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  • 1. Andersson, Mari
    et al.
    Ekman, Sonne
    Lannhard Öberg, Åsa
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Fungerar konkurrensen på marknaden för slaktdjur?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beror de minskade marknadsandelarna för svenskt gris-, kyckling- och nötkött till någon del på att den svenska marknaden för slaktdjur inte fungerar så bra som den kunde göra? I den här utredningen undersöker vi hur prisbildningen fungerar och hur affärsförhållandet mellan lantbrukare och slakteri ser ut. Vi kartlägger vi också strukturen i primärproduktionen och i slakterinäringen samt granskar slakteriföretagens lönsamhet. För att bättre kunna bedöma hur väl den svenska slaktdjursmarknaden fungerar görs även en internationell utblick.

  • 2.
    Bohlin, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Widell, Lars M
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Estimation of Commodity-by-Commodity Input–Output Matrices2006In: Economic Systems Research, ISSN 0953-5314, E-ISSN 1469-5758, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 205-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we derive a method for the estimation of symmetric input–output tables (SIOTs), which makes it possible to use the commodity technology assumption even when use- and make tables are rectangular. The method also solves the problem of negative coefficients. In the empirical part we derive annual SIOTs in order to evaluate the differences between SIOTs calculated with different methods and the change in technical coefficients over time. Our results, based on data for Sweden, show that the impact of using different technology assumptions is rather large. However, in a factor content of trade application the impact of different technology assumptions does not seem to be very important. Also the size of the changes in the technical coefficients over time is found to be quite large, indicating the importance of calculating SIOTs annually.

  • 3. Hansson, Anne
    et al.
    Karlsson, Arne
    Nilsson, Fabian
    Olsson, Magnus
    Widell, Lars M
    Trafikverket.
    Nya exportmarknader på livsmedelsområdet: Vilka länder utanför EU vill företagen satsa på och kan vi mäta hur det går?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har givit Jordbruksverket i uppdrag att kartlägga vilka länder utanför EU som kan anses ha stor potential för svensk export av livsmedel samt göra en analys av möjligheterna att utveckla en mer informativ handelsstatistik som bl.a. tar hänsyn till vidareexport.

    Jordbruksverkets kartläggning och analys grundas bl.a. på en enkätundersökning, djupintervjuer av livsmedelsföretag, dialog med berörda myndigheter samt information i officiella databaser.

    Av enkätundersökningen framkom att 22 procent av företagen såg länder utanför EU som möjliga framtida exportmarknader. Inom Europa bedöms Norge vara en potentiell marknad. I övriga världen är det Kina, Ryssland och USA som ligger i topp. Flest potentiella exportmarknader ser företagen för alkoholfria/alkoholsvaga drycker. Kött- och charkföretag anger potentiella marknader i bortre Asien men även i Afrika och i vårt direkta närområde såsom Norge och Ryssland. Dessutom finns ett antal bearbetade livsmedel, ofta unika produkter, där företagen ser exportmöjligheter i en rad länder spridda i flera världsdelar.

    Utifrån gjord analys bedöms det finnas en stor potential att öka exporten av livsmedel och jordbruksprodukter till framförallt USA, Kina, Japan och Ryssland. Länderna ifråga är mycket stora importörer av livsmedel och jordbruksprodukter och har också identifierats av många svenska livsmedelsindustriföretag som intressanta marknader. Exporten försvåras dock i nuläget av bl.a. tillämpningen av regelverket på det sanitära och fytosanitära området. Även Kanada, Sydkorea, Saudiarabien, Indien och Malaysia, med vilka EU nyligen har eller är på gång att förhandla fram frihandelsavtal, bedöms vara kandidater för ökad svensk export. Norge bedöms även fortsättningsvis vara en viktig exportmarknad för Sverige.

    I och med att statistik över import och export ofta används som underlag för beslutsfattare inom olika områden är det önskvärt att handelsstatistiken speglar faktiska förhållanden. I nuläget blåser vidareexport av bl.a. norsk lax upp den svenska handelsstatistiken vilket ger oss en felaktig bild av den faktiska handeln. Hur Sverige redovisar handelsstatistik är reglerat i EU-lagstiftning. Det är därför inte möjligt att korrigera för vidareexport i den officiella statistiken. Däremot är det möjligt för Jordbruksverket att regelbundet publicera en bearbetad handelsstatistik.

    Då SCB i dagsläget samlar in en stor mängd registerbaserad data, bl.a. från Skatteverket, bedöms det finnas underlag för att från befintlig statistik kunna redovisa exportens betydelse för lönsamhet, sysselsättning och tillväxt utan att öka berörda företags administrativa börda.

    För att underlätta exporten till de potentiella marknaderna vill företagen ha en samlad information kring exportfrågor, en effektiv hantering av landgodkännanden och stöd i den internationella affärsutvecklingen. Utifrån dessa önskemål nämns i rapporten ett antal åtgärder kopplade till information, landgodkännande, marknadskännedom och kontaktnät, ekonomi samt handelsstatistik som kan främja svensk livsmedelsexport.

  • 4.
    Hasund, Knut Per
    et al.
    Jordbruksverket.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Lantbruksekonomen.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nordregio.
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Vilka sysselsättnings-, miljö- och samhällsekonomiska effekter har jordbruksstöden?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social efficiency and employment effects of the Swedish agricultural policy payments. The investment grants for rural development have environmental effects and the agrienvironmental payments have employment effects. To be able to allocate the CAP budget and design the policy measures optimally, employment effects and social efficiency have to be considered together – including all environmental impacts as well as the costs and market products of agriculture. The study investigates how large these crosswise effects are, and what the overall outcome of the single farm payment and a choice of payments in the Swedish rural development programme is.

  • 5.
    Levin, Jörgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Widell, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports2014In: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 39, p. 151-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we estimate the amount of tax evasion in customs authorities in both Kenya and Tanzania by calculating measurement errors in reported trade flows between the two countries and correlate those errors with tax rates. We find that the measurement error is correlated with the tax rates in Tanzania.We also introduced a third country into our analysis, the United Kingdom, and tax evasion seems to be more severe in trade flows between Kenya and Tanzania compared to trade flows between the United Kingdom and Kenya/Tanzania. Finally we also find that the tax evasion coefficient is lower in the Kenya–United Kingdom case compared to the Tanzanian– United Kingdom case which suggests that tax evasion is more severe in the Tanzanian customs authority.

  • 6. Lööv, Helena
    et al.
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Sköld, Olof
    Livsmedelskonsumtionen i siffror: Hur har konsumtionen utvecklats de senaste femtio åren och varför?2015Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Pettersson, Lars
    et al.
    Internationella Handelshögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Widell, Lars M.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sjölander, Pär
    IHH, Nationalekonomi, Högskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Do startups in the agricultural sector generate employment in the rest of the economy?: An arellano-bond dynamic panel study2011In: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: Vol. 6 / [ed] Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Hans Westlund, Hayeong Jeong, Kyoto: MARG (Marginal Areas Research Group) , 2011, p. 255-273Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of an Arellano-Bond dynamic panel data study of Swedish data over 1993-2004, it is concluded that startups in the agricultural and forestry sector may cause startups in the remaining sectors of the Swedish economy. Thus, new entries in the agricultural and forestry sector may lead to dynamic effects, which may lead to employment in completely other sectors of the economy. The agricultural and forestry small-business sector is therefore a very important factor in the quest to reduce unemployment and to increase the economic growth in Sweden. Another important finding, outside of the main purpose of this paper, is that the per capita propensity to start a new firm is significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. Consequently, people in rural areas are more entrepreneurial per capita (in the context of starting new firms) compared to the population living in urban areas. A substantially high fraction of the rural population faces the forced option of unemployment or self-employment. However, fortunately, a disproportionally high share of the rural population chooses the latter alternative.

  • 8. Wallentin, Jennie
    et al.
    Sundin, Sofi
    Hagerberg, Anna
    Andersson, Mari
    Dahlberg, Charlotta
    Enghag, Olof
    Jakowlew, Gwidon
    Waldner, Johan
    Widell, Lars M
    Jordbruksverket.
    Översvämning!: Samhällets krisberedskap och förebyggande arbete när det gäller översvämningar som drabbar jordbrukssektorn2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets krisberedskap och förebyggande arbete när det gäller översvämningar som drabbar jordbrukssektornNaturolyckor såsom översvämning, torka och skogsbrand kan få allvarliga konsekvenser för jordbrukssektorn och trädgårdsnäringen. För fisket och vattenbruket kan till exempel stormar orsaka problem. I ett framtida förändrat klimat kommer de extrema väderhändelserna att bli mer omfattande och frekventa. Detta innebär att samhället behöver öka sin förmåga att bedöma konsekvenserna av översvämningar för jordbrukssektorn i ett brett perspektiv och hur konsekvenserna av extrema väderhändelser, som till exempel översvämningar, ska hanteras. Jordbruksverket har därför under åren 2013-2015 drivit ett projekt - ”Ökad förmåga att hantera konsekvenser av allvarliga väderhändelser - översvämningar som modell” - som finansierats av Jordbruksverket och Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB). Denna rapport sammanfattar resultat och slutsatser från projektet.

  • 9.
    Widell, Lars M
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Essays in International Trade: Measurement, Product Quality, Input-Output Modelling and Tax Evasion2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four independent essays that deal with several measurement aspects within the field of international trade. The measurement problems addressed are related to measuring the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports or measuring tax evasion

    Essay 1, The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement. Evidence from Swedish Data, deals with various measurement problems related to calculations of the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports. This builds on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek extension to the Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory.

    Essay 2, Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade. A New Computational Framework, builds on the same theoretical background, but introduces a quality-adjustment in the calculations of the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports, which builds on the idea underlying vertical intra-industry trade (VIIT). Quality adjustment is performed, first, by assuming that a product sold at a higher price has a higher quality than the same product sold at a lower price and, second, by assuming that a highquality product implies a higher content of skilled labour than a low-quality product.

    Essay 3, Estimation of commodity-by-commodity input–output matrices, focuses on a new method in constructing symmetric input-output tables (SIOTs), which has been termed the Bohlin and Widell model, using data contained within supply- and use-tables (SUTs). One key contribution is that it makes it possible to estimate SIOTs in cases when the underlying SUTs are rectangular. The method also addresses the problem of negative coefficients, a long-standing issue encountered in the derivation of SIOTs.

    Essay 4, Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports, focuses on estimating the amount of tax evasion in trade between Kenya and Tanzania. The study is empirically focused, and the measurement errors in reported trade flows between both countries are correlated with tax rates, to determine whether the measurement error increases with the tax rate.

    List of papers
    1. The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement: Evidence from Swedish Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement: Evidence from Swedish Data
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53334 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade: A New Computational Framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade: A New Computational Framework
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53335 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Estimation of Commodity-by-Commodity Input–Output Matrices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of Commodity-by-Commodity Input–Output Matrices
    2006 (English)In: Economic Systems Research, ISSN 0953-5314, E-ISSN 1469-5758, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 205-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we derive a method for the estimation of symmetric input–output tables (SIOTs), which makes it possible to use the commodity technology assumption even when use- and make tables are rectangular. The method also solves the problem of negative coefficients. In the empirical part we derive annual SIOTs in order to evaluate the differences between SIOTs calculated with different methods and the change in technical coefficients over time. Our results, based on data for Sweden, show that the impact of using different technology assumptions is rather large. However, in a factor content of trade application the impact of different technology assumptions does not seem to be very important. Also the size of the changes in the technical coefficients over time is found to be quite large, indicating the importance of calculating SIOTs annually.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2006
    Keywords
    Input–output model, commodity technology, product technology, factor content of trade
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12177 (URN)10.1080/09535310600653164 (DOI)2-s2.0-33745302399 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-10-14 Created: 2010-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports
    2014 (English)In: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 39, p. 151-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we estimate the amount of tax evasion in customs authorities in both Kenya and Tanzania by calculating measurement errors in reported trade flows between the two countries and correlate those errors with tax rates. We find that the measurement error is correlated with the tax rates in Tanzania.We also introduced a third country into our analysis, the United Kingdom, and tax evasion seems to be more severe in trade flows between Kenya and Tanzania compared to trade flows between the United Kingdom and Kenya/Tanzania. Finally we also find that the tax evasion coefficient is lower in the Kenya–United Kingdom case compared to the Tanzanian– United Kingdom case which suggests that tax evasion is more severe in the Tanzanian customs authority.

    Keywords
    Tax evasion, Kenya, Tanzania
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34936 (URN)10.1016/j.econmod.2014.02.021 (DOI)000336467200015 ()2-s2.0-84896468803 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Sida/Sarec
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Widell, Lars M
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade: A New Computational FrameworkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Widell, Lars M
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement: Evidence from Swedish DataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Widell, Lars M
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Lars
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Regional Effects on Employment from a Proposed Stratey to Reduce the Baltic Sea's Eutrophication: An Applied Input-Output Analysis2010In: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: Vol. 5 / [ed] Hans Westlund and Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: Research Unit for Rural Entrepreneurship and Growth (RUREG), Jönköping International Business School , 2010, p. 215-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 12 of 12
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