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  • 1.
    Adamic, M.
    et al.
    Dermatol Ctr Parmova, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Pavlovic, M. D.
    Dermatol Ctr Parmova, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Fac Med, Univ Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Rubin, A. Troilius
    Ctr Laser & Vasc Anomalies, Dept Dermatol, Skåne Univ Hosp, Malmö, Sweden.
    Palmetun-Ekback, M.
    Örebro University Hospital. Dept Dermatol, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boixeda, P.
    Dept Dermatol, Laser Serv, Ramon & Cajal Hosp, Univ Alcala De Henares, Madrid, Spain.
    Guidelines of care for vascular lasers and intense pulse light sources from the European Society for Laser Dermatology2015In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1661-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimLasers and non-coherent intense pulse light sources (IPLS) are based on the principle of selective photothermolysis and can be used for the treatment of many vascular skin lesions. A variety of lasers has been developed for the treatment of congenital and acquired vascular lesions which incorporate these concepts into their design. Although laser and light sources are very popular due to their non-invasive nature, caution should be considered by practitioners and patients to avoid permanent side-effects. The aim of these guidelines is to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of lasers and IPLS in the treatment of vascular lesions. MethodsThese guidelines were produced by a Consensus Panel made up of experts in the field of vascular laser surgery under the auspices of the European Society of Laser Dermatology. Recommendations on the use of vascular lasers and IPLS were made based on the quality of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction/preference and, where appropriate, on the experts' opinion. The recommendations of these guidelines are graded according to the American College of Chest Physicians Task Force recommendations on Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines. ResultsLasers and IPLS are very useful and sometimes the only available method to treat various vascular lesions. It is of a paramount importance that the type of laser or IPLS and their specific parameters are adapted to the indication but also that the treating physician is familiar with the device to be used. The crucial issue in treating vascular lesions is to recognize the immediate end-point after laser treatment. This is the single most important factor to ensure both the efficacy of the treatment and avoidance of serious side-effects.

  • 2. Berg, M.
    et al.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Possible gender differences in the quality of life and choice of therapy in acne2011In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 969-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Acne is a very common skin disease that has major impact on the patients' quality of life. Although the disease has been extensively studied we still need more knowledge of factors influencing the decisions for choice of therapy. Objective To evaluate the relationships between clinical severity, patients' self-reported quality of life, treatment choice and the outcome of therapy in a structured out-patient acne clinic. Methods In total 211 consecutive patients (143 females, 68 males) at a structured acne clinic were included. At the first visit a clinical assessment was conducted, therapy was initiated and the patients answered a quality-of-life questionnaire (Dermatology Life Quality Index, DLQI). A follow up was performed after six months, when patients once again answered the DLQI questionnaire and the clinical outcome was assessed by the physician. Results The quality of life was improved after treatment at a group level. At the first visit, the quality of life showed a gender difference (females scoring worse) but did not correlate to the clinical grading nor to the choice of therapy. At six months the DLQI correlated with clinical outcome. Patients with isotretinoin therapy showed a significantly greater improvement in quality of life. There was a tendency to gender difference in the choice of therapy, as in females 32% of the patients were treated with isotretinoin although they were clinically graded as moderate. The corresponding figure for males was 23%. A correlation was found between the initial clinical grading and gender, age and the choice of therapy. Conclusion DLQI can be used to evaluate treatment effects in acne. However, the self-reported quality of life will depend on several factors including age, gender, psychosocial factors and clinical severity.

  • 3.
    de Vries, H. J. C.
    et al.
    STI Outpatient Clinic, Infectious Diseases Department, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Dermatology, Amsterdam Institute for Infection and Immunity (AI&II), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Barbeyrac, B.
    Mycoplasmal and Chlamydial Infections in Humans, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Mycoplasmal and Chlamydial Infections in Humans, INRA, Bordeaux, France; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, French National Reference Center for Bacterial STIs, Bordeaux, France.
    de Vrieze, N. H. N.
    Department of Dermatology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Viset, J. D.
    Department of Dermatology, Amsterdam Institute for Infection and Immunity (AI&II), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    White, J. A.
    Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Western Health & Social Care Trust, Londonderry, UK.
    Vall-Mayans, M.
    STI Unit Vall d'Hebron-Drassanes, Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections.
    2019 European guideline on the management of lymphogranuloma venereum2019In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New or important issues in this updated version of the 2013 European guideline on the management of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): EPIDEMIOLOGY: Lymphogranuloma venereum continues to be endemic among European men who have sex with men (MSM) since 2003. Lymphogranuloma venereum infections in heterosexuals are extremely rare in Europe, and there is no evidence of transmission of LGV in the European heterosexual population.

    AETIOLOGY AND TRANSMISSION: Chlamydia trachomatis serovars/genovars L2b and L2 are the causative strains in the majority of cases in Europe.

    CLINICAL FEATURES: Among MSM, about 25% of the anorectal LGV infections are asymptomatic. Genital infections among MSM are rare; the ratio of genital vs. anorectal LGV infections is 1 in 15.

    DIAGNOSIS: To diagnose LGV, a sample tested C. trachomatis positive with a commercial nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) platform should be confirmed with an LGV discriminatory NAAT.

    TREATMENT: Doxycycline 100 mg twice a day orally for 21 days is the recommended treatment for LGV. This same treatment is recommended also in asymptomatic patients and contacts of LGV patients. If another regimen is used, a test of cure (TOC) must be performed.

  • 4. Domeika, M.
    et al.
    Litvinenko, I.
    Smirnova, T.
    Gaivaronskaya, O.
    Savicheva, A.
    Sokolovskiy, E.
    Ballard, R. C.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Laboratory diagnostics for non-viral sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia: current situation and hallmarks for improvements2008In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1094-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The numbers and performance characteristics of laboratories providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnostic services, as well as the rates of morbidity due to STIs in St. Petersburg, Russia, remain largely unknown.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the range, quality and availability of diagnostic services for several non-viral STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis) in St. Petersburg during the period September 2005 to June 2006.

    METHODS: Survey data focusing on organization and performance characteristics of STI diagnostic services were assessed using questionnaires, telephone interviews and site visits.

    RESULTS: A total of 118 laboratories providing STI diagnostic services were identified. Of the surveyed laboratories, 54% (64 of 118) diagnosed syphilis, 81% (96 of 118) gonorrhoea, 80% (94 of 118) trichomoniasis and 49% (58 of 118) chlamydial infections. Although most of the laboratories could provide a presumptive diagnosis for syphilis, most of the N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis testing of women did not adhere to international recommendations. Of the laboratories with the capacity to diagnose C. trachomatis infection, 69% still used serological testing (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to detect antibodies to C. trachomatis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the diagnostic methods used to establish a laboratory diagnosis, the system of case reporting, the training of laboratory personnel and the level of interlaboratory communication clearly require improvement. This study represents the first step in a process of evaluation of the laboratory support for STI services and the establishment of an interlaboratory network in St. Petersburg.

  • 5.
    Horner, P.
    et al.
    Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Evaluation of Interventions, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Donders, G.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium.
    Cusini, M.
    Department of Dermatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Policlinico, Milano, Italy.
    Gomberg, M.
    Moscow Scientific and Practical Center of Dermatovenereology and Cosmetology, Moscow, Russia.
    Jensen, J. S.
    Infection Preparedness, Research Unit for Reproductive Tract Microbiology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and Other STIs, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology.
    Should we be testing for urogenital Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and U. urealyticum in men and women?: a Position Statement from the European STI Guidelines Editorial Board2018In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1845-1851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, we have no evidence that we are doing more good than harm detecting and subsequently treating Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonisations/infections. Consequently, routine testing and treatment of asymptomatic or symptomatic men and women for M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum is not recommended. Asymptomatic carriage of these bacteria is common and the majority of individuals do not develop disease. Although U. urealyticum has been associated with urethritis in men, it is probably not causal unless a high load is present (likely carriage in 40-80% of detected cases). The extensive testing, detection and subsequent antimicrobial treatment of these bacteria performed in some settings may result in selection of antimicrobial resistance, in these bacteria, "true" STI agents, as well as in the general microbiota, and substantial economic cost for society and individuals, particularly women. The commercialisation of many particularly multiplex PCR assays detecting traditional non-viral STIs together with M. hominis, U. parvum and/or U. urealyticum have worsened this situation. Thus, routine screening of asymptomatic men and women or routine testing of symptomatic individuals for M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum is not recommended. If testing of men with symptomatic urethritis is undertaken, traditional STI urethritis agents such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium and, in settings where relevant, Trichomonas vaginalis should be excluded prior to U. urealyticum testing and quantitative species-specific molecular diagnostic tests should be used. Only men with high U. urealyticum load should be considered for treatment, however, appropriate evidence for effective treatment regimens is lacking. In symptomatic women, bacterial vaginosis (BV) should always be tested for and treated if detected.

  • 6.
    Malm, Kerstin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sören
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fredlund, Hans
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Norrgren, Hans
    Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Biague, Antonio
    National Public Health Laboratory (LNSP), Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
    Månsson, Fredrik
    Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ballard, R.
    Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Protection, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Analytical evaluation of nine serological assays for diagnosis of syphilis2015In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 2369-2376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The diagnosis of syphilis is most frequently dependent on antibody detection with serological assays. Assays for both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies are needed to provide a sensitive and specific diagnosis. For decades, a first screening has been done with non-treponemal assays, followed by treponemal. However, in recent years, following laboratory automation, the reverse sequence screening algorithms have been developed, using a treponemal assay as the initial screening test.

    Objective: To evaluate serological assays for treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies, to use in reverse algorithm screening of syphilis.

    Material and methods: Six treponemal assays (one IgM-specific assay), two non-treponemal assays and one novel dual point-of-care (POC) assay for serological diagnosis of syphilis were evaluated. Serum samples from Guinea-Bissau and Sweden were examined, as well as two performance panels and samples from blood donors. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay, using different assays as gold standard test.

    Results: The Macro-Vue RPR Card test was the most sensitive non-treponemal test and the TrepSure Anti-Treponema EIA Screen and the SeroDia TP-PA were the most sensitive and specific treponemal assays. Among the automated assays, both the Liaison Treponema Screen and Architect Syphilis TP showed high sensitivity, however, the former had clearly higher specificity.

    Conclusions: In resourced settings, where the reverse sequence algorithm is preferred for screening, an automated treponemal immunoassay for initial screening subsequently followed by the TrepSure test or TP-PA assay as a second treponemal assay appear highly effective. Finally, a quantitative highly sensitive non-treponemal assay, e.g. the Macro-Vue RPR Card test, could then be used as a supplementary test to evaluate activity of the syphilis infection.

  • 7.
    Olsen, Birgitta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lan, Pham T.
    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    Khang, T. H.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Population-based assessment of Mycoplasma genitalium in Vietnam: low prevalence among married women of reproductive age in a rural area2009In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 533-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To analyse the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in a population-based study among married women from a demographic surveillance site in a rural geographical area of Vietnam.

    Materials and Methods Women, 18-49 years of age, were randomly selected to participate. DNA was isolated from endocervical swabs sampled from 990 participating women. The M. genitalium MgPa adhesion gene was detected using a real-time PCR with TaqMan probe.

    Results Eight (0.8% [95% confidence interval, 0.25-1.35%]) of the included women were infected with M. genitalium .Two of these positive women reported clinical symptoms. One additional M. genitalium positive but symptom-free woman, however, showed clinical signs of vaginitis. None of the M. genitalium positive women was concomitantly infected with Chlamydia trachomatis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , syphilis or HIV. Furthermore, there was no obvious association between M. genitalium infectionand vaginal douching, use of intra-uterine device (IUD), or occurrence of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, or Trichomonas vaginalis .

    Conclusions The prevalence of M. genitalium among married women in Vietnam was relatively low. However, more large, well-designed and appropriately performed studies in other population groups including unmarried women and men, and in other geographical areas, rural as well as urban, are crucial in order to extract any evidence-based conclusions regarding the overall prevalence of STIs, including M. genitalium infections, in the Vietnamese society. The present study compiled with such future studies may form the basis for a national sexual health strategy for prevention, diagnosis, and surveillance of STIs, including M. genitalium infections, in Vietnam.

  • 8.
    Ozolins, D.
    et al.
    Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia..
    D'Elios, M. M.
    Univ Florence, Florence, Italy..
    Lowndes, C. M.
    HPA, London, England..
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Diagnostics, surveillance and management of sexually transmitted infections in Europe have to be improved: lessons from the European Conference of National Strategies for Chlamydia Trachomatis and Human Papillomavirus (NSCP conference) in Latvia, 20112013In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1308-1311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is an urgent need for the recognition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as a serious public health problem in Europe. The lack of standardization in testing, along with poor reporting and surveillance mechanisms, have resulted in low reported rates of STIs in many European Union (EU) countries, reinforcing the erroneous assumption that STIs are not a major problem. Testing and diagnosis of STIs must therefore be improved and enhanced. Recommendations Reporting of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, gonorrhoea and syphilis should be mandatory, and an integrated surveillance system for C. trachomatis implemented in all European countries. Implementation of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) surveillance mechanisms for STIs in all EU countries is highly recommended. A necessary component for successful introduction of the HPV vaccine, as with any vaccination programme is a well-planned and organized information campaign.

  • 9.
    Shipitsyna, E.
    et al.
    Microbiol Lab, D. O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Krasnoselskikh, T.
    Dept Dermatol & Venereol, Pavlov State Med Univ, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Zolotoverkhaya, E.
    Microbiol Lab, D. O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Savicheva, A.
    Microbiol Lab, D. O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Krotin, P.
    City Youth Clin Yuventa, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Domeika, M.
    Dept Med Sci, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Unemo, M.
    Örebro University Hospital. Dept Lab Med, Natl Reference Lab Pathogen Neisseria, WHO Collaborating Ctr Gonorrhoea & Other STIs, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes regarding safe sex, and prevalence of non-viral sexually transmitted infections among attendees of youth clinics in St. Petersburg, Russia2013In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 27, no 1, p. e75-e84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Adolescents and young adults are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Knowledge of STI prevalence and risk factors are essential tools to elaborate preventive strategies. However, internationally reported studies on epidemiology of STIs among the youth in Russia are mainly lacking. Objectives To ascertain sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes about safe sex and prevalence and correlates with STIs in attendees of youth clinics in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods A total of 301 women and 131 men, who self-referred for STI testing, completed a questionnaire and were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis using nucleic acid amplification tests. Results The overall STI prevalence was 16.9%, and similar in the female patients and male patients (15.6% and 19.8% respectively). C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium and T. vaginalis were detected in 13%, 2.5%, 4.6% and 1.2% of the attendees respectively. The men displayed riskier sexual behaviours and worse knowledge and attitudes regarding safe sex compared to the women, with the most distinguishing features being younger age at first intercourse (P < 0.0005), higher numbers of sex partners during lifetime (P = 0.001) and latest 6 months (P < 0.0005), more frequently consuming alcohol (P < 0.0005), poorer knowledge of STI/HIV prevention measures (P < 0.0005), and less positive attitudes towards safe sex (P = 0.001). However, no significant predictors of STI positivity were found in the men. In the women, the strongest predictors of STI positivity were young age (1519 years) and multiple sex partners (=2) during latest 6 months. Conclusions The overall prevalence of STIs among users of STI services at youth clinics in St. Petersburg was high. Comprehensive epidemiological data on STI prevalence and sexual behaviour correlates are necessary to initiate new and strengthen existing STI prevention programmes for the youth, in Russia as well as in many other settings.

  • 10.
    Shipitsyna, E.
    et al.
    Microbiol Lab, D. O. Ott Res Inst Obstet & Gynaecol, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Zolotoverkhaya, E.
    Microbiol Lab, DO Ott Res Inst Obstet & Gynaecol, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Chen, C. Y.
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent CDC, Lab Reference, Atlanta GA, USA; Ctr Dis Control & Prevent CDC, Res Branch, Div STD Prevent, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Chi, K. H.
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent CDC, Lab Reference, Atlanta GA, USA; Ctr Dis Control & Prevent CDC, Res Branch, Div STD Prevent, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Grigoryev, A.
    Microbiol Lab, D. O. Ott Res Inst Obstet & Gynaecol, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Savicheva, A.
    Microbiol Lab, D. O. Ott Res Inst Obstet & Gynaecol, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Ballard, R.
    Ctr Dis Control & Prevent CDC, Lab Reference, Atlanta GA, USA; Ctr Dis Control & Prevent CDC, Res Branch, Div STD Prevent, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Domeika, M.
    Dept Med Sci, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Unemo, M.
    Örebro University Hospital. WHO Collaborating Ctr Gonorrhoea & Other STIs, Natl Reference Lab Pathogen Neisseria, Dept Lab Med, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assays for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Russia2013In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 27, no 2, p. E217-E223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In Russia, the microscopy- and culture-based diagnostics of trichomoniasis is mainly suboptimal. Recent years, domestically produced diagnostic PCR assays have been implemented; however, any evaluation of these PCRs has never been internationally reported. Objective To assess the performance characteristics of PCR assays developed and currently used in Russia to detect Trichomonas vaginalis. Materials and methods Five PCR assays were assessed on 448 samples (317 vaginal and 131 male urethral) collected from symptomatic attendees of youth centres (n = 415) and patients of a dermatovenereological dispensary that were previously diagnosed with trichomoniasis (n = 33). As reference assay, a sensitive and specific real-time multiplex PCR was used. Results T. vaginalis DNA was detected in five (all females) of the 415 patients of youth centres (1.2%). All 33 patients previously diagnosed at the venereological dispensary proved to be true positive. For 445 (99.3%) of these 448 samples identical results were obtained by all PCRs, 35 positive and 410 negative. The three discordant samples were positive in all PCRs except one conventional PCR assay. The sensitivities of the PCRs were 94.3-100% and 66.7-100% for vaginal and urethral swabs, respectively. All evaluated assays were 100% specific. The detection limits of the different PCRs ranged from 0.1 to 5 genome equivalents per reaction. Conclusion The PCR assays currently used in Russia for the detection of T. vaginalis have in general high sensitivities and excellent specificities for both vaginal samples and urethral samples from males. Received: 3 October 2011; Accepted: 3 May 2012

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