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  • 1.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Björkqvist, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept Paediat, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Östlund, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Åman, Jan
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University. Dept Paediat, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Placental gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors: a case control study of obese and normal weight women2015In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 159-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To survey the placental gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in non-smoking obese women with an uncomplicated pregnancy without associated morbidity and delivery at term compared with normal weight women.

    Methods: Placental tissue samples from 32 obese women (body mass index, BMI >= 35.0 kg/m(2)) were compared with samples from 94 normal weight women (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2)) matched for age (+/- 1 year), gestational age (+/- 3 days), parity and mode of delivery. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyse toll receptor-2 and -4, interleukin-6 and -8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and -2, hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor and insulin receptor.

    Results: There was no significant difference in gene expression in placental tissue samples from obese and normal weight women.

    Conclusion: We found no difference in the occurrence of inflammatory marker and growth factor mRNA levels in placental tissue samples from a large group of obese women without associated morbidity and with healthy infants compared to a closely matched control group of healthy normal weight women. Compared with the previous studies, this anomalous finding may be explained by the absence of associated morbidity in the obese women in our study.

  • 2.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Åman, Jan
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Expression of genes involved in inflammation and growth: does sampling site in human full-term placenta matter?2019In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 539-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the placental gene expression of substances in the inflammatory cascade and growth factors at nine different well-defined sampling sites in full-term placentas from 12 normal weight healthy non-smoking women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy.

    Methods: All placentas (six girls and six boys) were delivered vaginally. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze toll receptor-2 and -4, interleukin-6 and -8, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and -2, hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor and insulin receptor (IR).

    Results: The leptin gene and the IR gene showed higher expression in lateral regions near the chorionic plate compared to central regions near the basal plate (P = 0.028 and P = 0.041, respectively).

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the sampling site may influence the gene expression for leptin and IR in placental tissue obtained from full-term normal pregnancies. We speculate that this may be due to differences in placental structure and perfusion and may be important when future studies are designed.

  • 3.
    Naimi-Akbar, Aron
    et al.
    Dept Dent Med, Div Dent Biomat & Cariol, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla
    Dept Dent Med, Div Dent Biomat & Cariol, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekbom, Anders
    Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Näsman, Peggy
    Dept Dent MedDept Dent Med, Div Dent Biomat & Cariol, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University Hospital. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mortality among sons of female dental personnel: a national cohort study2014In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 655-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Dental personnel are exposed to mercury when using dental amalgam. This exposure constitutes a potential hazard to offspring of women working in dentistry. The present study examined increased mortality risk in offspring of mothers working in dentistry.

    Methods: Mortality was compared between sons of dental personnel and sons of nondental health-care personnel. Hazard ratios were calculated for three decades (1960s-1980s), when the magnitude of mercury exposure in dentistry was likely to have varied.

    Results: During the 1960s, there was a statistically significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality for sons of dental nurses when compared with sons of assistant nurses: hazard ratio (HR) 1.82 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.04-3.22). There was no increased risk in the subsequent decades, but a trend test demonstrated a consistent decrease in the risk over the three decades: HR for trend 0.63 (95% CI: 0.44-0.90). The raised mortality risk was limited to neonatal mortality. The comparison between dentists and physicians had insufficient statistical power.

    Conclusions: There is no increased mortality risk among sons of female dentists after the 1960s. Although the results should be interpreted with caution, they suggest a modestly raised risk of neonatal mortality, during the 1960s, when exposure to mercury was thought to be highest.

  • 4. Toschke, Audré M.
    et al.
    Ehlin, Anna
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Montgomery, Scott M.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Paternal smoking is associated with a decreased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among offspring in two national British birth cohort studies (NCDS and BCS70)2007In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 43-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AB Aims: An association between paternal age and type 1 diabetes (IDDM) among their offspring was recently reported as well as transgenerational responses in humans. This paper aims to assess the association of markers for prenatal exposures with IDDM. Methods: We analysed data from two birth cohorts in Great Britain on 5214 cohort members from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and 6068 members of the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) with full information on IDDM and explanatory variables using multivariate logistic regression. Results: IDDM prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.5-1.0%; n = 38) in the NCDS and 0.4% (95% CI 0.3-0.6%; n = 27) in the BCS70 cohort. Paternal age was not associated with IDDM possibly due to lack of sample power. Unex-pectedly, a lowered prevalence of IDDM was observed among offspring of smoking fathers in both cohorts, with a combined odds ratio of 0.44 (95% CI 0.25-0.75). This association could not be explained by maternal smoking prior to, during or after pregnancy, number of siblings, parental social class, maternal and paternal age, or cohort. Maternal smoking in pregnancy did not alter the IDDM prevalence among offspring. Conclusions: This unexpected finding may be explained by germ-line mutations or other mechanisms associated with paternal smoking. This phenomenon should be investigated and these results should not be used as a justification for smoking. Paternal exposures may be important in determining IDDM risk.

  • 5.
    Vähäsarja, Niko
    et al.
    Division of Dental Biomaterials and Cardiology, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla
    Division of Dental Biomaterials and Cardiology, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekbom, Anders
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Näsman, Peggy
    Division of Dental Biomaterials and Cardiology, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Naimi-Akbar, Aron
    Division of Dental Biomaterials and Cardiology, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neurological disease or intellectual disability among sons of female Swedish dental personnel2016In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to elemental mercury may be a potential hazard for the offspring of female dental personnel working with dental amalgam. The aim of this study was to investigate whether potential in utero exposure to mercury might have affected the development of nervous system of the sons of Swedish female dental personnel leading to an increased risk of neurological disease or intellectual disability.

    Material and methods: We used national Swedish registers to investigate risks for diseases potentially related to adverse effects on neurodevelopment. Sons of female dentists (n=1690) and dental nurses (n=10,420) were compared with cohorts consisting of sons of other female healthcare personnel. Due to changes in mercury exposure in dentistry during the study period, analyses were stratified by decade of birth. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models.

    Results: We found no elevated risk for neurological disease, epilepsy or intellectual disability among the sons of dental personnel during any of the decades studied. HRs for neurological disease among the dental nurse cohort were even below 1.00 during the 1970s and 1980s. A low number of events resulted in uncertainty regarding results in the dentist cohort.

    Conclusions: We did not find any support for the hypothesis that mercury exposure in Swedish dentistry during the 1960s, 1970s or 1980s had any effect on the incidence of neurological disease or intellectual disability among the sons of female dental personnel. Our results imply that current use of dental amalgam should not represent an elevated risk for neurological disease or intellectual disability among the offspring of dental personnel.

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