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  • 1.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Berg, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hysing, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ojala, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Singleton, Benedict E
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svenberg, Sebastian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Conditions for Transformative Learning for Sustainable Development: A Theoretical Review and Approach2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continued unsustainability and surpassed planetary boundaries require not only scientificand technological advances, but deep and enduring social and cultural changes. The purpose of thisarticle is to contribute a theoretical approach to understand conditions and constraints for societal changetowards sustainable development. In order to break with unsustainable norms, habits, practices, andstructures, there is a need for learning for transformation, not only adaption. Based on a critical literaturereview within the field of learning for sustainable development, our approach is a development of theconcept of transformative learning, by integrating three additional dimensions—Institutional Structures,Social Practices, and Conflict Perspectives. This approach acknowledges conflicts on macro, meso, andmicro levels, as well as structural and cultural constraints. It contends that transformative learning isprocessual, interactional, long-term, and cumbersome. It takes place within existing institutions andsocial practices, while also transcending them. The article adopts an interdisciplinary social scienceperspective that acknowledges the importance of transformative learning in order for communities,organizations, and individuals to be able to deal with global sustainability problems, acknowledging thesocietal and personal conflicts involved in such transformation.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Between everyday and scientific knowledge or; to construct an environmental problem2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Between everyday and scientific knowledge or; to construct an environmental risk2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its point of departure from current social constructionist theories on environmental risks and local-expert relations. Focusing on local residents’ knowledge production, it questions the one-sidedness that has dominated the research in favour of an expertise perspective, and points at the importance to involve knowledge of the local residents to understand the construction of environmental risks.

    By reviewing recent theoretical contributions who try to balance this lack of research, such as Gross (2010), Irwin and Michel (2003) and Wynne (1986, 1996), this paper accentuates the scientific importance of more empirical as well as theoretical work on the local residents’ knowledge production. The review also shows how the relation between local residents and experts could be described in terms of trust and distrust.

    The paper emphasises the importance of studying local residents’ knowledge production. The paper’s main conclusions are (I) that it is through the study of how local residents’ make use of scientific knowledge that their relation to expertise in terms of trust or distrust becomes visible and (II) that it is first with the identification of how local residents’ produce their knowledge that it becomes possible to understand the constructions of environmental risks.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Made in conflict: local residents' construction of a local environmental problem2011In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 655-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to understand how local residents participate in the construction of local environmental problems and to evaluate a particular analytical approach in environmental sociology to study this phenomenon. The paper is based on an interview study with a sample of local residents. The analysis demonstrates how the local residents attempt to construct a local environmental problem. In particular, the study focuses on how involved actors are positioned, how different sorts of knowledge claims are used, and how the neglect the residents perceive from the authorities affects the attempt to construct a local environmental problem. The study shows that the local residents play a central role in the construction of the situation and that the evaluated model could be very helpful as an analytical tool in the investigation of local residents' participation in the construction of environmental problems.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Acknowledging risk, trusting expertise, and coping with uncertainty: citizens’ deliberation on spraying an insect population2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In southern Gotland in the Baltic Sea, a moth outbreak has caused human nuisance & possible long-term effects on the tourist industry, prompting demands for intervention to reduce the insect population. At the same time, there have been warnings concerning the broader ecological consequences of spraying, not least for biodiversity. Through an interview study using a sample of local residents, their deliberations on the spraying are analyzed. In particular, the analysis focuses on the lay understanding of the situation & how this relates to a scientific understanding of it, its causes, & possible remedies. The study focuses on the narratives residents created to make sense of the situation and guide action, on the risks they associated with different action options, & on how these narratives relate to the expert view of the problem. The analysis shows that trust & distrust should not be seen as dichotomous, but must be more differentiated. Simultaneously, as the residents criticize specific knowledge claims & specific experts, their trust in science can strengthen. Furthermore, the analysis shows that citizen knowledge does not merely passively reflect science. Instead, citizens create meaning and construct knowledge by organizing personal experience and articulated knowledge claims into coherent narratives.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Acknowledging risk, trusting expertise, and coping with uncertainty: citizens' deliberations on spraying an insect population2012In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 587-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for this article is the growing interest in understanding how the public evaluates risk issues. The empirical case consists of an interview study of residents in an area that has experienced an outbreak of moths that has become a nuisance to humans. The study focuses on the narratives created by the residents to make sense of the situation, the risks they associated with regulatory options, and how these narratives relate to expert opinions of the problem. The analysis shows that the residents criticize specific experts and knowledge claims. This is done, however, without questioning science as such; there is still a belief among the residents that science is an institution that generally produces valid knowledge. The analysis also shows that citizen knowledge does not merely passively reflect science. Instead, citizens create meaning and construct knowledge by organizing personal experiences and knowledge claims into coherent narratives.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Boundary work, hybrid practices and portable representations: an analysis of global and national co-productions of Red Lists2013In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 30-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many countries, the IUCN Red List of threatened species is a central instrument in their work to counteract loss of biodiversity. This article analyzes the development of the Red List categories and criteria, how these categories and criteria are used in the construction of global, national, and regional red lists, and how the red lists are employed in policy work. A central finding of the article is that this mix of actors implies many different forms of boundary work. This article also finds that the Red List functions as a portable representation, that is, a context-independent instrument to represent nature. A third finding is that the Red List functions as a link between experts and policy makers. Thus, the Red List is best understood as a boundary object and hybrid practice where the credibility of scientific assessment and a specific policy is mutually strengthened

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Boundary work, hybrid practices, and portablel representations: an analysis of global and national co-production of Red Lists.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Biodiversity under development: a study of the co-production of biodiversity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Biological diversity under development: a study of the coproduction that is biological diversity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Department of Science and Technology Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    Biological diversity under development: a study of the co-production that is biological diversity2014In: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1943-815X, E-ISSN 1943-8168, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of biodiversity loss is a complex issue involving multiple actors and knowledge forms. This article examines how this complexity is possible without fragmenting the issue and causing it to lose its meaning and legitimacy. Inspired by Jasanoff, the study aims to analyse the construction of biological diversity through a co-production perspective. This aim is achieved by focusing on three milestones in the history of the problem of biodiversity loss: launching the concept of biodiversity, establishing the Convention on Biological Diversity and founding the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. The study shows how biological diversity consists of a co-production of facts and values and how its differences make it a stable rather than unstable phenomenon. The study offers knowledge of the hybrid character of biodiversity and discusses the importance of trying to manage the complexity of biological diversity rather than reducing it through boundary work.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Environmental discourses and biodiversity: the construction of a storyline in understanding and managing an environmental issue2013In: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1943-815X, E-ISSN 1943-8168, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although biodiversity is considered to be one of today’s greatest environmental challenges, its definition remains open to interpretation. How biodiversity is understood and managed depends on the environmental discourses within which it is articulated. This paper examines how the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC), one of the largest environmental NGOs in Sweden, describes biodiversity in its 2011 yearbook. The yearbook is aimed at a wide audience and is intended to improve the general public’s understanding of biodiversity. Using discourse analysis, this study shows how the SSNC defines biodiversity by re-articulating three environmental discourses and integrating them into a single storyline. The analysis shows how these discourses offer different possibilities for different subject positions to speak about and act in relation to biodiversity. Finally, the study shows how normative implications for action are articulated as consequences of these definitions and who is responsible for performing these actions.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Latest News on the Monarch Butterfly2015In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 65, no 12, p. 1190-1192Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Narrating on the fly: a case study of the monarch butterfly and the management of scientific ambiguity, complexity, and uncertainty2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To translate scientific knowledge into actions in social practices outside of science has been highlighted as one of the biggest challenges in environmental conservation. What has been presented as a key in this process is to balance between the need of new knowledge to explain details of nature’s complexity and the need to simplify the complexity to make it manageable, a balance that is supposed to contribute to transform knowing into doing. As this challenge is faced to meet the need of science based environmental decisions, it becomes more and more important to also ask the question of how this translation is done, this to understand what consequences it brings to what is, and could be, known and done.

    By using the case of themonarch butterfly, this study provides knowledge of how the translation of knowledge between different social settings, such as science, citizen science, and policy, are being executed in an ongoing scientific and policy discussion. The study combines document studies with an interview study including scientists, citizen scientists, and ENGO representatives, all positioned in the center(s) of the monarch community. The analysis shows how a strong and engaging narrative are being constructed of the monarch butterfly by balancing detailed knowledge with general descriptions, inclusion and common knowledge with particularities and expertise, and consensus with conflicts.

    The study shows how scientific ambiguity, complexity, and uncertainty are managed throughout the process of trying to translate knowing into doing, findings of importance to environmental conservation as well as to scientific communication more generally

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Narrating the Monarch Butterfly: Managing Knowledge Complexity and Uncertainty in Coproduction of a Collective Narrative and Public Discourse2017In: Science communication, ISSN 1075-5470, E-ISSN 1552-8545, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 492-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In January 2014, the monarch butterfly reached North American political agendas due to reports of a long-term population decline. Requests were made for reliable descriptions of what was known about the butterfly, its population and migration, and the actions needed to protect it. This article studies the construction of the collective narrative that has come to dominate the public discourse on the butterfly. The analysis demonstrates how complexity and uncertainty in monarch knowledge have been managed through a process of coproduction, where focus has been on emphasizing knowledge certainty by portraying science and conservation as two separate but dependent social spheres.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Organizing experts: IPBES and the construction of epistemic authority2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What role organizational preconditions play for the constitution of expertise and the construction of epistemic authority? This is the guiding question for this paper, which studies how expertise is shaped in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services (IPBES). The IPBES has been described as an organizational blue print of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). By organizing the world’s experts on biodiversity, IPBES set out to produce policy-relevant knowledge. However, while IPCC is delimited to organize scientific knowledge, IPBES also acknowledges the importance to find ways to synthetize different knowledge forms, including indigenous and local knowledges. Thus, for IPBES, policy-relevant knowledge is created through the enrolment of fundamentally different knowledge practices and multiple forms of experts.

    In the light of IPBES’s ambitions to become an epistemic authority through synthetization of heterogeneous knowledge forms, we need to revisit the classic questions of who is an expert and its relation to epistemic authority. What does expert mean for IPBES and how does the expert contribute shape the epistemic authority of the IPBES?

    Based on a combination of documents and interviews, this study explores the organizational structure of IPBES through which expertise are determined and experts enrolled. Experts and expertise has previously been understood as either created relationally, or as being qualities possible to acquire. However, the result of this study shows how expertise and epistemological authority also have important organizational preconditions. IPBES’s institutional design is pivotal in the making of expertise and the shaping of the epistemic authority of IPBES.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Producing expertise: the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services’ socialisation of young scholars2018In: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1943-815X, E-ISSN 1943-8168, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert organisations, such as the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services (IPBES), have become increasingly important in global, regional, and local efforts to manage current environmental challenges. As producers of environmental knowledge assessments, these expert organisations are epistemic authorities in their field of expertise. To achieve and maintain epistemic authority, expert organisations constantly need to reproduce and develop their expertise. By using the first cohort of IPBES’s fellowship program as a case study, the current paper examines the production of expertise and the socialisation of new experts into expert organisations. The paper also examines the importance of these socialisation processes in the institutionalisation of expert organisations. By analyzing interviews, observations, and documents, the current study explores the expected goals, the performance, and the results of the socialisation. The study shows how the fellows learned and acquired new roles and norms. The study also shows that whoever controls the socialisation process also control the production of expertise and the institutionalisation of the expert organisation.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Reproducing expertise: The role of young scholars in IPBES’s capacity building efforts2016In: 3rd ISA Forum of Sociology: Book of abstracts, 2016, p. 278-279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being an expert organization in the making, the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) faces the challenge to create an organisation which is able to facilitate a dialogue between science and policy today, and to remain credible, relevant, and legitimate tomorrow. In this, how do IPBES work to recruit and reproduce expertise needed for delivering assessments? How is new researchers socialized and integrated into the expert organizations’ epistemic perspective and social practices? What function does reproducing expertise have in the institutionalization of expert organizations? These questions are central for this paper, which analyze IPBES’s pilot fellowship program for young scholars.

    The fellowship program was launched early 2015 with the explicit aim to integrate young scholars in the Platform’s regional and sub-regional assessment processes, thereby strengthening its capacity and knowledge foundations. The ambition is that the program will be expanded to eventually “create a pool of competent professionals able to carry forward the Platform agenda”. The participating young scholars will have a unique position and role in the making of IPBES. Participating in the program implies that they will have to balance (i) the expectations of having both a contributory and a learning position; and (ii) the commitment to work pro bono (without any economic compensation) in an assessment processes with keeping engagement with home institutions.

    Through a combined analysis of documents and interviews with IPBES representatives involved in the fellowship program, this study explores this program, in particular what capacities IPBES are looking for and what role the young scholars play in the assessment process as well as for IPBES general development. The analysis finds that there are both benefits and risks attached to the involvement of young scholars in the assessment process. By way of conclusion, some general remarks on the conditions of recruiting and socializing new expertise is raised.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    Department of Science and Technology Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    Scientific ambiguity and its consequences: a study of the iconic monarch butterfly2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The importance of boundaries: Boundary work in IPBES2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert organizations in nature conservation are often described as boundary organizations that facilitate science-policy interfaces. Besides the boundary between science and policy, boundary organizations need to manage other social boundaries, such as between different knowledge forms and between different categories of actors. In order to shape credible, legitimate, and policy relevant knowledge a boundary organization has to make use of competences from both sides of these boundaries. However, this boundary management is to a large extent concealed for those external to it. Focusing the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), this study explores how boundaries are created and managed, as well as how they become important in order to shape credible, legitimate, and policy relevant knowledge. In particular, three boundaries are analyzed: between science and policy, between scientific knowledge and indigenous and local knowledge, and between senior and young experts. Three questions are central; how are boundaries created and managed in the process of knowledge production?; how does boundary work on different boundaries in the same organization intersect and influence one another?;  how is boundary work important, and what role does it play for the production of policy relevant knowledge? The empirical material consists of official documents from IPBES and interviews with IPBES fellows. By showing how different boundaries intersect in the construction of expert knowledge, this study deepens the understanding of the preconditions for expert-based policy recommendations in nature conservation.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly: a study of the (re)framing of a species worthy of protection2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The importance of trust.: a study of knowledge production of biodiversity.2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of biological diversity is one of today’s greatest environmental problems. Scientific knowledge is typically presented as the premise to solve this problem. However, science alone is not sufficient to produce knowledge of biodiversity. Other actors are also involved in knowledge production. The aim of this thesis is to analyse how different actors create knowledge of the environmental problem of biodiversity loss and to further investigate the importance of trust in the relationships between these knowledge producers.

    This thesis uses a discourse analytical perspective and conducts interviews and document studies to explore how actors use different narratives to legitimate their knowledge production. Through four papers addressing different aspects of knowledge production, this thesis discusses conditions for knowledge production, particularly the importance of trust.

    The results show that actors other than scientific experts also have the ability to act in knowledgeable ways and to be involved in knowledge production of biodiversity. Knowledge is produced by making use of many different dimensions and aspects, such as global, regional, local, and science, politics, and everyday life. The result also shows how trust, distrust, and as-if trust are key activities in knowledge production of environmental problems, such as the loss of biodiversity.

    This thesis argues that the actors involved need to realise and acknowledge that knowledge production is a mutual process in which actors must engage in trust and distrust activities. In so doing, it will be possible to understand the complexity of the loss of biodiversity and thus to better manage this problem.

    List of papers
    1. Acknowledging risk, trusting expertise, and coping with uncertainty: citizens' deliberations on spraying an insect population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acknowledging risk, trusting expertise, and coping with uncertainty: citizens' deliberations on spraying an insect population
    2012 (English)In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 587-601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The basis for this article is the growing interest in understanding how the public evaluates risk issues. The empirical case consists of an interview study of residents in an area that has experienced an outbreak of moths that has become a nuisance to humans. The study focuses on the narratives created by the residents to make sense of the situation, the risks they associated with regulatory options, and how these narratives relate to expert opinions of the problem. The analysis shows that the residents criticize specific experts and knowledge claims. This is done, however, without questioning science as such; there is still a belief among the residents that science is an institution that generally produces valid knowledge. The analysis also shows that citizen knowledge does not merely passively reflect science. Instead, citizens create meaning and construct knowledge by organizing personal experiences and knowledge claims into coherent narratives.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2012
    Keywords
    biodiversity, narrative, public trust, public understanding of science, risk, spraying
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23368 (URN)10.1080/08941920.2011.620598 (DOI)000304064100005 ()2-s2.0-84859627301 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-06-11 Created: 2012-06-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Made in conflict: local residents' construction of a local environmental problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Made in conflict: local residents' construction of a local environmental problem
    2011 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 655-670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to understand how local residents participate in the construction of local environmental problems and to evaluate a particular analytical approach in environmental sociology to study this phenomenon. The paper is based on an interview study with a sample of local residents. The analysis demonstrates how the local residents attempt to construct a local environmental problem. In particular, the study focuses on how involved actors are positioned, how different sorts of knowledge claims are used, and how the neglect the residents perceive from the authorities affects the attempt to construct a local environmental problem. The study shows that the local residents play a central role in the construction of the situation and that the evaluated model could be very helpful as an analytical tool in the investigation of local residents' participation in the construction of environmental problems.

    Keywords
    environmental problem, environmental knowledge, local residents, social constructionism, narrative, pine processionary moth
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16483 (URN)10.1080/13549839.2011.589431 (DOI)000212091300004 ()
    Available from: 2011-08-09 Created: 2011-08-09 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
    3. Environmental discourses and biodiversity: the construction of a storyline in understanding and managing an environmental issue
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental discourses and biodiversity: the construction of a storyline in understanding and managing an environmental issue
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1943-815X, E-ISSN 1943-8168, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although biodiversity is considered to be one of today’s greatest environmental challenges, its definition remains open to interpretation. How biodiversity is understood and managed depends on the environmental discourses within which it is articulated. This paper examines how the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC), one of the largest environmental NGOs in Sweden, describes biodiversity in its 2011 yearbook. The yearbook is aimed at a wide audience and is intended to improve the general public’s understanding of biodiversity. Using discourse analysis, this study shows how the SSNC defines biodiversity by re-articulating three environmental discourses and integrating them into a single storyline. The analysis shows how these discourses offer different possibilities for different subject positions to speak about and act in relation to biodiversity. Finally, the study shows how normative implications for action are articulated as consequences of these definitions and who is responsible for performing these actions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2013
    Keywords
    biodiversity, environmental discourse, subject position, storyline, discourse analysis, environmental NGO
    National Category
    Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30152 (URN)10.1080/1943815X.2013.769455 (DOI)000316012700003 ()2-s2.0-84875216572 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-08-08 Created: 2013-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Boundary work, hybrid practices and portable representations: an analysis of global and national co-productions of Red Lists
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boundary work, hybrid practices and portable representations: an analysis of global and national co-productions of Red Lists
    2013 (English)In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 30-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    For many countries, the IUCN Red List of threatened species is a central instrument in their work to counteract loss of biodiversity. This article analyzes the development of the Red List categories and criteria, how these categories and criteria are used in the construction of global, national, and regional red lists, and how the red lists are employed in policy work. A central finding of the article is that this mix of actors implies many different forms of boundary work. This article also finds that the Red List functions as a portable representation, that is, a context-independent instrument to represent nature. A third finding is that the Red List functions as a link between experts and policy makers. Thus, the Red List is best understood as a boundary object and hybrid practice where the credibility of scientific assessment and a specific policy is mutually strengthened

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berghahn Journals, 2013
    Keywords
    Portable presentation, hybrid practices, co-production, boundary work, Red List
    National Category
    Social Sciences Sociology
    Research subject
    Sociology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24146 (URN)10.3167/nc.2013.080103 (DOI)000317804900003 ()2-s2.0-84876340533 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2012-07-19 Created: 2012-07-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Trustworthy scientist - trustworthy knowledge production: Studying IPCC’s introduction of early career scientists as an effort to regain trust2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of increasing doubts about the effectiveness of global environmental assessments, the key strategy  to become trustworthy have for many expert organizations, such as IPCC and IPBES, been to enroll world leading scientists to ‘speak truth to power’. However, trust is gained and trust can be lost. This fact became a reality to IPCC in November 2009 when Climategate broke. From being seen as the most trustworthy expert organization on climate change, IPCC lost its trustworthiness in the eyes of many and was forced to work to regain its trust.

    How to become a trustworthy organization is in this study understood as a question about epistemic ideals, legitimate knowledge systems, and science-policy relations. The study use a theoretical framework which combines concepts on knowledge systems and science policy relations. Using this theoretical framework, the study analyses the introduction of early career scientist as an example of IPCC’s efforts to regain trust in the aftermaths of Climategate.

    The study aims to analyze IPCC’s introduction of early career scientists in the role of chapter scientist and how it relates to IPCC’s ambitions to create expertise and gain epistemic authority.

    During the fifth assessment report, IPCC for the first time officially enrolling early career scientists to assist in the assessment. With this decision, IPCC partly diverted from its previous strategy on how to gain trust (by enrolling world leading scientists). The decision raises questions. If trust is gained by enrolling world leading scientist; why was early career scientists enrolled in IPCC, what role were they supposed to play in the organization as well as in the relation between science and policy, and how could early career scientists contribute in IPCC’s effort to regain trust?

    The study is based on documents and interviews. The study shows how the introduction of early career scientists is an example of a changed relation between science and non-science, and an acknowledgment that trust in a positions, such as ‘leading scientist’, does not automatically mean trust in an assessment.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Who should be distinguished you ask, and how may I answer?: a discourse theoretical analysis of the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation’s distribution of knowledge about biodiversity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    “Who should be distinguished you ask, and how may I answer?: a discourse theoretical analysis of the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation’s distribution of knowledge about biodiversity2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Why is there early career scientists in IPCC?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For IPCC, the key to create become trustworthy has been to enroll world leading scientists. With AR5 IPCC enrolled early career scientists to assist as chapter scientists. This paper explores the role created for early career scientists and how this role is to be understood in terms of credibility.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Department of Science and Technology Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    Agrawal, Anurag A.
    Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    Lewenstein, Bruce V.
    Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    Wolf, Steven A.
    Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    The Monarch Butterfly through Time and Space: The Social Construction of an Icon2015In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 612-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore the social construction of the monarch butterfly as a conservation icon in order to understand how the butterfly has come to be endowed with the power to shape public conversations and potentially alter policy and practice. Our analysis is guided by the sociological concepts of coproduction and boundary objects, which reveal how this butterfly has animated and sustained conversations across diverse organizational boundaries. We find that engagement with narratives of beauty, natural wonder, scientific discovery, conservation imperatives, and civic duty has allowed the monarch to enroll actors in a broad network that gives rise to surprising, emergent properties. These properties make the monarch a powerful communication vehicle and a potent ally in environmental politics. Our analysis of the historical and contemporary construction of the monarch as an icon contributes to ongoing efforts to bring resources from critical social science to bear on the strengthening of science-policy–practice interfaces.

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Boundary organizations and environmental governance: Performance, institutional design, and conceptual development2018In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 19, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept boundary organization has been introduced to identify and explain a specific way of organizing the interface between science and policy. Although the original meaning of the concept has been criticized, the term has come to be frequently used in studies of knowledge transfer and science-policy relations. This usage constitutes the reason for this paper, which investigates how the concept of boundary organization has come to be used and defined and explores its contribution to the discussion of the organization of the science-policy interplay. The analysis finds that despite its spread and usage, the concept boundary organization does not refer to any specific form of organization and does not per se give any guidance about how to organize science-policy interplay. Instead, boundary organization is mainly used as an empirical label when studying the governance of expertise and the management of science-policy interfaces. This finding is also true for studies of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which describe that organization as a boundary organization without saying anything about what that label means in terms of institutional design and practical implications. However, to label an organization as a boundary organization nevertheless works performatively; it shapes an organization’s identity, may provide legitimacy, and can also stabilize the interactions between it and other organizations. Therefore, boundary organization is an important concept, but primarily as a way to facilitate interaction. Thus, the focus of research should be on analyzing how the concept is used and what its implications are for the organization studied.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Organizing international experts: IPBES’s efforts to gain epistemic authority2018In: Environmental Sociology, ISSN 2325-1042, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What role do organizational preconditions play in the constitution of expertise? This is the guiding question for this paper, which studies how expertise is shaped in the Intergovernmental Science–Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). By organizing the world’s experts on biodiversity, IPBES sets out to produce policy-relevant knowledge. However, in contrast to many other international expert bodies such as the IPCC, IPBES assesses not only scientific knowledge, but also other forms of knowledge, including indigenous and local knowledge. In light of IPBES’s ambition to become an epistemic authority by synthesizing heterogeneous knowledge forms, it is of great interest to investigate how this expertise is constructed. What does ‘expertise’ mean for IPBES, and how are experts selected? Based on documents studies, this study explores the organizational structure through which IPBES assesses and selects experts. The analysis finds that the construction of expertise involves scientific as well as political dimensions. In the conclusions, problems are raised that are related to the outcome of this process and may threaten the epistemic authority of IPBES.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Environmental Sociology Section.
    Wolf, Steven A
    Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    Agrawal, Anurag A
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA.
    Science-Policy-Practice Interfaces: Emergent knowledge and monarch butterfly conservation2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 521-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how knowledge is produced at the intersection of science, environmental policy and public engagement. Based on analysis of monarch butterfly conservation, we critically evaluate models of knowledge production. The monarch butterfly and its migration have engaged science and enchanted people for over a century, and current threats to monarchs catalyze debates and actions. This paper traces the historical development of knowledge regarding (i) long-term monarch population trends, (ii) the monarch’s dependence on a particular food plant, the milk-weed, and (iii) the monarch as a pollinator. Our analysis indicates that knowledge production and science–policy–practice interfaces cannot be satisfactorily understood through reference to the classical linear model and more recent conceptions of relationally produced knowledge (i.e. co-production). We identify powerful and sometimes contradictory knowledge claims that emerge from unmediated interactions among scientists, advocates, policy makers and diverse publics. The emergent model complements existing models of knowledge production, thereby expanding the conceptual foundation available for making sense of science–policy–practice interfaces.

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