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  • 1.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljung, Rickard
    Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Suicidal behavior among delinquent former child welfare clients2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 349-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40 % of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95 % CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95 % CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience - specifically of out-of-home care - in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services.

  • 2.
    Campbell, Ian
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA.
    Lundstrom, Sebastian
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Centre for Ethics Law and Mental Health, Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lubke, Gitta
    Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA.
    The relation between the age at diagnosis of problem behaviors related to aggression and distal outcomes in Swedish children2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 899-911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe childhood aggressive behaviors are known to predict negative outcomes later in life; however, little is known about the effect of when in childhood aggression problems are diagnosed. While an earlier first diagnosis of problematic aggressive behavior might be associated with increased severity and, thus, worse outcomes, it is also possible that an earlier diagnosis affords an earlier start of treatment programs or indicates that greater attention is being paid to behavioral problems, thus resulting in attenuation of the severity of childhood aggression's impact on distal outcomes. The current study analyzed data from the population-based Swedish Data Registries, which include data on all children formally diagnosed by the Swedish medical system with a wide range of aggression problems between ages 8 and 18 (N = 5816) during the years 1987-2013, along with a matched control. Time-to-event analyses investigated whether the age at time of diagnosis affects later life outcomes while controlling for relevant confounders. Results show that for both boys and girls, those with a later diagnosis had lower average incomes (regression coefficient b = - 0.055, p < 0.005) and a higher probability of having a criminal record (odds ratio 1.126, p < 0.005) than children with earlier diagnoses. The effect on suicide attempts was not significant after correcting for multiple testing (odds ratio 1.264, p = 0.016). Grade score was not significantly affected. The results warrant further research concerning the potential advantage of earlier diagnoses, especially concerning generalizability beyond the Swedish population.

  • 3.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Boonmann, Cyril
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Veenstra, Jorien
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    van Domburgh, Lieke
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Development LSG-Rentray, Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Buffing, Frank
    De Waag, Centre for Forensic Psychiatry, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Doreleijers, Theo A H
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Faculty of Law, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert R J M
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Mental health problems and recidivism among detained male adolescents from various ethnic origins2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 481-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines differences in self-reported mental health problems between detained youths from Dutch, Moroccan, and Surinamese origin and the usefulness of mental health problems to predict violent and property recidivism in these juveniles. A sample of 296 detained boys aged between 12 and 18 years were assessed by means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Official information regarding criminal history and recidivism was collected 3-6 years later. In general, Dutch youths and Surinamese youths reported more conduct problems than Moroccan youths, while Dutch youths also reported more hyperactivity than Surinamese youths. Mental health problems were not predictive of violent recidivism in any of the ethnic groups, while being related with property recidivism in Dutch and Surinamese youths. The current study showed that Moroccan youths present themselves on the SDQ as a less seriously disturbed group of youths than their Dutch and Surinamese counterparts. Our results also clearly showed that SDQ self-report scores are not predictive of future violent crimes in any of the three ethnic groups. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  • 4.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Grisso, Thomas
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, North Worcester MA, United States .
    Mulder, Eva
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, Netherlands; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vrije University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 339-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups.

  • 5.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Center for Criminological and Psychosocial Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Van Damme, Lore
    Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The prospective usefulness of callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder in predicting treatment engagement among detained girls2017In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 75-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although treatment engagement (TE) is crucial for treatment success it is not well known how likely detained girls are to engage in treatment and what features may impede them from doing so. This study is the first to examine the prognostic usefulness of two features of potential interest, being callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct disorder (CD), in relation to TE. Detained girls and their parents (n = 75) were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children to assess CD, and completed the Antisocial Process Screening Device to assess CU traits dimensionally and categorically as in the new diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) CU-based specifier. One to two months later, the girls reported how much they engaged in treatment. At the zero-order level, self-, but not parent-reported CU traits and CD were predictive of lower levels of TE. The incorporation of CU traits into a diagnosis of CD identified girls with lower levels of future TE, a finding that held across different informants. Of note, the aforementioned findings only became apparent when using a dimensional measure of CU traits, and not when using the categorical measure of CU traits currently included in DSM-5. This study showed that CU traits can help developing an understanding of what factors hinder TE among detained girls. Our findings also support recommendations to incorporate CU traits into the CD diagnosis, and suggest that dimensional approaches to do so may yield relevant information about future levels of TE.

  • 6.
    Du Rietz, Ebba
    et al.
    MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brikell, Isabell
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jangmo, Andreas
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sariaslan, Amir
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kuntsi, Jonna
    MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, De Crespigny Park, London, United Kingdom.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Predictive validity of parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms in adolescence on adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes2017In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 857-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is scarcity of research investigating the validity of self-report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms compared to other informants, such as parents. This study aimed to compare the predictive associations of ADHD symptoms rated by parents and their children across adolescence on a range of adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood. Parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms were assessed in 2960 individuals in early (13-14 years) and late adolescence (16-17 years). Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the associations between parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms at both time points and adverse life outcomes in young adulthood obtained from Swedish national registries. Both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes, although associations of parent-ratings were more often statistically significant and were generally stronger (OR = 1.12-1.49, p < 0.05) than self-ratings (OR = 1.07-1.17, p < 0.05). After controlling for the other informant, parent-ratings of ADHD symptoms in both early and late adolescence significantly predicted academic and occupational failure, criminal convictions and traffic-related injuries, while self-ratings of ADHD symptoms only in late adolescence predicted substance use disorder and academic failure. Our findings suggest that both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in adolescence provides valuable information on risk of future adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes, however, self-ratings are not valuable once parent-ratings have been taken into account in predicting most outcomes. Thus, clinicians and researchers should prioritize parent-ratings over self-ratings.

  • 7.
    Mowlem, Florence D.
    et al.
    Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK.
    Rosenqvist, Mina A.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martin, Joanna
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Asherson, Philip
    Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sex differences in predicting ADHD clinical diagnosis and pharmacological treatment2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 481-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In youth, ADHD is more commonly diagnosed in males than females, but higher male-to-female ratios are found in clinical versus population-based samples, suggesting a sex bias in the process of receiving a clinical diagnosis of ADHD. This study investigated sex differences in the severity and presentation of ADHD symptoms, conduct problems, and learning problems in males and females with and without clinically diagnosed ADHD. We then investigated whether the predictive associations of these symptom domains on being diagnosed and treated for ADHD differed in males and females. Parents of 19,804 twins (50.64% male) from the Swedish population completed dimensional assessments of ADHD symptoms and co-occurring traits (conduct and learning problems) when children were aged 9 years. Children from this population sample were linked to Patient Register data on clinical ADHD diagnosis and medication prescriptions. At the population level, males had higher scores for all symptom domains (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, conduct, and learning problems) compared to females, but similar severity was seen in clinically diagnosed males and females. Symptom severity for all domains increased the likelihood of receiving an ADHD diagnosis in both males and females. Prediction analyses revealed significant sex-by-symptom interactions on diagnostic and treatment status for hyperactivity/impulsivity and conduct problems. In females, these behaviours were stronger predictors of clinical diagnosis (hyperactivity/impulsivity: OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.15; conduct: OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09, 1.87), and prescription of pharmacological treatment (hyperactivity/impulsivity: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02, 1.50; conduct: OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.05, 4.63). Females with ADHD may be more easily missed in the ADHD diagnostic process and less likely to be prescribed medication unless they have prominent externalising problems.

  • 8. Narusyte, Jurgita
    et al.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Neiderhiser, Jenae M.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Aggression as a mediator of genetic contributions to the association between negative parent-child relationships and adolescent antisocial behavior2007In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 128-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that the association between conflictual parent–child relationships and maladjustment among adolescents is influenced by genetic effects emanating from the adolescents. In this study, we examined whether these effects are mediated by childhood aggression. The data come from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD), a Swedish longitudinal study including 1,314 twin pairs followed from age 13–14 to 16–17. Early adolescent aggression, parental criticism, and delinquency in later adolescence were rated by parents and children at different time points. Multivariate genetic structural equation models were used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on these constructs and on their covariation. The results showed that approximately half of the genetic contribution to the association between parental criticism and delinquency was explained by early adolescent aggression. It suggests that aggression in children evokes negative parenting, which in turn influences adolescent antisocial behavior. The mechanism proposed by these findings is consistent with evocative gene–environment correlation

  • 9.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eley, Thalia
    Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Re search Centre Institute of Psychiatry King’s College London, UK.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The development of antisocial behaviour from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal twin study2005In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent theory proposes that aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behaviour (ASB) represent different pathways toward delinquency. It has also been suggested that Aggressive ASB is heritable, whereas nonaggressive ASB is more influenced by shared environment.

    The twin study of child and adolescent development is a Swedish population-based study of 1,480 twin pairs. The present study included 1,226 twin pairs. We used the parental-reported Aggression and Delinquency scales from the CBCL measured at age 8-9. Delinquent behaviour was measured through self-report at age 16-17. We explored how genetic and environmental effects influence the relationships between aspects of ASB in childhood and adolescent delinquency using structural equations modelling.

    For girls we found that the relationship between Aggressive Behaviour and Self-Reported Delinquency was explained by genetic influences. The correlation between Delinquent Behaviour and Self-Reported Delinquency was due to continuity of genetic influences. For boys, there was no significant mediation between Aggressive Behaviour and Self-Reported Delinquency, but there were significant shared environmental effects on the relationship between Delinquent Behaviour and Self-Reported Delinquency.

    Our results suggest that there are sex differences in the development of ASB. The hypothesis that the aggressive pathway is genetically mediated was supported in girls, whereas the hypothesis that the nonaggressive pathway is environmentally dependent was supported in boys.

  • 10.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Karolinska Institute Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychopathic personality traits in 5 year old twins: the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences2017In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 469-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited research on the genetic and environmental bases of psychopathic personality traits in children. In this study, psychopathic personality traits were assessed in a total of 1189 5-year-old boys and girls drawn from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden. Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory, a teacher-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in children ranging from 3 to 12 years old. Univariate results showed that genetic influences accounted for 57, 25, and 74 % of the variance in the grandiose-deceitful, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, while the shared environment accounted for 17, 48 and 9 % (n.s.) in grandiose-deceitful and callous-unemotional, impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, respectively. No sex differences were found in the genetic and environmental variance components. The non-shared environment accounted for the remaining 26, 27 and 17 % of the variance, respectively. The three dimensions of psychopathic personality were moderately correlated (0.54-0.66) and these correlations were primarily mediated by genetic and shared environmental factors. In contrast to research conducted with adolescent and adult twins, we found that both genetic and shared environmental factors influenced psychopathic personality traits in early childhood. These findings indicate that etiological models of psychopathic personality traits would benefit by taking developmental stages and processes into consideration.

  • 11.
    Törn, Peggy
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Erik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hellner Gumpert, Clara
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kollberg, Linnea
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Långström, Niklas
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Halldner, Linda
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Childhood neurodevelopmental problems and adolescent bully victimization: population-based, prospective twin study in Sweden2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1049-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bully victimization is a common problem among children with neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Previous research was mostly cross-sectional and seldom accounted for co-morbid psychopathology, which makes it difficult to draw conclusions about causality and specificity of any association. Using a genetically informative prospective design, we investigated the association between various neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) in childhood and bully victimization in adolescence, and the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to this association. We obtained parent-reports of NDPs at age 9/12 years and self-reported bully victimization at age 15 for 3,921 children participating in the The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Structural equation modelling was used to control for NDP co-morbidity and bully victimization at baseline. Cholesky decomposition was used to analyse genetic and environmental contributions to observed associations. Because most of the NDPs were associated to later bully victimization, a common effect of all NDPs was summarized into a general NDP factor. Controlling for this general factor, only problems with social interaction and motor control uniquely predicted subsequent bully victimization in girls. General and unique associations were influenced by both genetic and unique environmental factors. NDPs in general and social interaction and motor problems in particular predicted later bully victimization. The longitudinal design and twin analyses indicated that these associations might be causal. Knowledge of these vulnerabilities may be important when designing risk assessment and prevention strategies.

  • 12.
    Vahl, Pauline
    et al.
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Lodewijks, Henny P B
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; LSG-Rentray, Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Markus, Monica T
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Doreleijers, Theo A H
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert R J M
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands;Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands; VUmc de Bascule, Duivendrecht, Netherlands .
    Psychopathic-like traits in detained adolescents: clinical usefulness of self-report2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 691-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have demonstrated that self-report tools can be used to reliably and validly examine psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. However, it is unclear if self-report instruments are still reliable and valid when confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, such as during routine assessments in juvenile detention centres. To address this issue, the current study used data from the routine mental health screening of 365 detained male adolescents (12-18 years) in two juvenile detention centres. With the intention of gaining insight in the clinical usefulness of self-reported psychopathic-like traits, we examined relations known from literature with emotional and behavioural features. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits, measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short version (YPI-S), were uniquely associated with substance abuse, anger/irritability, conduct problems and hyperactivity, but not with internalizing problems. YPI-S-dimensions showed several specific relationships with variables of interest. For example, only the callous unemotional dimension was negatively related with prosocial behaviour and only the behavioural dimension was positively related with hyperactivity. In conclusion, self-reported psychopathic-like traits showed expected relations with relevant variables. These findings suggest that self-report can be used to identify detained youths with high levels of psychopathic-like traits outside a research context, thus, even when anonymity and confidentiality are not guaranteed.

  • 13.
    Vrettou, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Science for Life Laboratory, BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Centre for Clinical Research Västerås, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Centre for Clinical Research Västerås, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Centre for Clinical Research Västerås, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa
    Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Science for Life Laboratory, BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    VGLUT2 rs2290045 genotype moderates environmental sensitivity to alcohol-related problems in three samples of youths2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1329-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-mediated neurotransmission has been highlighted in studies on addiction-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2290045 in VGLUT2 has been associated with alcohol dependence, but it is unknown whether or how this association is affected by environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of alcohol-related problems with the rs2290045 in the VGLUT2 gene was modified by negative and positive environmental factors. Three samples were included: a clinical sample of 131 adolescents followed from age 17 to 22; a general population sample of 1794 young adults; and a general population sample of 1687 adolescents followed from age 14 to 17. DNA was extracted from saliva and the rs2290045 (T/C) was genotyped. Alcohol-related problems were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Stressful life events (SLE) and parenting were assessed by questionnaires. Gene-environment interactions were investigated using a dual statistical approach. In all samples (effect sizes 0.6-6.2%), and consistent with the differential susceptibility framework, T carriers exposed to SLE reported more alcohol-related problems if they had experienced poor parenting, and lower alcohol-related problems if they had received supportive parenting. T carriers not exposed to SLE reported higher alcohol-related problems if they had received supportive parenting and lower alcohol-related problems if they had received poor parenting. Among CC carriers, alcohol-related problems did not vary as a function of negative and positive environmental factors. In conclusion, in three samples of youths, alcohol-related problems were associated with an interaction of VGLUT2 rs2290045, SLE, and parenting.

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