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  • 1.
    Jennessen, Jennifer
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Johan
    Centre for Human Studies of Foodstuffs – KPL, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Samson, Robert A.
    Department of Applied and Industrial Mycology, CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Dijksterhuis, Jan
    Department of Applied and Industrial Mycology, CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Morphological characteristics of sporangiospores of the tempe fungus Rhizopus oligosporus differentiate it from other taxa of the R-microsporus group2008In: Mycological Research, ISSN 0953-7562, E-ISSN 1469-8102, Vol. 112, p. 547-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Rhizopus oligosporus (R. microsporus var. oligosporus) is traditionally used to make tempe, a fermented food based on soybeans. Interest in the fungus has steadily increased, as it can also ferment other substrates, produce enzymes, and treat waste material. R. oligosporus belongs to the R. microsporus group consisting of morphologically similar taxa, which are associated with food fermentation, pathogenesis, or unwanted metabolite production (rhizonins and rhizoxins). The ornamentation pattern, shape, and size of sporangiospores of 26 R. microsporus group strains and two R. oryzae strains were studied using low-temperature SEM (LT-SEM) and LM. This study has shown that: (1) LT-SEM generates images from well-conserved sporangiophores, sporangia, and spores. (2) Robust spore ornamentation patterns can be linked to all different taxa of the R. microsporus group, some previously incorrectly characterized as smooth. Ornamentation included valleys and ridges running in parallel, granular plateaus, or smooth polar areas. Distribution of ornamentation patterns was related to spore shape, which either was regular, ranging from globose to ellipsoidal, or irregular. Specific differences in spore shape, size, and ornamentation were observed between Rhizopus taxa, and sometimes between strains. (3) R. oligosporus has a defect in the spore formation process, which may be related to the domesticated nature of this taxon. It had a high proportion, 10-31 %, of large and irregular spores, and was significantly differentiated from other, natural Rhizopus taxa as evaluated with partial least squares discriminant analysis. it is remarkable that the vehicle of distribution, the sporangiospore, is affected in the strains that are distributed by human activity. This provides information about the specificity and speed of changes that occur in fungal strains because of their use in (food) industry.

  • 2.
    Pettersson, Olga Vinnere
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leong, Su-lin L.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lantz, Henrik
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rice, Therese
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dijksterhuis, Jan
    CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Houbraken, Jos
    CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Samson, Robert A.
    CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Phylogeny and intraspecific variation of the extreme xerophile, Xeromyces bisporus2011In: Fungal Biology, ISSN 1878-6146, E-ISSN 1878-6162, Vol. 115, no 11, p. 1100-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The filamentous ascomycete Xeromyces bisporus is an extreme xerophile able to grow down to a water activity of 0.62. We have inferred the phylogenetic position of Xeromyces in relation to other xerophilic and xerotolerant fungi in the order Eurotiales. Using nrDNA and betatubulin sequences, we show that it is more closely related to the xerophilic food-borne species of the genus Chrysosporium, than to the genus Monascus. The taxonomy of X. bisporus and Monascus is discussed. Based on physiological, morphological, and phylogenetic distinctiveness, we suggest that Xeromyces should be retained as a separate genus.

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