSF.

  • 5.
    Jin, Rong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Guorui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, Minghui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jiang, Xiaoxu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Lili
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Xiaolin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Congener-specific determination of ultratrace levels of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere and industrial stack gas by isotopic dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1509, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable determination of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH homologs comprising congeners with the same molecular skeleton and chlorine or bromine substitution numbers. Among the detected congeners, seven Cl-PAH congeners and thirteen Br-PAH congeners that were abundant in the atmosphere and stack gases released from waste incinerators were firstly detected in real samples and reported using the established isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method. The developed isotopic dilution GC/HRMS is significant and needed for better studying the environmental behavior and health risk of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs.

  • 6.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in complex samples using solid-phase microextraction and isotope dilution quantification gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry2007In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1164, no 1-2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method using gas chromatography–electron-capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC–ECNI-MS) and isotope dilution quantification for the analysis of nitroaromatic compounds in complex, water based samples has been optimised. For ionisation, ECNI was the most sensitive and selective method. SPME was compared to solid-phase extraction (SPE) and found to be more sensitive for these small volume samples. LODs were in the range 0.02–38 ng L−1 for SPME and 6–184 ng L−1 for SPE, respectively. The SPME method was applied on samples in the ng L−1 level from artificial reed beds treated with sludge containing residues from explosives and pharmaceuticals.

  • 7.
    Jönsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Uusitalo, Terhi
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole on ng L-1 to pg L-1 levels in wine by soild-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry2006In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1111, no 1, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wine at low ng L−1 levels was developed. A robust SPME method was developed by optimizing several different parameters, including type of fiber, salt addition, sample volume, extraction and desorption time. The quantification limit for TCA and TBA in wine was lowered substantially using GC-HRMS in combination with the optimized SPME method and allowed the detection of low analyte concentrations (ng L−1) with good accuracy. Limits of quantification for red wine of 0.3 ng L−1 for TCA and 0.2 ng L−1 for TBA with gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry and 0.03 ng L−1 for TCA and TBA were achieved using GC-HRMS. The method was applied to 30 wines of which 4 wines were sensorically qualified as cork defected. TCA was found in three of these wines with concentrations in the range 2–25 ng L−1. TBA was not detected in any of the samples.

  • 8.
    Katajamaa, Mikko
    et al.
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, Turku, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Data processing for mass spectrometry-based metabolomics2007In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1158, no 1-2, p. 318-328Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern analytical technologies afford comprehensive and quantitative investigation of a multitude of different metabolites. Typical metabolomic experiments can therefore produce large amounts of data. Handling such complex datasets is an important step that has big impact on extent and quality at which the metabolite identification and quantification can be made, and thus on the ultimate biological interpretation of results. Increasing interest in metabolomics thus led to resurgence of interest in related data processing. A wide variety of methods and software tools have been developed for metabolomics during recent years, and this trend is likely to continue. In this paper we overview the key steps of metabolomic data processing and focus on reviewing recent literature related to this topic, particularly on methods for handling data from liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) experiments.

  • 9.
    Kivilompolo, Marit
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Öhrnberg, Leena
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Rapid quantitative analysis of carnitine and acylcarnitines by ultra-high performance-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1292, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    L-Carnitine and its acyl esters (acylcarnitines) play an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids. However, most of the present methods for the quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines have restrictions both in sample preparation and in chromatographic separation. Herein we present a validated method for determination of carnitine and eleven acylcarnitines in human serum and rat tissue biopsies by using ultra-high performance-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHP-HILIC-MS/MS). The procedure uses minimal sample preparation including only addition of organic solvent, labeled internal standard, incubation and centrifugation. The separation is performed without derivatization or addition of ion-pairing reagent within 7 min on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic column with mass spectrometric detection. The method is linear in response over the concentration range from 20 to 600 ng/ml for carnitine and acetylcarnitine and 5-200 ng/ml for the other acylcarnitines, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.994. Recoveries were higher than 88% for most of the compounds. Limits of detection were 5 ng/ml for carnitine and acetylcarnitine and approximately 0.5 ng/ml for other acylcarnitines. The method was applied to the analysis of serum and tissue samples.

  • 10.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Accuracy and precision in the determination of perfluorinated chemicals in human blood verified by interlaboratory comparisons2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 394-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated chemicals, PFCs, are analyzed in laboratories worldwide to determine human blood levels and exposure pathways. The development of the  nalytical echnique has been rapid in the last ten years, and prerequisites for accurate and precise determination of PFCs in human blood at low ng/g concentrations are today readily available. The main contributing factors are the improved LC-MS instrumentations, the increased availability of native and mass labeled PFC standards, and new column materials available for chromatographic separations. The results of the first international interlaboratory study (ILS) in 2005 on PFCs revealed relatively better analytical results for human blood analyses when compared to analyses of a number of environmental matrices. The representative accuracy for the analyses of PFCs in human matrixes reported in recent years was established in the second human serum ILS in 2006. Interlaboratory standard deviations for the two human serum samples one low level concentration and one medium level concentration were found to be 12% and 16% for PFOS, respectively, and 47% and 21% for PFOA, respectively. Reported detections for all PFCs followed a frequency of PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA>PFDA>>PFDoA>> PFDS>>PFHxA. Due to the small number of reported values for the other perfluorosulfonates and perfluorocarboxylates, standard deviations were not established.

     

  • 11.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Cheng, Mengting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Long, Yanmin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Yu, Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Graphenized pencil lead fiber: facile preparation and application in solid-phase microextraction2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1325, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphenized pencil lead fiber was facilely prepared by in situ chemical exfoliation of graphite in pencil lead fiber to few-layered graphene sheets via a one-pot, one-step pressurized oxidation reaction for the first time. This new fiber was characterized and demonstrated to be a highly efficient but low-cost solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The extraction performance of the fiber was evaluated with four bisphenol analogs [bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] as model analytes in direct SPME mode. Unlike commercially available fibers, the graphenized pencil lead fiber showed an excellent chemical stability in highly saline, acidic, alkaline and organic conditions due to its coating-free configuration. The fiber also showed a very long lifespan. Furthermore, high extraction efficiency and good selectivity for the analytes with a wide polarity range could be obtained due to the exceptional properties of graphene. The detection limits (LODs) for the analytes were in the range of 1.1-25ng/L. The fiber was successfully applied in the analysis of tap water and effluent samples from a waste water treatment plant with spike recoveries ranging from 68.5 to 105.1%. Therefore, the graphenized pencil lead fiber provides a high performance, cheap, robust, and reliable tool for SPME.

  • 12.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Guo, Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Lihong
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Hemimicelles/admicelles supported on magnetic graphene sheets for enhanced magnetic solid-phase extraction2012In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1257, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, superparamagnetic nanoparticle-decorated graphene (MG) sheets were synthesized and used as support for hemimicelles/admicelles for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of different compounds from environmental water samples for the first time. The MG sheets were facilely synthesized by a one-step, one-pot redox reaction between graphene oxide and Fe(II). Due to the large surface area and unique nanosheet morphology, MG served as an excellent nano-scaled support material for hemimicelles and admicelles, exhibiting higher loading capacity than conventional materials and pure Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles. The MG sheets could be negatively or positively charged depending on solution pH, allowing the extraction to be conducted in different modes. In cationic mode, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as micelle-forming reagent, and perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and alkylphenols were used as model analytes. In anionic mode, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as micelle-forming reagent and alkyltrimethylammonium salts were selected as analytes. In both modes, the formation processes of hemimicelles/admicelles on MG sheets were studied and the extraction conditions were optimized. For PFASs, the analytical sensitivity was enhanced by 50-113-fold by the extraction, and the method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.15 to 0.50 ng/L. For alkyltrimethylammonium salts, the MDLs were in the range of 1.4-8.0 ng/L. In both modes, good recoveries (56.3-93.9%) and reproducibility (run-to-run RSDs<9.3%) were obtained. The results from this work show a potential new role of graphene in analytical sample preparation.

  • 13.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zeng, Lixi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Evaluation of graphene as an advantageous adsorbent for solid-phase extraction with chlorophenols as model analytes2011In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1218, no 2, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene, a novel class of carbon nanostructures, possesses an ultrahigh specific surface area, and thus has great potentials for the use as sorbent materials. We herein demonstrate the use of graphene as a novel adsorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). Eight chlorophenols (CPs) as model analytes were extracted on a graphene-packed SPE cartridge, and then eluted with alkaline methanol. The concentrations in the eluate were determined by HPLC with multi-wavelength UV detection. Under the optimized conditions, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.1-0.4 ng/mL) and good reproducibility of CPs (RSDs 2.2-7.7% for run-to-run assays) were achieved. Comparative studies showed that graphene was superior to other adsorbents including C18 silica, graphitic carbon, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the extraction of CPs. Some other advantages of graphene as SPE adsorbent, such as good compatibility with various organic solvents, good reusability and no impact of sorbent drying, have also been demonstrated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of tap and river water samples with recoveries ranging from 77.2 to 116.6%. This work not only proposes a useful method for environmental water sample pretreatment, but also reveals great potentials of graphene as an excellent sorbent material in analytical processes.

  • 14. Martinez, K.
    et al.
    Rivera-Austrui, J.
    Adrados, M. A.
    Abalos, M.
    Llerena, J. J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rivera, J.
    Abad, E.
    Uncertainty assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl analysis in stationary source sample emissions in accordance with the impending European standard EN-1948 using fly ashes2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 31, p. 5888-5894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) present in stack gas emissions and solid residues from incinerators will be mandatory in the foreseeable future. European standard EN-1948 is in the process of being updated through the addition of a new Part 4 related to the analysis of the 12 dl-PCBs. Therefore, either a comprehensive and reliable method capable of analyzing all of these 29 compounds (12 dl-PCBs and 17 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) needs to be developed, or the existing PCDD/F analytical procedure must be adapted to include the dl-PCBs. This study has taken the latter approach of modifying PCDD/F methodology and in particular the fractionation step, by isolating dioxins and dl-PCBs into separate fractions ready for high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analysis. Results obtained from the analysis of Certified Reference Materials (CRM-490 and CRM-615) and fly ashes from the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) intercalibration study demonstrated that the proposed methodology is appropriate to determine the dl-PCBs in accordance with the impending European standard EN-1948. Uncertainty values obtained during the validation of the analytical methodology were 13% total I-TEQ (international Toxic Equivalent) for PCDD/Fs and 31% total WHO-TEQ (World Health Organization Toxic Equivalent) in the case of dl-PCBs. In addition, 'real' samples such as emissions and fly ashes were successfully analyzed following the proposed analytical method. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Moravcová, Dana
    et al.
    Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Haapala, Markus
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Planeta, Josef
    Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Kostiainen, Risto
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wiedmer, Susanne K.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Separation of nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides using two zwitterionic silica-based monolithic capillary columns coupled with tandem mass spectrometry2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1373, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capability of employing synthesized zwitterionic silica-based monolithic capillary columns (140 mm x 0.1 mm) for separation of highly polar and hydrophilic nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography is reported. The suitability of the columns for on-line conjunction with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was explored. Our results show that the grafted layer of zwitterionic monomer ([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide or 2-methaciyloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) on the silica monolithic surface significantly improved the separation selectivity and reproducibility, as compared to the bare silica monolith. The stepwise elution from 90% to 70% of acetonitrile enabled separation of a complex sample mixture containing 21 compounds with a total analysis time less than 40 min.

  • 16.
    Ruan, Ting
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Yawei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Zhang, Qinghua
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Ding, Lei
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Pu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Qu, Guangbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Chang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Bejing, China; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing, China.
    Trace determination of airborne polyfluorinated iodine alkanes using multisorbent thermal desorption/gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry2010In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1217, no 26, p. 4439-4447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method coupled with multisorbent thermal desorption cartridges has been developed for the determination of volatile neutral polyfluorinated iodine alkanes (PFIs) in airborne samples. It allows, for the first time, simultaneous analysis of four mono-iodized perfluorinated alkanes, three diiodized perfluorinated alkanes and four mono-iodized polyfluorinated telomers in ambient air samples. 3.75 L air sample was passed through a sorbent tube packed with 150 mg of Tenax TA and 200mg of Carbograph 1 TD for analyte adsorption. Important factors during the analysis procedures, such as safe sampling volume, air sampling rate, analyte desorption and transfer strategies, were optimized and good thermal desorption efficiencies were obtained. The method detection limit (MDL) concentration ranged from 0.04 pg/L for 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyl iodide to 1.2 pg/L for perfluorohexyl iodide, and instrument response of a seven-point calibration was linear in the range of 10-1000 pg. Travel spike recoveries ranged from 83% to 116%. Small variabilities of less than 36% were obtained near the MDLs and the differences between triplicates were even smaller (2.1-7.3%) at 200 pg spiked level. The method was successfully applied to analyze ambient air samples collected near a point source, and five PFIs were identified (10.8-85.0 pg/L), with none of the analytes detectable at the background site.

  • 17.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Lind, Lars
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A rapid method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl substances including structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in human serum using 96-well plates and column-switching ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1305, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate high-throughput analysis suitable for large epidemiological studies we developed an automated column-switching ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs; C-5, C-6, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10, C-11, C-12, and C-13), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C-4, C-6, C-8, and C-10), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and five groups of structural perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers in human serum or plasma. The analytical procedure involves rapid protein precipitation using 96-well plates followed by an automated sample clean-up using an on-line trap column removing many potentially interfering sample components while through the mobile phase gradient the target analytes are eluted onto the analytical column for further separation and subsequent mass detection. The method was linear (R-2 <0.995) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 60 ng mL(-1) with method detection limits ranging between 0.01 and 0.17 ng mL(-1) depending on the analyte. The developed method was precise, with repeatability (n = 7) and reproducibility (n =103) coefficients of variation between 2% and 20% for most compounds including PFOS (2% and 8%) and its structural isomers (2-6% and 4-8%). The method was in conformity with a standard reference material. The column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully applied for the determination of perfluoroalkyl substances including structural PFOS isomers in human plasma from an epidemiological study.

  • 18.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A method for analysis of marker persistent organic pollutants in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction2018In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1546, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 96-well plate solid phase extraction method for analysis of 23 lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-volume plasma and serum samples which is applicable for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies. The analysis of selected markers for internal exposure: 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and polybrominated diphenylether 47 (BDE 47) was evaluated by comparing two SPE sorbents and GC-HRMS or GC-MS/MS detection. The final method extracted 23 POPs from 150 μL of serum and plasma using a 96-well extraction plate containing 60 mg Oasis HLB sorbent per well prior to GC-HRMS magnetic sector analysis. The extraction method was applied to 40 plasma samples collected for an epidemiological study. The recovery of selected POPs ranged from 31% to 63% (n = 48), and detection limits ranged from 2.2 to 45 pg/mL for PCBs, 4.2 to 167 pg/mL for OCPs, 7.8 pg/mL for OCDD and 6.1 pg/mL for BDE 47. This method showed good precision with relative standard deviations of selected POP concentrations in quality control samples (n = 48) ranging from 11% to 25%. The trueness was determined with standard reference material serum (n = 48) and the deviation from certified values ranged from 1 to 27%. Of the 23 POPs analyzed, 18 were detected in 43% to 100% of plasma samples collected for the epidemiological study. The method showed good robustness with low inter-well plate variation (11-31%) determined by twelve 96-well plate extractions, and can extract 96 samples, including quality controls and procedural blanks in 2-3 days. Comparison with GC-MS/MS analysis showed that similar concentrations (within 0.5% to 30%) of most POPs could be obtained with GC-APCI-MS/MS. Larger deviations were observed for PCB 194 (60%) and trans-nonachlor (43%). The developed method produces accurate concentrations of low-level marker POPs in plasma and serum, providing a suitable high-throughput sample preparation procedure for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies involving large sample size and limited sample volume. GC-HRMS was chosen over GC-MS/MS, however the latter showed promising results, and could be used as an alternative to GC-HRMS analysis for most POPs.

  • 19.
    Tao, Yong
    et al.
    School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Liu, Jing-Fu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Hu, Xia-Lin
    College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.
    Li, Hong-Cheng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Jiang, Gui-Bin
    School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane microextraction for determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 35, p. 6259-6266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using ionic liquid as membrane liquid and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as additive, hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was developed for the determination of five sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection The extraction solvent and the parameters affecting the extraction enrichment factor such as the type and amount of carrier, pH and volume ratio of donor phase and acceptor phase, extraction time, salt-out effect and matrix effect were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions (organic liquid membrane phase: [C8MIM][PF6] with 14% TOPO (w/v); donor phase: 4mL, pH 4.5 KH2PO4 with 2M Na2SO4; acceptor phase: 25microL, pH 13 NaOH; extraction time: 8 h), low detection limits (0.1-0.4microg/L, RSD<or=5%) and good linear range (1-2000ng/mL, R(2)>or=0.999) were obtained for all the analytes. The presence of humic acid (0-25mg/L dissolved organic carbon) and bovine serum albumin (0-100 μg/mL) had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Good spike recoveries over the range of 82.2-103.2% were obtained when applying the proposed method on five real environmental water samples. These results indicated that this present method was very sensitive and reliable with good repeatabilities and excellent clean-up in water samples. The proposed method confirmed hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane based LPME to be robust to monitoring trace levels of sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole in aqueous samples.

  • 20.
    Tao, Yong
    et al.
    School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.
    Liu, Jing-Fu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Jiang, Gui-Bin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China.
    Simultaneous conduction of two- and three-phase hollow-fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of aromatic amines in environmental water samples2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 5, p. 756-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a simultaneously performed two-/three-phase hollow-fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method for the determination of aromatic amines with a wide range of pKa (-4.25 to 4.6) and log KOW (0.9-2.8) values in environmental water samples. Analytes including aniline, 4-nitroaniline, 2,4-dinitroaniline and dicloran were extracted from basic aqueous samples (donor phase, DP) into the microliter volume of organic membrane phase impregnated into the pores of the polypropylene hollow fiber wall, then back extracted into the acidified aqueous solution (acceptor phase, AP) filling in the lumen of the hollow fiber. The mass transfer of the analytes from the donor phase through the organic membrane phase into acceptor phase was driven by both the counter-coupled transport of hydrogen ions and the pH gradient. Afterwards, the hollow fiber was eluted with 50 microL methanol to capture the analytes from both the organic membrane and the acceptor phase. Factors relevant to the enrichment factors (EFs) were investigated. Under the optimized condition (DP: 100 mL of 0.1 M NaOH with 2 M Na2SO4; organic phase: di-n-hexyl with 8% trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO); AP: 10 microL of 8 M HCl; extraction time of 80 min), the obtained EFs were 405-2000, dynamic linear ranges were 5-200 microg/L (R>0.9976), and limits of detection were 0.5-1.5 microg/L. The presence of humic acid (0-25 mg/L dissolved organic carbon) had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The proposed procedure worked very well for real environmental water samples with microgram per liter level of analytes, and good spike recoveries (80-103%) were obtained.

  • 21.
    Titaley, Ivan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR, USA.
    Ogba, O. Maduka
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR, USA; Department of Chemistry, Pomona College, Claremont CA, USA.
    Chibwe, Leah
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR, USA.
    Hoh, Eunha
    Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego CA, USA.
    Cheong, Paul H. -Y.
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR, USA.
    Simonich, Staci L. Massey
    Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR, USA; Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR, USA.
    Automating data analysis for two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry non-targeted analysis of comparative samples2018In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1541, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-targeted analysis of environmental samples, using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/ToF-MS), poses significant data analysis challenges due to the large number of possible analytes. Non-targeted data analysis of complex mixtures is prone to human bias and is laborious, particularly for comparative environmental samples such as contaminated soil pre- and post-bioremediation. To address this research bottleneck, we developed OCTpy, a Python (TM) script that acts as a data reduction filter to automate GC x GC/ToF-MS data analysis from LECO (R) ChromaTOF (R) software and facilitates selection of analytes of interest based on peak area comparison between comparative samples. We used data from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil, pre- and post-bioremediation, to assess the effectiveness of OCTpy in facilitating the selection of analytes that have formed or degraded following treatment. Using datasets from the soil extracts pre- and post-bioremediation, OCTpy selected, on average, 18% of the initial suggested analytes generated by the LECO (R) ChromaTOF (R) software Statistical Compare feature. Based on this list, 63-100% of the candidate analytes identified by a highly trained individual were also selected by OCTpy. This process was accomplished in several minutes per sample, whereas manual data analysis took several hours per sample. OCTpy automates the analysis of complex mixtures of comparative samples, reduces the potential for human error during heavy data handling and decreases data analysis time by at least tenfold. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto Ontario, Canada.
    Stadey, Christopher
    Waters Corporation, Mississauga ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto Ontario, Canada.
    Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1522, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs.

  • 23.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    cWadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY, USA.
    Xu, Della Z. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    An analytical method for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in whole blood using acetonitrile and solid phase extraction methods2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 25, p. 4950-4956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates: C4, C6, C8, C10; perfluoroalkyl sulfinates: C6, C8, C10; perfluorooctanesulfonamide, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, perfluorocarboxylates: C4–C14; fluorotelomer carboxylate (7:3, 8:2) in whole blood using acetonitrile and OASIS WAX® solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was developed. Separation of target compounds in two HPLC columns (ion exchange JJ50-2D and C18 Betasil columns) was examined. Matrix recoveries of the developed methods ranged from 70% to 120%. Separation of possible inferences such as taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC) was accomplished using an ion exchange JJ50-2D column, and this separation was validated using whole blood of different animals.

  • 24.
    Zhao, Xiaoli
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Shi, Yali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Preparation of silica-magnetite nanoparticle mixed hemimicelle sorbents for extraction of several typical phenolic compounds from environmental water samples2008In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1188, no 2, p. 140-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel type of superparamagnetic silica-coated (Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell) magnetite nanoparticle modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and was applied as an effective sorbent material for the pre-concentration of several typical phenolic compounds (bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP)) from environmental water samples. Compared with pure magnetic particles, a thin and dense silica layer would protect the iron oxide core from leaching out in acidic conditions. In order to enhance their adsorptive tendency towards organic compounds, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were added, which adsorbed on the surface of the Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs) and formed mixed hemimicelles. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analytes were optimized and comparative study on the use of CPC and CTAB-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs mixed hemimicelles-based SPE was also carried out. CPC-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs system was selected due to lower elution volume required and more effective adsorption of the target compounds. Under selected conditions, concentration factor of 1600 was achieved by using this method to extract 800 mL of different environmental water samples. The detection limits obtained for BPA, 4-OP and 4-NP with HPLC-FLD were 7, 14, and 20 ng/L, respectively.

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