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  • 1.
    Axelrad, Jordan E.
    et al.
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York NY, USA; Division of Digestive and Liver Disease, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York NY, USA.
    Olén, Ola
    Sachs’ Children and Youth Hospital, Stockholm South General Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science and Education Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Askling, Johan
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lebwohl, Benjamin
    Division of Digestive and Liver Disease, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York NY, USA.
    Khalili, Hamed
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston Massachusetts, USA.
    Sachs, Michael C.
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Division of Digestive and Liver Disease, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York NY, USA; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Gastrointestinal Infection Increases Odds of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Nationwide Case-Control Study2019In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 1311-1322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal infections have been associated with later development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, studies have produced conflicting results. We performed a nationwide case-control study in Sweden to determine whether gastroenteritis is associated with the development of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).

    METHODS: Using the Swedish National Patient Register, we identified 44,214 patients with IBD (26,450 with UC; 13,387 with CD; and 4377 with IBD-unclassified) from 2002 to 2014 and matched them with 436,507 individuals in the general population (control subjects). We then identified patients and control subjects with reported episodes of gastroenteritis (from 1964 to 2014) and type of pathogen associated. We collected medical and demographic data and used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for IBD associated with enteric infection.

    RESULTS: Of the patients with IBD, 3105 (7.0%) (1672 with UC, 1050 with CD, and 383 with IBD-unclassified) had a record of previous gastroenteritis compared with 17,685 control subjects (4.1%). IBD cases had higher odds for an antecedent episode of gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 1.64; 1.57-1.71), bacterial gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 2.02; 1.82-2.24), parasitic gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 1.55; 1.03-2.33), and viral gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 1.55; 1.34-1.79). Patients with UC had higher odds of previous infection with Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, or Clostridium difficile compared to control subjects. Patients with CD had higher odds of previous infection with Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica, C difficile, amoeba, or norovirus compared to control subjects. Increasing numbers of gastroenteritis episodes were associated with increased odds of IBD, and a previous episode of gastroenteritis remained associated with odds for IBD more than 10 years later (aOR, 1.26; 1.19-1.33).

    CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of the Swedish National Patient Register, we found previous episodes of gastroenteritis to increase odds of later development of IBD. Although we cannot formally exclude misclassification bias, enteric infections might induce microbial dysbiosis that contributes to the development of IBD in susceptible individuals.

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