oru.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ahmed, K.
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Science, Clinical Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Association between objectively measured physical activity and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in young adults2010In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 31, no Suppl 1, p. 388-388Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Ahmed, Kamran
    et al.
    Rask, Peter
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Serum apolipoproteins, apoB/apoA-I ratio and objectively measured physical activity in elderly2011In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Several studies have suggested that subjectively reported physical activity is associated with favorable apolipoproteins and apoB/apoA-I ratio but this association has not been studied much in elderly, and seldom with objective methods. The specific aim of the current study was to increase our understanding of the association between objectively measured physical activity, and apolipoproteins and apoB/apoA-I ratio in elderly subjects.

    Design: In a long-term follow-up of coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients, a total of 89 subjects (55?88 years old) were recruited. Peak oxygen uptake was measured by ergospirometry and physical activity by accelerometry. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their activity levels (i.e. more or less than 30 minutes of moderate activity per day).

    Results: Only 26% (23/89) of participants achieved the recommended 30 min/day of moderate intensity activity. Objectively measured physical activity was associated with higher apolipoprotein A-I levels and smaller apoB/apoAI ratio and lower body mass index, whereas no significant association with apolipoprotein B was observed.

    Conclusion: The significant association of objectively measured physical activity with favorable apolipoprotein A-I levels and a apoB/apoA-I ratio stresses the importance of being physically active.

  • 3. Alomari, Mahmoud A.
    et al.
    Keewan, Esraa F.
    Qhatan, Redha
    Amer, Ahmed
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Khabour, Omar F.
    Maayah, Mikhled F.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Blood pressure and circulatory relationships with physical activity level in young normotensive individuals: IPAQ validity and reliability considerations2011In: Clinical and experimental hypertension (1993, Print), ISSN 1064-1963, E-ISSN 1525-6006, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. However, the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) relationships with blood pressure (BP) and flow (BF) and vascular resistance (VR) in healthy young individuals have not been studied. Therefore, BP, BF, and VR relationships with the IPAQ were evaluated in college normotensive students (18-23 yrs). Additionally, the IPAQ relationships with body fat (%BF), muscle mass (MM), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip (W/H) ratio, maximum walking distance in 6 min (6MWD), and handgrip strength (MHG) were examined to evaluate the questionnaire validity against fitness. Subsequently, the IPAQ was administered three times to examine its reliability. Walking, moderate, and total PAs correlated negatively with sysbolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (range: r = -3 to -0.5, p < 0.05). Additionally, all BP measures were greater in least physically active individuals. In a subgroup of 42 students, IPAQ sitting time correlated with BF (r = -0.3) and VR (r = 0.4). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for walking, moderate, vigorous, and total PAs and sitting time/week were, 0.97, 0.96, 0.97, 0.97, and 0.96, respectively. The males scored greater vigorous PA (p = 0.001) than the females, while moderate, walking, and total PAs were the same (p > 0.05). Additionally, vigorous PA correlated with %BF (r = -0.2), MM (r = 0.3), MHG (r = 0.3), and 6MWD (r = 0.3) and total PA correlated with MM (r = 0.2), MHG (r =0.2), and 6MWD (r = 0.3). The IPAQ association with the circulatory measures demonstrates PA importance for controlling BP and adds clinical value to the IPAQ. Additionally, the IPAQ is reliable, can discriminate between populations, and reasonably valid against health-related fitness.

  • 4.
    Böttiger, Anna K.
    et al.
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Chem, SE-70185 Orebro, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Sjöström, Michael
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, SE-14157 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjorn K.
    Association of total plasma homocysteine with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes 677C > T, 1298A > C, and 1793G > A and the corresponding haplotypes in Swedish children and adolescents2007In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 659-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 692 Swedish children and adolescents (aged 9-10 or 15-16 years, respectively), in order to evaluate the effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C > T, 1298A > C, and 1793G > A polymorphisms on total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). Genotyping was performed with Pyrosequencing (TM) technology. The MTHFR 677C > T polymorphism was associated with increased tHcy concentrations in both the children and the adolescents (P < 0.001 for both age groups) in both genders. The effect of MTHFR 1298A > C was studied separately in subjects with the 677CC and 677CT genotypes, and the 1298C allele was found to be associated with higher tHcy levels both when children were stratified according to 677C > T genotypes, and when using haplotype analyses and diplotype reconstructions. The 1793A allele was in complete linkage disequilibrium with the 1298C allele. It was still possible to show that the 1793A allele was associated with lower tHcy levels, statistically significant in the adolescents. In conclusion, a haplotype-based approach was slightly superior in explaining the genetic interaction on tHcy plasma levels in children and adolescents than a simple genotype based approach (R-2 adj 0.44 vs. 0.40). The major genetic impact on tHcy concentrations is attributable to the MTHFR 677C > T polymorphism. The common 1298A > C polymorphism had a minor elevating effect on tHcy, whereas the 1793G > A polymorphism had a lowering effect on tHcy.

  • 5.
    Böttiger, Anna K.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Yngve, Agneta
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Association of total plasma homocysteine with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes 677C>T, 1298A>C, and 1793G>A and the corresponding haplotypes in Swedish children and adolescents2007In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 659-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 692 Swedish children and adolescents (aged 9-10 or 15-16 years, respectively), in order to evaluate the effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, 1298A>C, and 1793G>A polymorphisms on total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). Genotyping was performed with Pyrosequencing technology. The MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was associated with increased tHcy concentrations in both the children and the adolescents (P<0.001 for both age groups) in both genders. The effect of MTHFR 1298A>C was studied separately in subjects with the 677CC and 677CT genotypes, and the 1298C allele was found to be associated with higher tHcy levels both when children were stratified according to 677C>T genotypes, and when using haplotype analyses and diplotype reconstructions. The 1793A allele was in complete linkage disequilibrium with the 1298C allele. It was still possible to show that the 1793A allele was associated with lower tHcy levels, statistically significant in the adolescents. In conclusion, a haplotype-based approach was slightly superior in explaining the genetic interaction on tHcy plasma levels in children and adolescents than a simple genotype based approach (R2 adj 0.44 vs. 0.40). The major genetic impact on tHcy concentrations is attributable to the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. The common 1298A>C polymorphism had a minor elevating effect on tHcy, whereas the 1793G>A polymorphism had a lowering effect on tHcy.

  • 6.
    Chillón, Palma
    et al.
    Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B
    Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evenson, Kelly R
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolinat, Chapel Hill NC, United States; Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill NC, United States.
    Labayen, Idoia
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
    Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente
    Social and Health Care Research Center, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca, Spain.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    National Institute for Heath Development, Centre of Behavioral and Health Sciences, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bicycling to school is associated with improvements in physical fitness over a 6-year follow-up period in Swedish children2012In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 108-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether modes of commuting to school at baseline and changes in commuting were related to 6-year changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in youth.

    METHODS: A total of 262 (142 girls) Swedish children (9 years at entry) were measured at baseline (1998/9) and follow-up (2004/5). Mode of commuting to school was assessed by questionnaire and fitness by a maximal bicycle test.

    RESULTS: At baseline, 34% of children used passive modes of commuting (e.g., car, motorcycle, bus, train), 54% walked, and 12% bicycled to school. Six years later the percentage of bicyclists increased 19% and the percentage of walkers decreased 19%. On average, children who bicycled to school increased their fitness 13% (p=0.03) more than those who used passive modes and 20% (p=0.002) more than those who walked. Children who used passive modes or walked at baseline and bicycled to school at 6 years later increased their fitness 14% (p=0.001) more than those who remained using passive modes or walking at follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: Implementing initiatives that encourage bicycling to school may be a useful strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness of children.

  • 7.
    Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena
    et al.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Labayen, Idoia
    Basque Country University, Vitoria, Spain.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Zaragoza University, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Patterson, Emma
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Vicente-Rodriguez, German
    Zaragoza University, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
    Madrid Technical University, Madrid, Spain.
    Marcos, Ascension
    Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Polito, Angela
    National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Rome, Italy.
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
    Beghin, Laurent
    Health and Medical Research National Institute-University Hospital, Lille, France.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Wästlund, Acki
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Molnar, Denes
    Pécs University, Pécs, Hungary.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Private Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Crete University, Crete, Greece.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Castillo, Manuel J.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain.
    Gutin, Bernard
    Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    More Physically Active and Leaner Adolescents Have Higher Energy Intake2014In: Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To test whether youths who engage in vigorous physical activity are more likely to have lean bodies while ingesting relatively large amounts of energy. For this purpose, we studied the associations of both physical activity and adiposity with energy intake in adolescents.

    Study design The study subjects were adolescents who participated in 1 of 2 cross-sectional studies, the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study (n = 1450; mean age, 14.6 years) or the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS; n = 321; mean age, 15.6 years). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, and energy intake was measured by 24-hour recall. In the HELENA study, body composition was assessed by 2 or more of the following methods: skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, plus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or air-displacement plethysmography in a subsample. In the EYHS, body composition was assessed by skinfold thickness.

    Results Fat mass was inversely associated with energy intake in both studies and using 4 different measurement methods (P <=.006). Overall, fat-free mass was positively associated with energy intake in both studies, yet the results were not consistent across measurement methods in the HELENA study. Vigorous physical activity in the HELENA study (P<.05) and moderate physical activity in the EYHS (P<.01) were positively associated with energy intake. Overall, results remained unchanged after adjustment for potential confounding factors, after mutual adjustment among the main exposures (physical activity and fat mass), and after the elimination of obese subjects, who might tend to under-report energy intake, from the analyses.

    Conclusion Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that more physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake than less active adolescents with larger amounts of fat mass.

  • 8.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Yngve, Agneta
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Heart rate as an indicator of the intensity of physical activity in human adolescents2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 3-4, p. 244-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were, in a group of adolescents, firstly to identify the absolute heart rates (HR) and the percentages of maximal heart rates (HRmax) corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of peak oxygen uptake (PVO2), secondly to identify absolute and relative (%PVO2) oxygen uptakes (VO2) corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1, and thirdly to examine a possible effect of fatness and fitness on the relationship between HR and VO2. The subjects were 127 (60 boys, 67 girls) adolescents with a mean age of 14.8 (SD 0.3) years. The HR and VO2 were measured by means of an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Linear regressions were performed for the HR-VO2 and VO2-HR relationships using absolute and relative (%HRmax, %PVO2) data for each individual. From these regressions, target HR and VO2 were computed. Average target HR corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of PVO2 were: 119 (SD 9), 145 (SD 9), 171 (SD 8), and 120 (SD 10), 146 (SD 8), 172 (SD 8) beats.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. Average VO2 corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1 were: 22 (SD 5), 30 (SD 5), 38 (SD 6) and 18 (SD 4), 24 (SD 4), 31 (SD 4) mlO2.kg-1.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. An analysis of covariance showed a significant fitness effect (P < 0.001) for predicted VO2 at all HR studied. The results suggest that the use of absolute HR to define exercise intensity levels when assessing young people's physical activity using HR monitoring detracts from the validity of the interpretation of the data.

  • 9.
    El Marghani, Ahmed M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Abuabaid, Hanan M.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sirsjö, Allan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Norgren, Lars
    Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellén, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    High MAPK p38 activity and low level of IL-10 in intermittent claudication as opposed to stable angina2010In: International Journal of Angiology, ISSN 0392-9590, E-ISSN 1827-1839, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 331-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    The aim of the present pilot study was to relate the activity of MAPK p38 with the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in a small cohort of patients with either stable angina (N=5) or intermittent claudication (N=5) compared to healthy controls (N=10).

    METHODS:

    The activity of MAPK p38 was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, isolated from whole blood by western blot using phospho-specific anti-MAPK p38 antibodies. Cytokine levels of 11 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined from the serum using flow cytometry.

    RESULTS:

    We found a significant elevation of the MAPK p38 activity in the intermittent claudication group (P=0.0027) compared with the healthy control group whereas the stable angina group showed similar MAPK p38 activity as the healthy control group. The IL-10 level in serum found in the stable angina group was significantly higher compared with both the healthy control group (P=0.0116) and the intermittent claudication group (P=0.0317).

    CONCLUSION:

    Our results imply that there is a casual relationship between increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-4 and the activity of the MAPK p38. Possibly has IL-10 a protective role that down-regulates the activity of MAPK p38 and thereby further inflammatory processes in stable angina patients.

  • 10.
    Eliason, Gabriella
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical activity patterns in patients in different stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2011In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 369-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has previously been suggested that exercise capacity is decreased in COPD and that it is associated with degree of disease. The reduced exercise capacity may plausibly be due to low levels of physical activity in this patient group. The aim of the present study was to assess exercise capacity and physical activity in different stages of COPD and to examine the associations between exercise capacity, pulmonary function and degree of physical activity. A total of 44 COPD patients and 17 healthy subjects participated in the study. Exercise capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walking test and physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer worn all waking hours during 7 days. Mean exercise capacity was significantly lower in COPD patients compared with healthy subjects. Mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately active were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD compared with healthy subjects while no differences in time spent sedentary were observed between the study groups. Pulmonary function, mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately physically active were significantly associated with exercise capacity in the patients. We conclude that patients with moderate and severe COPD are less physically active compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, mean physical activity level and physical activity of at least moderate intensity are positively associated with exercise capacity in COPD, while time spent sedentary is not, which stresses an important role of physical activity on exercise capacity in these patients.

  • 11.
    Eliason, Gabriella
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Department of pheumatology, danderyds hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical activity patterns in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: It has previously been suggested that exercise capacity is decreased in COPD patients and that it is associated with degree of disease. The reduced exercise capacity may plausibly be due to low levels of physical activity in this patient group. In the present study we aimed to assess exercise capacity and physical activity in different stages of COPD and to examine the associations between exercise capacity, pulmonary function and degree of physical activity.

    Methods: 44 COPD patients and 17 healthy subjects participated in the study. Exercise capacity was assessed using the 6 minute walking test and physical activity was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer worn all waking hours during seven days.

    Results: Mean exercise capacity was significantly lower in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects. Mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately active were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD compared to healthy subjects while no differences in time spent sedentary were observed between the study groups. Pulmonary function, mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately physically active were significantly associated with exercise capacity in the patients.

    Conclusions: Patients with moderate and severe COPD are significantly less physically active compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, mean physical activity level as well as physical activity of at least moderate intensity are positively associated with exercise capacity in COPD patients while time spent sedentary is not which stresses an important role of physical activity on exercise capacity in this patient group. 

  • 12.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Fernström, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Arterial stiffness is associated to cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in young Swedish adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 17, p. 1809-1818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early changes in the large muscular arteries are already associated with risk factors as hypertension and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The present study examines the association between arterial stiffness measurements, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index and lifestyle-related factors, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, in young, healthy, Swedish adults.

    Design: This study used a population-based cross-sectional sample.

    Methods: The 834 participants in the study were self-reported healthy, non-smoking, age 18-25 years. Augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured with applanation tonometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by ergometer bike test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated and categorised according to classification by the World Health Organisation.

    Results: Young Swedish adults with obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly higher pulse wave velocity and augmentation index than non-obese young adults with medium or high cardiorespiratory fitness. The observed U-shaped association between pulse wave velocity and body mass index categories in women indicates that it might be more beneficial to be normal weight than underweight when assessing the arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. The highest mean pulse wave velocity was found in overweight/obese individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness. The lowest mean pulse wave velocity was found in normal weight individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a stronger effect than body mass index on arterial stiffness in multiple regression analyses.

    Conclusions: The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness is observed already in young adults. The study result highlights the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness, but also that underweight individuals may be a possible risk group that needs to be further studied.

  • 13.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Op't Roodt, Jos
    Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; CARIM, School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Fernström, Maria
    Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults: the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study2019In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last four decades, especially in young adults, and is of growing concern since it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We explored how different body composition measurements are associated with intima media thickness (cIMT) and local stiffness in the common carotid artery, in a subsample of healthy, young women and men, from the Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) Study.

    METHODS: From the LBA study, a subsample of 220 randomly selected, self-reported healthy individuals, 18-25 years old, were collected for the automatized local stiffness measurements; arterial distensibility, Young's elastic modulus, and β stiffness index. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured using automatic blood pressure equipment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, waist circumference was measured, and percentage of body fat assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. The carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and analyzed using B-mode edge wall tracking. cIMT was measured and local stiffness measurements were calculated with carotid blood pressure, measured with applanation tonometry.

    RESULTS: No association was found between cIMT and body composition. Local carotid stiffness was associated with body composition, and women had less stiff arteries than men (p < 0.001). Of the local stiffness measurements, arterial distensibility had the strongest associations with body composition measurements in both women and men (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI in women and BMI and percentage of body fat in men had the highest impact on arterial distensibility (p < 0.01 in both women and men).

    CONCLUSIONS: Arterial distensibility was the local stiffness measurement with the strongest associations to different body composition measurements, in both women and men. In this age group, body composition measurements seem to be stronger predictors of common carotid arterial stiffness than MAP, and is a convenient way of detecting young adults who need cardiovascular risk follow-up and lifestyle counseling.

  • 14.
    Fernström, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Eliason, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study2017In: Vascular Health and Risk Management, ISSN 1176-6344, E-ISSN 1178-2048, Vol. 13, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO(2)max);2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.

    Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.

    Result: cIMT (mean +/- standard deviation) was 0.50 +/- 0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8 +/- 8.5 and 42.9 +/- 9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: High aerobic fitness is associated with low CVD risk in Swedish young adults. The high prevalence of young adults observed with unfavorable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance raises concerns about future CVD risk.

  • 15.
    Howard, Bethany J.
    et al.
    Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia; School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Olsson, Lovisa A.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dunstan, David W.
    Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia; School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia; School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia; School of Sports Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; School of Population Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Self-Reported Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Fibrinolytic and Other Novel Cardio-Metabolic Biomarkers in Active Swedish Seniors2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e0163409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Too much sitting is linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The mediating mechanisms for these associations are largely unknown, however dysregulated fibrinolysis have emerged as a possible contributor.

    Objective: We examined the associations of self-reported overall sitting time and physical activity with fibrinolytic and other novel cardio-metabolic biomarkers in older adults.

    Materials and Methods: Data was analysed for 364 participants (74±7 yrs) of the Active Seniors group (retired, living independently in their own homes). Linear regression analyses examined associations of categories of categories of sitting time (≤3, 3-6, >6 hrs/day) and overall physical activity (Low, Moderate and High) with biomarkers in serum or plasma, adjusting for age, gender and smoking (with further adjustment for either overall physical activity or sitting time and BMI in secondary analyses).

    Results: Compared to sitting ≤ 3 hrs/day, sitting >6 hrs/day was associated with higher tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex (tPA-PAI-1 complex). These associations were not independent of overall physical activity or BMI. Compared to those in the high physical activity, low physical activity was associated with a higher BMI, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tPA-PAI-1 complex levels. Only the associations of BMI and hs-CRP were independent of sitting time.

    Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence for the relationships of sitting time with fibrinolytic markers in older adults. They also reinforce the importance of regular physical activity for cardio-metabolic health.

  • 16.
    Hurtig Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Cardiovascular risk factors in children2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Sampling procedure, participation rates and representativeness in the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sampling procedure, participation rates and representativeness in the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS)
    2003 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a cross-sectional, school-based population study on risk factors for future cardiovascular disease in children, with an overall participation rate in Sweden of about 50%. To study the representativeness of the participants in the Swedish part of EYHS, a comprehensive non-participant follow-up study was carried out.

    DESIGN:

    A structured multilevel analysis model was developed, addressing each level in the sampling procedure. The income, educational and occupational categories of the geographical regions of the study (level I), school catchment areas (level II) and parents (level III) were compared with official data. Participating and non-participating pupils (level IV) were compared through a questionnaire.

    SETTING:

    Thirty-seven state schools in two regions of Central Sweden (Orebro and southern Stockholm) were visited during the school year 1998/1999.

    SUBJECTS:

    Boys and girls aged 9 and 15 years were randomly sampled through a multiphase sampling procedure.

    RESULTS:

    Data for socio-economic status for levels I and II corresponded well to national and regional official data. At level III, non-manually working parents were slightly over-represented among parents of participating children. At level IV, non-participating subjects corresponded in most respects to participants with a few exceptions--mainly more interest in physical exercise among participants.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Based on the knowledge from the non-participant study, we do not foresee problems regarding interpretation of the outcomes in the EYHS, despite the low participation rate.

    Keywords
    Adolescent, Cardiovascular Diseases/*etiology, Child, Cross-Sectional Studies, Europe, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Health Surveys, Humans, Male, Population Surveillance, Risk Factors, Sample Size, Sampling Studies, Schools, Socioeconomic Factors, Sweden
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4206 (URN)10.1079/PHN2002425 (DOI)12740078 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Serum lipids, glucose and insulin levels in healthy schoolchildren aged 9 and 15 years from Central Sweden: reference values in relation to biological, social and lifestyle factors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum lipids, glucose and insulin levels in healthy schoolchildren aged 9 and 15 years from Central Sweden: reference values in relation to biological, social and lifestyle factors
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    There is a shortage of reference values for cardiovascular risk factors such as serum lipids, glucose and insulin related to biological, social and lifestyle factors for Swedish children and adolescents. Such values are needed for planning and evaluation of public health activities, and for clinical use.

    DESIGN AND METHODS:

    Data for this cross-sectional, school-based study were collected during a school year (September to May). A random sample of 1137 girls and boys aged 9 and 15 years from two locations in central Sweden participated in the study, and blood samples were taken from 969 of them.

    METHODS:

    Fasting serum blood samples were analysed for triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and insulin. Physical examination included measurement of height, weight and pubertal status. Questionnaires provided family background data. Total physical activity was measured by accelerometer registration.

    RESULTS:

    Serum levels differed significantly between age and gender groups and were correlated to pubertal status. Neither genetic nor socio-economic background nor smoking status influenced the serum levels. Insulin levels were elevated in subjects with a body mass index in the highest decentile, compared with the levels in the rest of the subjects. The insulin levels were inversely associated with total physical activity, and physical activity varied with season.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Pubertal status (biological age) should to be considered in the interpretation of serum values in schoolchildren rather than chronological age. The interpretation of insulin values should include both body mass index and physical activity level, and perhaps also season. Previously described regional differences in serum lipid levels in Swedish adults seem to be present also in children.

    Keywords
    Adolescent, Blood Glucose/genetics/*metabolism, Body Mass Index, Child, Fasting, Female, Health, Humans, Insulin/*blood/genetics, Interpersonal Relations, Life Style, Lipids/*blood/genetics, Male, Motor Activity, Reference Values, Seasons, Sexual Maturation, Smoking, Socioeconomic Factors, Sweden
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4205 (URN)10.1080/00365510410003110 (DOI)15859028 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Trends in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescents
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16029 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-20 Created: 2011-06-20 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly than physical activity to risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy school children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly than physical activity to risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy school children
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16030 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-06-20 Created: 2011-06-20 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 17.
    Hurtig Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Harro, Maarike
    Sjöström, Michael
    Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly than physical activity to risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy school childrenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hurtig Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Sampling procedure, participation rates and representativeness in the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS)2003In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a cross-sectional, school-based population study on risk factors for future cardiovascular disease in children, with an overall participation rate in Sweden of about 50%. To study the representativeness of the participants in the Swedish part of EYHS, a comprehensive non-participant follow-up study was carried out.

    DESIGN:

    A structured multilevel analysis model was developed, addressing each level in the sampling procedure. The income, educational and occupational categories of the geographical regions of the study (level I), school catchment areas (level II) and parents (level III) were compared with official data. Participating and non-participating pupils (level IV) were compared through a questionnaire.

    SETTING:

    Thirty-seven state schools in two regions of Central Sweden (Orebro and southern Stockholm) were visited during the school year 1998/1999.

    SUBJECTS:

    Boys and girls aged 9 and 15 years were randomly sampled through a multiphase sampling procedure.

    RESULTS:

    Data for socio-economic status for levels I and II corresponded well to national and regional official data. At level III, non-manually working parents were slightly over-represented among parents of participating children. At level IV, non-participating subjects corresponded in most respects to participants with a few exceptions--mainly more interest in physical exercise among participants.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Based on the knowledge from the non-participant study, we do not foresee problems regarding interpretation of the outcomes in the EYHS, despite the low participation rate.

  • 19.
    Hurtig Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Trends in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Biomedical Engineering, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Egerlid, Rigmor
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Resare, Marie
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ask, Per
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Biomedical Engineering, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rask, Peter
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Heart sounds are altered by open cardiac surgery2009In: Experimental and clinical cardiology, ISSN 1205-6626, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 18-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients have reported that they perceive their own heart sounds differently after open cardiac surgery than before the surgery. The present study was designed to investigate whether changes in heart sounds can be quantitatively measured.

    METHOD: Heart sounds were recorded from 57 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and from a control group of 10 subjects. The so-called Hjorth descriptors and the main frequency peak were compared before and after surgery to determine whether the characteristics of the heart sounds had changed.

    RESULTS: At a group level, the first heart sound was found to be significantly different after CABG surgery. Generally, the heart sounds shifted toward a lower frequency after surgery in the CABG group. No significant changes were found in the control group.

    CONCLUSION: Heart sounds are altered after CABG surgery. The changes are objectively quantifiable and may also be subjectively perceived by the patients.

  • 21.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lovisa A.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for the elderly: aspects of validity and feasibility2010In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 1847-1854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To modify the self-administered, short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for adults to be used in the elderly (aged 65 years and above), and to validate this modified IPAQ for the elderly (IPAQ-E).

    DESIGN: A direct validity study using accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) as the criterion measure, and an indirect criterion validity study using high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a biological marker of activity.

    SETTING: Organisations for retired persons in Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: The direct validity study consisted of fifty-four participants and the indirect criterion validity study consisted of 359 participants. All participants were retired persons (66-91 years) living independently.

    RESULTS: All self-reported activity domains (sitting, walking, moderate and vigorous) were positively correlated with the corresponding variable objectively assessed by an accelerometer (rho = 0.277-0.471), but a systematic error was observed. The specificity of IPAQ-E to identify low-active participants was 85 %, and the sensitivity to identify the more active participants was 81 %. A main effect of IPAQ-E category (Low, Moderate or High) was observed for hs-CRP (P = 0.041).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found this modified version of IPAQ, the IPAQ-E, to be well accepted by our sample of socially active elderly. It provided acceptable estimates of PA, well in line with other questionnaires, even though it had a systematic error. The IPAQ-E was able to identify an expected response of a biomarker (hs-CRP) to PA. We recommend the use of the IPAQ-E to classify participants aged 65 years and above into PA categories, to rank individuals or to identify individuals meeting certain PA criteria.

  • 22.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Harro, Maarike
    Sjöström, Michael
    Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly than physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study2007In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 575-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are closely related to health variables in adults, especially those considered to be among risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The possible tracking of cardiovascular disease risk factors from childhood to adulthood makes it important to increase our understanding of the complex relationships between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors early in life.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional, school-based study on healthy children and adolescents, aged 9-10 years (295 girls, 295 boys) and 15-16 years (302 girls, 233 boys) was performed during a school year in Sweden and Estonia, as part of the European Youth Heart Study.

    METHODS: Total physical activity, and minutes spent in inactivity and activity of moderate or higher intensity were measured by accelerometry. A maximal ergometer bike test was used for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness. The risk factors included blood pressure and fasting blood levels of insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    RESULTS: Canonical correlations between physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness versus cardiovascular disease risk factors showed significant associations in both age and sex groups (rc=0.46-0.61, P<0.0001). The cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be the strongest contributor to these relationships. In girls high values of the physical activity variables were also associated with a favourable cardiovascular profile.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cardiorespiratory fitness relates more strongly to cardiovascular risk factors than components of objectively measured physical activity in children and adolescents. Physical activity becomes more important in the 15-year-old adolescents, indicating that these modifiable lifestyle factors increase in importance with age.

  • 23.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Serum lipids, glucose and insulin levels in healthy schoolchildren aged 9 and 15 years from Central Sweden: reference values in relation to biological, social and lifestyle factors2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    There is a shortage of reference values for cardiovascular risk factors such as serum lipids, glucose and insulin related to biological, social and lifestyle factors for Swedish children and adolescents. Such values are needed for planning and evaluation of public health activities, and for clinical use.

    DESIGN AND METHODS:

    Data for this cross-sectional, school-based study were collected during a school year (September to May). A random sample of 1137 girls and boys aged 9 and 15 years from two locations in central Sweden participated in the study, and blood samples were taken from 969 of them.

    METHODS:

    Fasting serum blood samples were analysed for triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and insulin. Physical examination included measurement of height, weight and pubertal status. Questionnaires provided family background data. Total physical activity was measured by accelerometer registration.

    RESULTS:

    Serum levels differed significantly between age and gender groups and were correlated to pubertal status. Neither genetic nor socio-economic background nor smoking status influenced the serum levels. Insulin levels were elevated in subjects with a body mass index in the highest decentile, compared with the levels in the rest of the subjects. The insulin levels were inversely associated with total physical activity, and physical activity varied with season.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Pubertal status (biological age) should to be considered in the interpretation of serum values in schoolchildren rather than chronological age. The interpretation of insulin values should include both body mass index and physical activity level, and perhaps also season. Previously described regional differences in serum lipid levels in Swedish adults seem to be present also in children.

  • 24.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Changes in aerobic fitness in Swedish children and adolescents2006In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 79-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Steadily declining physical activity, especially among children, and the possible adverse health outcomes such behavior could precede, is a general concern. We evaluated whether a presumed decrease in physical activity has been accompanied with a decrease in aerobic fitness of Swedish children. Methods: A maximum cycle ergometer test  was performed in 935 children age 9 and 15 y, and the results were compared with previously reported data. Results: Estimated peak oxygen uptake (mL · kg-1 · min-1) in 9-y-old subjects was 37.3 in girls and 42.8 in boys; and in 15-y-olds, 40.4 in girls and 51.5 in boys. In the 9-y-olds, aerobic fitness remained lower in the current study compared to earlier data, but in the 15-y-olds the result did not differ from the 1952 data after adjustment for methodological differences. Conclusion: Our results suggest a change towards decreased aerobic fitness in 9-y-old, but not in 15-y-old, Swedish children during a 50-y time span.

  • 25.
    Jonsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Physiotherapy.
    Ahlsson, Anders
    Cardiovascular Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics.
    Vidlund, Mårten
    Department of Vascular and Cardiothoracic surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Physiotherapy.
    In-hospital physiotherapy and physical recovery three months after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trialManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Jonsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Physiotherapy.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics.
    Ahlsson, Anders
    Cardiovascular Division, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vidlund, Mårten
    Department of Vascular and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Physiotherapy.
    In-hospital physiotherapy improves physical activity level after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial2018In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing lung cancer surgery are routinely offered physiotherapy. Despite its routine use, effects on postoperative physical recovery have yet not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physiotherapy could improve postoperative in-hospital physical activity level and physical capacity.

    DESIGN: Single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING: Thoracic surgery department at a University Hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery (n=94) for confirmed or suspected lung cancer were assessed during hospital stay.

    INTERVENTION: Daily physiotherapy, consisting of mobilization, ambulation, shoulder exercises and breathing exercises. The control group received no physiotherapy treatment.

    OUTCOMES: In-hospital physical activity assessed with the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer, six-minute walk test, spirometry and dyspnea scores.

    RESULTS: The treatment group reached significantly more accelerometer counts (2010 (1508) vs 1629 (1146), mean difference 495 [95% CI 44 to 1109]), and steps per hour (49 (47) vs 37 (34), mean difference 14 [95% CI 3 to 30]), compared to the control group, during the first three postoperative days. No significant differences in six-minute walk test (percent of preoperative 71% vs 79%, P=0.13), spirometry (FEV1 percent of preoperative 69% vs 69%, P=0.83) or dyspnoea (M-MRC 2 vs 2, P=0.74) between the groups were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving in-hospital physiotherapy showed increased level of physical activity during the first days after lung cancer surgery, compared to an untreated control group. However, no effects on the six-minute walk test or spirometric values were found. The clinical importance of an increased physical activity level during the early postoperative period needs to be further evaluated.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01961700.

  • 27.
    Jonsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Physiotherapy.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics.
    Ahlsson, Anders
    Cardiovascular Division, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vidlund, Mårten
    Department of Vascular and Cardiothoracic surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Physiotherapy/CAMTÖ.
    Physical activity level during the first three days after lung cancer surgery improves with physiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial2018In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 52, no Suppl. 62, article id OA5189Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Physical inactivity is common after lung cancer surgery. Patients undergoing lung cancer surgery are routinely offered physiotherapy. Despite its routine use, any effect on postoperative physical activity has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physiotherapy could improve physical activity during the first days after surgery.

    Methods: A total of 94 patients undergoing elective surgery for confirmed or suspected lung cancer were consecutevily included and randomized to treatment group (n=50) or control group (n=44). The treatment group received daily physiotherapy, consisting of mobilization and ambulation, shoulder exercises and breathing exercises. The control group received no physiotherapy. Physical activity was assessed with the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer.

    Results: The patients in the treatment group reached significantly more counts (1692 vs 1197, p=0.029) and steps per hour (39 vs 25, p=0.013), during the first three days, compared to the control group.

    Conclusions: Physical activity during the first three days is increased by physiotherapy treament. The long term effect of in-hospital physiotherapy needs to be further evaluated.

  • 28.
    Jonsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Physiotherapy.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Physiotherapy.
    Ahlsson, Anders
    Cardiovascular Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics.
    Validation of two self-reported physical activity instruments for patients who have undergone lung cancer surgeryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29. Klasson-Heggebø, L.
    et al.
    Andersen, L. B.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Sardinha, L. B.
    Harro, M.
    Froberg, K.
    Anderssen, S. A.
    Graded associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness, and blood pressure in children and adolescents2006In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 25-29; discussion 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To measure the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and sum of skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in the European youth heart study.

    METHODS:

    The participants were 4072 children and adolescents (aged 9 and 15) from Denmark, Portugal, Estonia, and Norway. Cardiorespiratory fitness was indirectly determined using a maximal ergometer cycle test. The sum of four skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure were assessed with a standardised protocol. Linear regression analysis was used to test the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and the dependent variables adjusted for pubertal stage, sex, and country.

    RESULTS:

    A significant curvilinear graded relation was found between cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference and sum of skinfolds (partial r2 for cardiorespiratory fitness was 0.09-0.26 for the different sexes and age groups). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also showed a curvilinear relation with cardiorespiratory fitness, and fitness explained 2% of the variance in systolic blood pressure. The difference in systolic blood pressure between the least and most fit was 6 mm Hg.

    CONCLUSION:

    A curvilinear graded relation was found between cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference, sum of skinfolds, and systolic blood pressure. The greatest difference in these health variables was observed between low and moderate fitness levels.

  • 30.
    Lindkvist, Madelene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Fernberg, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ljungberg, Liza
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Fälker, Knut
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Fernström, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Grenegård, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Individual variations in platelet reactivity towards ADP, epinephrine, collagen and nitric oxide, and the association to arterial function in young, healthy adults2019In: Thrombosis Research, ISSN 0049-3848, E-ISSN 1879-2472, Vol. 174, p. 5-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Platelet aggregation and secretion can be induced by a large number of endogenous activators, such as collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and epinephrine. Conversely, the blood vessel endothelium constitutively release platelet inhibitors including nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. NO and prostacyclin are also well-known vasodilators and contribute to alterations in local blood flow and systemic blood pressure.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we investigated individual variations in platelet reactivity and arterial functions including blood pressure and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in 43 young, healthy individuals participating in the Lifestyle, Biomarkers and Atherosclerosis (LBA) study. Platelet aggregation and dense granule secretion were measured simultaneously by light transmission and luminescence. FMD was measured with ultrasound.

    RESULTS: The platelet function assay showed inter-individual differences in platelet reactivity. Specifically, a sub-group of individuals had platelets with an increased response to low concentrations of ADP and epinephrine, but not collagen. When the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) was combined with high doses of these platelet activators, the results indicated for sub-groups of NO-sensitive and NO-insensitive platelets. The individuals with NO-sensitive platelets in response to SNAP in combination with collagen had a higher capacity of FMD of the arteria brachialis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Platelet reactivity towards ADP, epinephrine and NO differs between young, healthy individuals. Some individuals have a more effective response towards NO, both in the aspect of platelet inhibition ex vivo, as well as vasodilation in vivo.

  • 31.
    Lobenius Palmér, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöqvist, Birgitta
    University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Youth With Disabilities2018In: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, ISSN 0736-5829, E-ISSN 1543-2777, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared accelerometer-assessed habitual physical activity (PA), sedentary time, and meeting PA recommendations among 102 youth with disabilities (7-20 years) in four subgroups-physical/visual impairments, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and hearing impairment-and 800 youth with typical development (8-16 years). Low proportions of youth with disabilities met PA recommendations, and they generally were less physically active and more sedentary than youth with typical development. The hearing impairment and autism spectrum disorder groups were the most and least physically active, respectively. Older age and to some extent female sex were related to less PA and more sedentary time. Considering the suboptimal levels of PA in youth with disabilities, effective interventions directed at factors associated with PA among them are needed.

  • 32.
    Lobenius Palmér, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Sjöqvist Nätterlund, Birgitta
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Hurtig Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    How physically active are youth with disabilities compared to youth without disabilities?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    et al.
    Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herrmann, Wolfgang
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Saarland University Hospital, Homburg, Germany.
    Obeid, Rima
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Saarland University Hospital, Homburg, Germany.
    Owen, Jennifer R.
    Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Zeisel, Steven
    Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA; Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents2016In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 1683-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic achievement in adolescents is correlated with 1-carbon metabolism (1-CM), as folate intake is positively related and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) negatively related to academic success. Because another 1-CM nutrient, choline is essential for fetal neurocognitive development, we hypothesized that choline and betaine could also be positively related to academic achievement in adolescents. In a sample of 15-yr-old children (n = 324), we measured plasma concentrations of homocysteine, choline, and betaine and genotyped them for 2 polymorphisms with effects on 1-CM, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, rs1801133, and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), rs12325817 (G>C). The sum of school grades in 17 major subjects was used as an outcome measure for academic achievement. Lifestyle and family socioeconomic status (SES) data were obtained from questionnaires. Plasma choline was significantly and positively associated with academic achievement independent of SES factors (paternal education and income, maternal education and income, smoking, school) and of folate intake (P = 0.009, R-2 = 0.285). With the addition of the PEMT rs12325817 polymorphism, the association value was only marginally changed. Plasma betaine concentration, tHcy, and the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism did not affect academic achievement in any tested model involving choline. Dietary intake of choline is marginal in many adolescents and may be a public health concern.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Böttiger, Anna K.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    High folate intake is related to better academic achievement in Swedish adolescents2011In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 128, no 2, p. e358-e365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescents are vulnerable to increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and to insufficient folate status. Folate status and Hcy metabolism are linked to cognitive functions, but academic achievement by adolescents has not been studied in this respect.

    Objective: To assess a possible link between academic achievement in adolescents and tHcy and its determinants, dietary folate intake, MTHFR 677 TT homozygosity, and socioeconomic status (SES).

    Subjects and Methods: A study of 386 Swedish adolescents aged 15 years in whom plasma tHcy and MTHFR 677C →T genotype were assayed. The sum of school grades in 10 core subjects obtained in the final semester of compulsory 9 years of schooling was used as outcome measure of academic achievement. Lifestyle and SES data were obtained from questionnaires.

    Results: Academic achievement was strongly correlated to tertiles of tHcy (negatively; P = .023) and to tertiles of folate intake (positively; P < .001). Other significant predictors were gender, smoking, and SES (proxied by school, mother's education, and father's income). When these were controlled for, tertiles of folate intake (P < .002) but not tertiles of tHcy (P = .523) or MTHFR genotype remained significantly related to academic achievement.

    Conclusion: Folate intake had a positive association with academic achievement in the 15-year-olds, which was not attenuated by SES or MTHFR 677 TT homozygosity. These results provide new information that points to the importance of keeping a closer watch on folate status in childhood and adolescence. They may also have direct implications for school meal provisions, school teaching programs, and information to parents.

  • 35.
    Olsson, Lovisa A.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Laboratory Medicine/Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Subjective well-being in Swedish active seniors and its relationship with physical activity and commonly available biomarkers2014In: Clinical Interventions in Aging, ISSN 1176-9092, E-ISSN 1178-1998, Vol. 9, p. 233-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity is claimed to be related to well-being and to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the possible associations of well-being with physical activity and biomarkers of somatic health were studied in a sample of Swedish active seniors to determine the strength of these associations.

    Methods: Three hundred and eighty-nine community-dwelling senior citizens (127 men and 262 women) of mean age 74 +/- 5 years were recruited for this cross-sectional population study. Serum samples were analyzed for lipoproteins and markers of inflammation. The Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index was used to measure subjective well-being. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for the elderly.

    Results: More than 50% of men and women rated their physical activity as high; in the women, there was a significant difference between the age groups (younger and older than the median age [median =74.1 years], respectively). The mean PGWB index indicates a high degree of subjective well-being in this group of Swedish seniors. Of the PGWB subdimensions, general health had the strongest positive relationship with physical activity (r(2)=5.4%). for the subdimensions of depressed mood, positive well-being, vitality, and PGWB index, physical activity had an r(2)<= 4%, while the contributions of sex, age, and biomarkers were minor.

    Conclusion: We have estimated the contribution of physical activity to the variance of subjective well-being in active seniors. Physical activity appears to play a greater role as a determinant of subjective well-being than do biomarkers of somatic health, especially in females, but most of the variance remained unaccounted for by the studied variables.

  • 36.
    Ortega, F. B.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ruiz, J. R.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; University of Granade, Granada, Spain.
    Labayen, I.
    University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlof, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Harro, J.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kwak, L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Oja, L.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Merenakk, L.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Veidebaum, T.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Sjostrom, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Role of socio-cultural factors on changes in fitness and adiposity in youth: A 6-year follow-up study2013In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 883-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Optimal cardio-respiratory fitness and adiposity levels are tightly related to health in youth. We analysed changes in fitness and adiposity in young individuals from two countries, and examined the role of maternal education in these changes.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A 6-year follow-up study was conducted on 483 Estonian children (9 years) and 466 Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15 years). Fitness was assessed by a maximal bike test, and total and central adiposity were indirectly estimated by skinfolds (Slaughter's equation for fat mass) and waist circumference. At follow-up, fitness and adiposity had increased in the children cohort (P ≤ 0.001), while small or no change occurred in the adolescent cohort. In the children cohort, Estonian participants had a lower increase in fitness and a higher increase in adiposity (total and central) than Swedish participants. Higher maternal education increased the odds of remaining fit (top quartile) by half and reduced the risk of remaining fat (top quartile) by half; odds ratios = 1.56 (1.00-2.43), 0.50 (0.32-0.77) and 0.61 (0.39-0.94) for fitness, total and central adiposity, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the socioeconomic situation of a country might influence key cardiovascular risk factors (fitness and adiposity), being at higher risk for a low-middle income country (Estonia) than a higher income country (Sweden). The findings stress the role of socioeconomic status, particularly maternal education, in the maintenance of healthy fitness and adiposity levels from childhood into later life. Preventive efforts have to be taken from early age.

  • 37. Ortega, Francisco B.
    et al.
    Konstabel, Kenn
    Pasquali, Elena
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Maeestu, Jarek
    Lof, Marie
    Harro, Jaanus
    Bellocco, Rino
    Labayen, Idoia
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a cohort study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e60871-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    To know how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time change across lifespan periods is needed for designing successful lifestyle interventions. We aimed to study changes in objectively measured (accelerometry) MVPA and sedentary time from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Methods

    Estonian and Swedish participants from the European Youth Heart Study aged 9 and 15 years at baseline (N = 2312) were asked to participate in a second examination 6 (Sweden) to 9/10 (Estonia) years later. 1800 participants with valid accelerometer data were analyzed.

    Results

    MVPA decreased from childhood to adolescence (-1 to -2.5 min/d per year of follow-up, P = 0.01 and <0.001, for girls and boys respectively) and also from adolescence to young adulthood (-0.8 to -2.2 min/d per year, P = 0.02 and <0.001 for girls and boys, respectively). Sedentary time increased from childhood to adolescence (+ 15 and + 20 min/d per year, for girls and boys respectively, P<0.001), with no substantial change from adolescence to young adulthood. Changes in both MVPA and sedentary time were greater in Swedish than in Estonian participants and in boys than in girls. The magnitude of the change observed in sedentary time was 3-6 time larger than the change observed in MVPA.

    Conclusions

    The decline in MVPA (overall change = 30 min/d) and increase sedentary time (overall change = 2: 45 h/d) observed from childhood to adolescence are of concern and might increase the risk of developing obesity and other chronic diseases later in life. These findings substantially contribute to understand how key health-related behaviors (physical activity and sedentary) change across important periods of life.

  • 38. Ortega, Francisco B.
    et al.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Meirhaeghe, Aline
    Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Molnar, Denes
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Labayen, Idoia
    Sjöström, Michael
    Physical Activity Attenuates the Effect of Low Birth Weight on Insulin Resistance in Adolescents Findings From Two Observational Studies2011In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 2295-2299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE-To examine whether physical activity influences the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The study comprised adolescents who participated in two cross-sectional studies: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study (n = 520, mean age = 14.6 years) and the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) (n = 269, mean age = 15.6 years). Participants had valid data on birth weight (parental recall), BMI, sexual maturation, maternal education, breastfeeding, physical activity (accelerometry, counts/minute), fasting glucose, and insulin. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Maternal education level and breastfeeding duration were reported by the mothers. RESULTS-There was a significant interaction of physical activity in the association between birth weight and HOMA-IR (logarithmically transformed) in both the HELENA study and the EYHS (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively), after adjusting for sex, age, sexual maturation, BMI, maternal education level, and breastfeeding duration. Stratified analyses by physical activity levels (below/above median) showed a borderline inverse association between birth weight and HOMA-IR in the low-active group (standardized beta = -0.094, P = 0.09, and standardized beta = -0.156, P = 0.06, for HELENA and EYHS, respectively), whereas no evidence of association was found in the high-active group (standardized beta = -0.031, P = 0.62, and standardized beta = 0.053, P = 0.55, for HELENA and EYHS, respectively). CONCLUSIONS-Higher levels of physical activity may attenuate the adverse effects of low birth weight on insulin sensitivity in adolescents. More observational data, from larger and more powerful studies, are required to test these findings. Diabetes 60:2295-2299, 2011

  • 39. Ortega, Francisco B.
    et al.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Physically active adolescents are more likely to have a healthier cardiovascular fitness level independently of their adiposity status: the European youth heart study2008In: Revista Española de Cardiología, ISSN 0300-8932, E-ISSN 1579-2242, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 123-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and objectives Cardiovascular fitness (CVF) has been considered a health marker at all ages. The main purpose of this study was to examine whether meeting the current physical activity (PA) recommendations is associated with a healthier CVF level in adolescents.Methods A total of 472 adolescents (14–16 years-old) were studied. CVF was estimated from a maximal bike test and PA was objectively assessed by accelerometry. Subjects were classed as high/low-CVF level, according to the Cooper Institute's cut-offs, and having a high/low-PA level depending on if the adolescents were engaged in at least 60 min per day at moderate-vigorous PA intensity level. Body fat was estimated from skinfold thicknesses.Results Binary logistic regression showed that adolescent girls meeting the current PA recommendations (≥60 min/day of moderate-vigorous PA) were 3 times more likely to have a high-CVF level than girls that did not meet the recommendations, after controlling for sexual maturation status (Tanner stages) and body fat. Likewise, adolescent boys meeting the PA recommendations were 8 times more likely to have a high-CVF level than boys that did not meet the recommendations.Conclusions The results suggest that devoting 60 min or more to moderate-vigorous PA daily is associated with a healthier CVF level in adolescents, independent of maturation status and adiposity. The patterns of the association were similar in girls and boys, but the fact that the associations were weaker in girls is of concern.

  • 40.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Madrid, Spain.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Madrid, Spain.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán
    1.Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; EU Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Rizzo, Nico S.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Castillo, Manuel J.
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Madrid, Spain.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Cardiovascular fitness modifies the associations between physical activity and abdominal adiposity in children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study2010In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 256-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the associations between physical activity (PA) and abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference, in children and adolescents, and to test whether cardiovascular fitness (CVF) modifies these associations.

    Methods: PA components were measured by accelerometry in 1075 individuals aged 9 or 15 years old. CVF was measured by a maximal cycling test. Self-reported maternal educational level, body mass index, children's birth weight and television viewing were used as confounders.

    Results: Linear regression did not show any association between the PA variables and waist circumference, after controlling for sex, age and height. When stratifying by CVF level (low/high), time spent at vigorous PA was inversely associated with waist circumference (p≤0.05) in the low CVF group. Unexpectedly, in the high CVF group, the PA variables were positively associated with waist circumference (p≤0.05). In both groups, the results were unchanged after controlling for the confounders. CVF was inversely associated with waist circumference, after controlling for all PA variables (p≤0.01) and confounders (p≤0.01).

    Conclusion: CVF is inversely associated with abdominal adiposity and seems to modify the associations between PA and abdominal adiposity. In low-fit children and adolescents, time spent in vigorous PA seems to be the key component linked to abdominal adiposity. This finding should be considered in further development of lifestyle intervention strategies. The results found in the high-fit group need to be confirmed.

  • 41.
    Paramel, Geena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fransén, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital and Umeå University Hospital.
    Sirsjö, Allan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Q705K variant in NLRP3 gene confers protection against myocardial infarction in female individuals2013In: Biomedical Reports, ISSN 2049-9434, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 879-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is a multifaceted process that underlies the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Variations in the inflammasome‑related NLRP3 gene have been associated with risk for a number of different inflammatory diseases. Therefore, Q705K polymorphism in NLRP3 gene likely confers susceptibility to risk for MI. A First‑ever myocardial Infarction study in Ac‑county (FIA) cohort comprising 555 MI patients and 1,016 controls was used to genotype rs35829419 in the NLRP3 gene by TaqMan single‑nucleotide polymorphism assay. C‑reactive protein (CRP) was measured in the study participants by ELISA. The results showed no significant association between the variant rs35829419 and MI. However, the minor A allele of the rs35829419 polymorphism conferred a protective effect against the risk of developing MI in females. The minor A allele of rs35829419 polymorphism was also associated with increased CRP levels in males. Results of the study suggested a gender‑specific deregulation of NLRP3 gene mediated by rs35829419 polymorphism that confers protection against MI in females but has no effect on MI susceptibility in males. However, the rs35829419 polymorphism was associated with increased CRP levels among the male subjects, thereby demonstrating the possible effect of the Q705K polymorphism in elevating the basal active state of innate immune response.

  • 42.
    Pettersson-Pablo, Paul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Nilsson, T. K.
    Umeå University, Umeå- Sweden., Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
    Breimer, L.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Cluster Analysis And Risk Score Calculation Of Surrogate Markers Of Vascular Health, And Their Association With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors In A Healthy Young Adults2019In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 287, p. E191-E191Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Pettersson-Pablo, Paul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Faculty of Medicine and Health, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Breimer, Lars H.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Body fat percentage is more strongly associated with biomarkers of low-grade inflammation than traditional cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy young adults - the Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 182-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim was to appraise the relationship between body fat percentage and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and orosomucoid in a population of young, non-smoking, healthy, Swedish adults, without any chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to compare whether these associations differed between the women using estrogen contraceptives and those who did not. We assessed the association in linear regression models between body fat percentage based on a bio-impedance measurement and plasma concentrations of CRP and orosomucoid in men and women aged 18-26 years, n = 834. Statistically significant associations were found between body fat percentage and both biomarkers of inflammation, with β coefficients of 0.30 (95% CI 0.24-0.37) and 0.28 (0.22-0.35) for CRP and orosomucoid, respectively (p < .001). Adjustment for established risk factors marginally lowered the effects sizes (partial betas, 0.28 and 0.20, respectively), while the strong statistically significant associations remained. In the female cohort, estrogen and non-estrogen using subpopulations did not significantly differ in the correlations between body fat percentage and the inflammatory biomarkers, even adjusted for established cardiometabolic risk factors. In conclusion, in healthy young adults, higher levels of body fat percentage are associated with elevations in plasma biomarkers of inflammation, suggesting that a systemic inflammatory process, promoting atherosclerosis, may commence already at this early stage in life. CRP and orosomucoid plasma concentrations differed between users and non-users of estrogen contraceptives, but both subgroups showed similar correlations between increasing body fat percentage and increasing plasma concentrations of the biomarkers of inflammation.

  • 44.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kroppens sammansättning av betydelse för prestationen: kroppspletysmografi med BodPod ny mätstandard?2001In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många idrottare låter bestämma kroppssammansättningen, dvs. proportionen fett-muskel, och använder framtaget resultat som styrinstrument i uppläggningen av träning och kosthåll. Ett flertal metoder finns, alla med sina för- och nackdelar. Nu har en elegant metod kommit som på ett enkelt och förhoppningsvis tillförlitligt sätt mäter fett och fettfri massa i kroppen. Vi har tittat lite närmare på utrustningen (BodPod), och redovisar här erfarenheterna.

  • 45.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The European Youth Heart Survey (EYHS): an international study that addresses the multidimensional issues of CVD risk factors2003In: Modern aspects of nutrition: present knowledge and future perspectives / [ed] Ibrahim Elmadfa, Elke Anklam, Jürgen König, Basel: Karger , 2003, Vol. 56, p. 254-256Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46. Poortvliet, Eric
    et al.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    The European Youth Heart Survey (EYHS): an international study that addresses the multi-dimensional issues of CVD risk factors2003In: Forum of nutrition, ISSN 1660-0347, Vol. 56, p. 254-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Rizzo, Nico S.
    et al.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Relationship of physical activity, fitness, and fatness with clustered metabolic risk in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study2007In: Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 150, no 4, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To examine the associations of physical activity (PA) at different levels and intensities and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with a clustering of metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents with special consideration of body fat. Study design Total PA and intensity levels were measured by accelerometry in children (9 years, n = 273) and adolescents (15 years, n = 256). CRF was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test. Measured outcomes included fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and body fat. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was computed as the mean of the standardized outcome scores. A “non-obesity-MRS” was computed omitting body fat from the MRS. Analysis of variance and multiple regressions were used in the analysis. Results Total and vigorous PA was inversely significantly associated with MRS in adolescent girls, the group with lowest PA, becoming insignificant when CRF was introduced in the analysis. Significant regression coefficients of total PA and CRF on non-obesity–MRS diminished when body fat was entered in the analysis. Conclusions CRF is more strongly correlated to metabolic risk than total PA, whereas body fat appears to have a pivotal role in the association of CRF with metabolic risk.

  • 48. Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    et al.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Patterson, Emma
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Castillo, Manuel J.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Homocysteine levels in children and adolescents are associated with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T genotype, but not with physical activity, fitness or fatness: the European Youth Heart Study2007In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the associations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) with physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness in children and adolescents, a cross-sectional study of 301 children (9–10 years old) and 379 adolescents (15–16 years old) was conducted. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test. Body fat was derived from the sum of five skinfold thicknesses. Genotyping for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism was done by DNA sequencing. Fasting tHcy level was the outcome variable. Multiple regressions were used to determine the degree to which variance in tHcy was explained by physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat, after controlling for potential confounders including MTHFR 677C>T genotype. tHcy levels were neither associated with any measure of level and pattern of physical activity nor with data on cardiorespiratory fitness, or body fat, in any age group after controlling for potential confounders including MTHFR 677C>T and even when subgroups 677TT and 677CC+CT were analysed separately. Mean values of tHcy were significantly higher in the TT subgroup compared with CC and CT subgroups in children (TT 7·4 μmol/l, CC 6·3 μmol/l, CT 6·6 μmol/l, P < 0·001 and P = 0·019, respectively) and adolescents (TT 16·9 μmol/l, CC 8·3 μmol/l, CT 9·0 μmol/l, both P < 0·001). The results suggest that physical activity, fitness and body fat are not associated with tHcy levels in children and adolescents, even after controlling for presence of the MTHFR 677C>T genotype, the main influence on tHcy levels in these subjects.

  • 49. Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    et al.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Rizzo, Nico S.
    Villa, Inga
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Oja, Leila
    Sjöström, Michael
    High cardiovascular fitness is associated with low metabolic risk score in children: the European Youth Heart Study2007In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 350-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) with a clustering of metabolic risk factors in children, and to examine whether there is a CVF level associated with a low metabolic risk. CVF was estimated by a maximal ergometer bike test on 873 randomly selected children from Sweden and Estonia. Additional measured outcomes included fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDLC, blood pressure, and the sum of five skinfolds. A metabolic risk score was computed as the mean of the standardized outcomes scores. A risk score <75th percentile was considered to indicate a low metabolic risk. CVF was negatively associated with clustering of metabolic risk factors in children. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a significant discriminatory accuracy of CVF in identifying the low/high metabolic risk in girls and boys (p < 0.001). The CVF level for a low metabolic risk was 37.0 and 42.1 mL/kg/min in girls and boys, respectively. These levels are similar to the health-related threshold values of CVF suggested by worldwide recognized organizations. In conclusion, the results suggest a hypothetical CVF level for having a low metabolic risk, which should be further tested in longitudinal and/or intervention studies. Abbreviations: AUC, area under the curve CVF, cardiovascular fitness ROC, receiver operating characteristic

  • 50. Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    et al.
    Rizzo, Nico S.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Wärnberg, Julia
    Sjöström, Michael
    Relations of total physical activity and intensity to fitness and fatness in children: the European Youth Heart Study2006In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 299-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is unclear how the amount and intensity of physical activity (PA) are associated with cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and body fatness in children.

    Objective: We aimed to examine the associations of total PA and intensity levels to CVF and fatness in children.

    Design: A cross-sectional study of 780 children aged 9–10 y from Sweden and Estonia was conducted. PA was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as min/d of total PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA. CVF was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test and was expressed as W/kg. Body fat was derived from the sum of 5 skinfold-thickness measurements. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the degree to which variance in CVF and body fat was explained by PA, after control for age, sex, and study location.

    Results: Lower body fat was significantly associated with higher levels of vigorous PA, but not with moderate or total PA. Those children who engaged in >40 min vigorous PA/d had lower body fat than did those who engaged in 10–18 min vigorous PA/d. Total PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA were positively associated with CVF. Those children who engaged in >40 min vigorous PA/d had higher CVF than did those who accumulated <18 min vigorous PA/d.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that PA of vigorous intensity may have a greater effect on preventing obesity in children than does PA of lower intensity, whereas both total and at least moderate to vigorous PA may improve children's CVF.

12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf