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  • 1.
    Aramo-Immonen, Heli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Geissinger, Andrea
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Nykvist, Rasmus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shahin Moghadam, Sarah
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Jussila, Jari J.
    Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mustafee, Navonil
    University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Shams, Tawfiq
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Clustering the imp thought: searching roots and diversities in imp research2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMP research is often treated as an empirical perspective describing complexities of repeated business-to-business exchanges and their embeddedness. While building on some common understandings and concepts, this paper asks: How homogeneous is the IMP research? This paper uses cluster analysis to capture the roots and various sub-groups of IMP research as means to depict the question of homogeneity (i.e. a core focus in the research) or heterogeneity (i.e. using references from other fields or specific to sub-fields) of the IMP thought. In this scientific work in progress paper we introduce how we design to use bibliographical methods in order to harvest data from an extensive amount of IMP-related articles written from the 1970’s onwards. In this first attempt to reveal IMP we used overall 294 articles yielded to 10,615 co-citation relationships. A threshold of minimum number of citations of a cited reference was set to five (5) to capture such references that have been cited in multiple publications. We introduce visual mapping of defined subject area clusters and as an example we describe shortly clusters. Perhaps not surprisingly our findings suggest that IMP research is not so homogenous, with at least four clear clusters of IMP-research each utilizing different key references.

    Download full text (pdf)
    CLUSTERING THE IMP THOUGHT: SEARCHING ROOTS AND DIVERSITITES IN IMP RESEARCH
  • 2.
    Aramo-Immonen, Heli
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Jussila, J.
    Häme University of Applied Sciences, Research Unit for Smart Services, Hämeenlinna, Finland.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Mustafee, N.
    Häme University of Applied Sciences, Research Unit for Smart Services, Hämeenlinna, Finland.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Harvard University, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Cambridge Street, MA, Cambridge, USA.
    Charting the reach and contribution of IMP literature in other disciplines: A bibliometric analysis2020In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 87, p. 47-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acknowledgement of a research tradition by other disciplines shows its contribution to the development of the broader body of scientific knowledge. This paper investigates the contribution of IMP (Industrial Marketing and Purchasing) research to broader research disciplines by analyzing how researchers within and beyond IMP have cited core IMP articles. First, through quantitative bibliometric analysis, the paper identifies the diffusion to other research disciplines. Thereafter, through qualitative analysis, the impact of the IMP perspective is captured to understand how strong these imprints are. The analyses show that IMP research has been noticed among a range of adjacent research disciplines. However, the use of IMP references has generally been rudimentary, and without a deeper understanding of the IMP ontology, meaning that IMP still has some “weak ties” to the other disciplines. Establishing IMP's contribution through enduring imprints would need further engagement with researchers from other research disciplines and publications in top journals. The paper contributes empirically with how the IMP perspective has spread beyond the IMP Group and theoretically by adding insight into how research ideas travel and transform to other disciplines. 

  • 3.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klézl, Vojtech
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Foresighting network dynamics: A Delphi-based Scenario Analysis2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the future of Sweden's electric utility network and its transition towards sustainability and resilience by combining traditional scenario analysis with foresighting, an anticipatory, non-predictive approach. The research focuses on potential disruptive innovations and changes within the industry, such as increased electrification, electromobility, and advances in grid infrastructure, using a Delphi study. This approach involves gathering expert opinions from various stakeholders, including industry, academia, and government experts, to anticipate multiple future scenarios and better prepare for potential challenges and opportunities. The interconnected nature of the electric utility network and the relationships between various actors play a critical role in shaping the industry's future. Foresighting allows stakeholders to anticipate and prepare for disruptive changes, such as the increasing role of prosumers, local microgrids, and novel value propositions. By employing the Delphi methodology, the study systematically gathers and synthesizes expert insights, offering a comprehensive understanding of the electric utility network's future development. The findings highlight the importance of improving end-customer relationships and enabling the use of prosumer products and services. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the need to address existing challenges within the Swedish power grid and increase transmission capacity to support the introduction of new technologies and a more efficient and sustainable energy system. By integrating the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) network perspective, the study demonstrates that foresighting is more effective in accounting for exceptional events and non-linear growth patterns in the electric utility market. The results also provide insights into the emergence of new business models and the role of emerging technologies, such as energy storage, in shaping the future of the electric utility network.

  • 4.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Collaborative industrial platforms and the role of institutions: An innovation ecosystem perspective2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Innovation in ecosystems: The case of electric utility firms2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, innovation has been regarded as something that firms could and should manage mainly inhouse with innovation processes that was less inter-organizational, and less complex and easier to handle within one firm without market interactions. However, more recently, it is evident that innovation is becoming increasingly influenced by multi-actors acting together in complex innovation-related ecosystems. Some types of ecosystems can provide an industry platform which defines standards, rules and overall function of the system, which allows for integration between the industry platform and different businesses.

    The present case study is situated in the electric utility industry, which is seen as our industry platform/ecosystem. There are early signs of disruption based on new technologies that allow a move from centralized (e.g., nuclear) electric production to distributed (e.g., solar) electric production. We investigate a business network of four electric utility firms that collaborate with an aim of innovating the focal offering in terms of customer value proposition. Our research aim evolves around how different actors interact with respect to the focal offering and how these relationships within the business ecosystem might contribute to value creation.

    Our preliminary findings indicate that (1) actors have different roles in the business ecosystem. The business ecosystem has a strategy in that some firms are innovators while other firms are imitators. Innovation in business networks requires a new set of interactive competences and skills among the involved actors. (2) Innovation within the business ecosystem is focused on innovating customer offering. (3) The industry platform in this setting is clearly and narrowly defined which allows for easy integration but restricts the possibilities for innovation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Innovation in ecosystems: The case of electric utility firms
  • 6.
    Donaldson, Colin
    et al.
    EDEM Business School, Valencia, Spain.
    Neck, Heidi
    Babson College, Boston, USA.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. CREDS, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Hamar, Norway.
    Fearful pathways to social entrepreneurship intention: A fuzzy-set qualitative content analysis2024In: The International Journal of Management Education, ISSN 1472-8117, E-ISSN 2352-3565, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 100925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context of social entrepreneurship, the constantly evolving challenges that it seeks to resolve, and the accompanying high levels of uncertainty creates a useful opportunity context for us to study the dynamics of fear of failure. Fear of failure has been championed as an ideal construct for developing understanding of entrepreneurial motivation as it impacts on one's level of entre-preneurial intention. Most research has taken fear of failure to be absolute, you either fear failing in entrepreneurship as a whole or you do not. Furthermore, research has largely focused on fear of failure's debilitative effects which can limit our understanding of a rich and complex construct. In this paper we embrace fear of failure's complexity via drawing on contemporary work on both it's situated nature and how it interacts with the entrepreneur-opportunity nexus. We use Fuzzy-set Comparative Qualitative Analysis (fsQCA) on a sample of 173 entrepreneurship undergraduate students in Spain. Our findings uncover the equifinal pathways that can lead to a social entre-preneurship intention.

  • 7.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Johanzon, Conny
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Gunnarsson, Claes
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The cleantech mystery: new theoretical model for understanding export capabilities in small and mediumsized innovative cleantech companies2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observers argue that Swedish cleantech companies are excellent at technology, but lackin making business and creating export. We call this the cleantech mystery. Twoimportant questions are what creates export capabilities, and what are the barrierscleantech companies face when exporting viewed from different perspectives? Wesuggest a holistic model for understanding the export conditions of innovative cleantechcompanies at micro and macro levels. The model relies on foundations from fourdifferent theoretical views, and two case studies. The first case is United Stirling(related to Kockums and FFV in Linköping) and its spin-offs. We focus on the dream tocreate sun-powered engines that in turn generate electricity. The second case is theAerosoltrapTM illustrating a creative inventor and his struggle with commercialization.The result is a tentative model, as well as some critical notions regarding the cleantechmystery.Keywords: Cleantech, Innovation, Export, Capabilities, Market orientation,Stirling engines, Aerosoltrap.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Cleantech mystery
  • 8.
    Gerdin, Jonas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Contingency fit(s) in entrepreneurship research: uses and usabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Höglund, Linda
    School of Business, Society and Engineering (EST), Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Quadruple helix as a network of relationships: creating value within a Swedish regional innovation system2020In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 523-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A regional smart specialization initiative is investigated from a quadruple helix framework (industry, government, academia, and users/civil society). Based on a qualitative case study, we examine the interdependencies of actors, resources, and activities from a micro perspective. The aim is to understand the relationships and the value created between the different actors. From the results we conclude that the fourth helix should be viewed as a whole – an arena where triple helix actors in different value adding relationships take on different roles – where they create value to civil society, for example, new jobs or products for improved elderly care. In line with this, we state that the fourth helix is far more complex than limiting it to simply become a fourth separate helix of users or civil society. There is a complexity in that the fourth helix consists of both different users (including triple helix actors) as well as civil society. Users in the quadruple helix framework can also be defined in several ways depending on the context of the arena (the fourth helix) and what value adding activities they bring to civil society. Thus, users can be businesses, organizations, citizens, society, and many more things.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Quadruple helix as a network of relationships: creating value within a Swedish regional innovation system
  • 10.
    Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Conceptualizing tangible resources in interaction: sites and interfaces2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Start-ups value co-creation in inter-firm relationships2016In: 19th Nordic Conference on Small Business  Research (NCSB 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entrepreneurship literature a central question is how startups pursue opportunities to create value. One major drawback of startups is that they are known to have liability of newness and smallness. One way startups can overcome these liabilities are by forming relationships and building a network with other firms where exchange of knowledge and resources with other firms can be facilitated. Nonetheless, relationships are no simple task for startups to create. Relationships between firms can include a great deal of ambiguity and it is not always known what type of value that will come out of the relationship. This present study sets out to research how startups pursue opportunities through networks and more specifically relationships with other firms to co-create value or co-destruct value.  Based on the explorative nature of this study, a qualitative case-based research design was developed. In the study, we conduct interviews with representatives of the startups so as to capture what relationship the firm has formed, how these relationships have evolved, and the roles of the relationships for the startup. Findings indicate that startups relationships are dynamic and include both episodes of value co-creation and co-destruction. Moreover, these episodes result in three different types of changes of the start-up and their relationships. 

  • 12.
    Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The value of failed relationships for the development of a Medtech start-up2018In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 97-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major drawback of start-ups is that they are known to have liability of newness and smallness. One way start-ups can overcome these liabilities is by forming relationships and building a network with other firms, where exchange of knowledge and resources can be facilitated. These relationships between firms can include a great deal of ambiguity, and it is not always known what type of value will come out of the relationship. This present study sets out to explore how start-ups pursue opportunities through networks, and more specifically through relationships with other firms, to co-create or co-destruct value. Based on the explorative nature of this study, a qualitative case-based research design has been developed. Contributions from the study are (1) that start-ups can gain value even from failed relationships; (2) the insight of the dynamic nature of the relationships and interaction episodes for start-ups; and (3) highlighting that interaction episodes can result in three different types of changes.

  • 13.
    Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    University-industry collaboration: constructing a business model lab for student venture creation2021In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1241-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the development of student venture creation in a co-curricular business model lab initiative with collaboration between students, researchers, technology transfer offices (TTO) and industry. It presents a fresh approach to the study of student venture creation by discussing a unique co-curricular case, its embeddedness in a network and drawing on the concept of tension.

    Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative, case-based research design is applied containing data from interviews, observations and active participation.

    Findings: The findings point to the inherent difficulties in managing and organizing student venture creation and networks surrounding the student venture creation in a co-curricular setting that can lead to several different types of tensions. Episodes where task-, role-, process-, affective- and value-related tensions arise are identified. Furthermore, the findings highlight that affective-related tension is often an outcome of other types of tensions.

    Research limitations/implications: Our theoretical implications point to the importance of the context of student venture creation, but not only regarding curricular and co-curricular initiatives; depending on the context, such as if student surrogate entrepreneurship is used, different types of support structure might also be needed to enable student venture creation.

    Originality/value: Research on the entrepreneurial university has mainly focused on entrepreneurship education and ventures created by researchers. This study responds to recent calls for research on the venture creation of students. The limited research conducted on student venture creation can be divided between curricular and co-curricular initiatives. Our research points out that many other contextual factors are of importance, such as the origin of ideas, student surrogate entrepreneurship, industry collaboration, team formation and expectations.

  • 14.
    Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A model of Depth of Resource Interfaces in Networks2016In: 32nd IMP Conference, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a conceptualization of resource interfaces and its two dimensions of connectedness and depth and contributes with enhanced knowledge and understanding of resource interfaces in networks. The purpose is to increase the knowledge of the links between the connectedness and depth dimensions of resource interfaces. To this end we investigate a core physical logistics resource in terms of a railway network that is organized by one actor but utilized by many to create some logistics services. Given the existence of this core physical logistics resource, we investigate how various resources interact in this network as many actors collaborate to produce logistics services. This paper contributes with a model of depth of resource interfaces in networks based on empirical characterisations of resource interfaces in a logistics network. Drawing on a detailed case study we illustrate the character of resource interfaces in an analysis of interacting resource types. We show how the development of resource interfaces in a logistics network context can be understood in terms of models emphasizing the connectedness and depth of resource interfaces.

  • 15.
    Hasche, Nina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Trust in open innovation: the case of a med-tech start-up2017In: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 31-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The literature has shown great interest in open innovation, and also discussed its degree of openness based on, for example, the number of parties involved. Less is known, however, about what makes open innovation processes work. This paper describes and discusses the importance of trust in open innovation, and specifically focuses on a start-up company’s open innovation processes with collaboration parties. The paper points out how a lack of trust antecedents may disable such open innovation processes.

    Design/methodology/approach: The empirical part of the paper consists of a case study on a medical-technology start-up. Interviews and analyses of secondary sources made up the main data capturing methods. Each collaboration between the start-up and another party was analysed through three trust antecedents: contractual, competence-based, and goodwill.

    Findings: The paper shows how either party may have chosen to discontinue the collaboration based on the lack of competence or goodwill antecedents to trust. Specifically, the case indicates how the start-up discontinued the collaborations based on a perceived lack of goodwill, while the collaboration parties based their decisions on competence deficits by the start-up.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to previous research through describing open innovation related to start-ups, and introducing trust antecedents as prerequisites for open innovation. To the literature on trust, trust mutuality makes a research contribution.

  • 16.
    Höglund, Linda
    et al.
    School of Business, Society and Engineering (EST), Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Interorg Marketing Research Center.
    Smart specialization in regional innovation systems: a quadruple helix perspective2018In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores Robotdalen, a smart specialization initiative in the region of Malardalen, Sweden, and its impact on regional innovation systems (RIS). The Robotdaleninitiative, with the goal to create a regional center for robotics, was established based onthe triple helix innovation systems model of industry, university, and government interaction.This paper aims to understand the dynamic interactions of the smart specializationstrategy in relation to the RIS. It also includes the perspective of the fourth helix, whichcontains civil society and users. To date, there has been a scarcity of research whichexplores the challenges of quadruple helix models from a micro perspective to understandtheir complexity. To address this, a single case study approach is taken, which includes alongitudinal perspective of 10 years (2007–2016). The analysis includes micro activitiesexplored from a strategizing perspective. The research contributes by identifying threestrategic practices that have evolved over time for Robotdalen. It also presents an empiricaloperationalization of the fourth helix, as well discusses the arrival of the fourth helixperspective.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Smart specialization in regional innovation systems: a quadruple helix perspective
  • 17.
    Kask, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Business mating in stable and turbulent markets: does the configuration fit?2011In: 2011 Global Business Conference: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Goran Vlašić, Jurica Pavičić, Zoran Wittine, Zagreb: Innovation Institute , 2011, p. 237-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We theorize that invention-centric novel firms (ICNF) have the greatest chance to mate with an incumbent business partner when their invention fit with leadership style and the state of the market situation. Two different configurations are proposed both leading to high chance for ICNFs to succeed in business mating: When there is no current dominant design in the market, ICNFs will be more thriving in business mating if they have entrepreneurial leadership and a radical invention. Conversely, where there is a current dominant design present ICNFs are most prosperous in business mating if leadership is conservative and the invention incremental. These two equifinal ways to business mating express the value of holistically investigating configurations including both firm-specific and market-specific conditions rather than study one condition at a time. This claim advances us past the market versus firm debate and elaborates a theory whence greater understanding of business mating is possible.

  • 18.
    Kask, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Business mating: when start-ups get it right2013In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 511-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of forming business relationships is critical for the prosperity of startups; still, few studies have examined how conditions inside and around the start-uptogether lead to business mating – occurrence of a new business relationship. Toclarify the importance of proper fit among management style and invention featuresfor high mating chances, this paper tackles this need by taking a configurationalapproach. We use qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to analyze case studies from16 invention-based start-ups seeking marketing partners. Findings indicate differentsolutions leading to high chances of forming business relationships. This studycontributes with a typology to the business relationship and start-up literature, as wellas discusses future directions to the emerging sub-domain of business mating research.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Fulltext
  • 19.
    Kask, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Editorial: Five principles for overcoming obstacles in deep-tech startup journeys2023In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Contingency Theory in Entrepreneurship researchManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ... With markets and environments becoming more and more complex and ever-changing, one fundamental challenge for both scholars and practitioners in the entrepreneurship field is a more informative understanding of entrepreneurial activity. Because of entrepreneurship’s relevance to economic output, social value, and job creation, more knowledge about entrepreneurship can speed up the development of entrepreneurial activity for individuals, firms, and societies...

    Download full text (pdf)
    Contingency Theory in Entrepreneurship research
  • 21.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Entrepreneurial Orientation: A reconceptualization and empirical investigationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Entrepreneurial orientation from a process and outcome view: Investigating innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness in a startup contextManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Entrepreneurial orientation: reflections from a contingency perspective2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has been argued to be a key driver of the economy by creating jobs, turning inventions to innovations, and also improving the overall standard of life. A firm’s entrepreneurial orientation (EO) indicates the degree to which a firm is entrepreneurial. However, there are several different approaches to conceptualizing the EO concept and its sub-dimensions, frequently described as innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness. The role of the sub-dimensions is not quite clear in the EO literature. Furthermore, many studies claim that firms can increase their performance simply by increasing their EO, while this thesis draws upon contingency theory to argue that EO needs to be aligned with—‘fit’ the internal and external context, if the firm is to perform well. Thus, this thesis aims to advance the conceptualization of EO by problematizing the core construct and also discussing how EO can fit with context. The thesis consists of four papers in which the EO concept is elaborated on and contingency theory is applied to construct conceptual models of the interaction between EO and different contexts, which are also empirically investigated. Furthermore, the sub-dimensions of EO are discussed in terms of their meanings and measurement to point out their individual impact on the EO.

    The overall findings indicate that EO is not as simple a concept as often portrayed in the EO literature. Rather, EO is more complex in the ways that it can fit with internal and external context and, on these bases, it is suggested that ideal types of EO and context is a way forward for research in the area. Additionally, it is argued that EO as a theoretical construct may not only be conceptualized as an overall entrepreneurial attribute (which is common in the extant literature), but also as a complex and granular attribute.

    List of papers
    1. Contingency fit(s) in entrepreneurship research: uses and usability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contingency fit(s) in entrepreneurship research: uses and usability
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47902 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-02-27 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Entrepreneurial orientation from a process and outcome view: Investigating innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness in a startup context
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial orientation from a process and outcome view: Investigating innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness in a startup context
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47903 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-02-27 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Configurations of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive strategy for high performance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configurations of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive strategy for high performance
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47904 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-02-27 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Business mating: when start-ups get it right
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business mating: when start-ups get it right
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 511-536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of forming business relationships is critical for the prosperity of startups; still, few studies have examined how conditions inside and around the start-uptogether lead to business mating – occurrence of a new business relationship. Toclarify the importance of proper fit among management style and invention featuresfor high mating chances, this paper tackles this need by taking a configurationalapproach. We use qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to analyze case studies from16 invention-based start-ups seeking marketing partners. Findings indicate differentsolutions leading to high chances of forming business relationships. This studycontributes with a typology to the business relationship and start-up literature, as wellas discusses future directions to the emerging sub-domain of business mating research.

    Keywords
    business mating; business relationships; start-ups; configurations; QCA; invention; entrepreneurship; markets; entrepreneurial orientation; relationship formation
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34344 (URN)10.1080/08276331.2013.876765 (DOI)2-s2.0-85006038837 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-03-17 Created: 2014-03-17 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
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    Cover
  • 24.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness in startups: a case study and conceptual development2019In: Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 2228-7566, Vol. 9, p. 1-21, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) research has investigated EO from a unidimensional perspective. By taking the more novel approach of the multidimensional view and focusing on the sub-dimensions, a fine-grained view is achieved. Previous research has often mixed process and outcomes in the conceptualizations of the sub-dimensions of EO. This study argues for making a distinction between process and outcome, which can realize a more nuanced understanding of EO. A qualitative approach is used to achieve a richer understanding of EO. The findings highlight that EO and its sub-dimensions of innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness can be meaningfully divided between the attributes of process and outcome. The sub-dimensions and the attributes of process and outcome are also argued to vary independently of each other.

  • 25.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation and Opportunity Identification to performanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Future, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation: A note on the importance of the getting entrepreneurship and innovation right for a sustainable futureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    The Future, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation: A note on the importance of the getting entrepr eneurship and innovation right for a sustainable future
  • 27.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The process and outcome of innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness2015In: Entrepreneurial society: a platform for New Solutions to old Problems, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Linton, Gabriel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Configurations of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive strategy for high performance2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 70, p. 168-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) – that is risk-taking, proactiveness and innovativeness – and Porter's generic competitive strategies have become core constructs within entrepreneurship and management research; still, little is known about how they act in combination to influence performance. A configurational view of contingency fit is used to craft a typology of three ideal types. A qualitative comparative analysis of 67 small firms in Sweden empirically supports the hypothesis that two ideal types are associated with high firm performance: one focuses on differentiation strategy combined with innovativeness and proactiveness; and one focuses on a mixed strategy with risk aversion, reactiveness, and low innovativeness. The paper contributes to the current literature by showing how EO sub-dimensions in a non-linear way facilitate firm performance when in fit with competitive strategies, and supports the research stream that sees EO as a formative construct.

  • 29.
    Linton, Gabriel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Configurations of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive strategy for high performanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Linton, Gabriel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klaassen, Marcel
    Unda Maris B.V., Zwaag, Netherlands.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Creation of Entrepreneurial Opportunities: The Case of Lake Resort Bergslagen2016In: Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Regional Development: Proceedings / [ed] Daniel Laven, Wilhelm Skoglund, Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 75-77Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Linton, Gabriel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klinton, Markus
    Örebro University.
    University entrepreneurship education: A design thinking approach to learning2019In: Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, E-ISSN 2192-5372, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Entrepreneurship has traditionally been taught from a business administration perspective, where predicting the future is central and where the world is seen as linear with known inputs and outputs. The world of entrepreneurs is a quite different, usually highly uncertain environment, and therefore requires a different type of skill set. In this paper, we conceptualize entrepreneurial learning through a method- and design-based approach and illustrate how a course can be developed and designed.

    Findings: In this paper it is argued that by utilizing design thinking and a methods approach, learning from a “through” approach can be achieved. This learning is more focused on the entrepreneurial process, highlighting the role of skills and mindset. This learning approach enables student-centered learning and focus on skills more applicable to entrepreneurs. It is also argued that the entrepreneurship process is not linear; therefore, creativity is central and finding structure is an unstructured process. Design thinking emphasizes a practical approach where students step outside the classroom. This experimentation and interaction in the real world of users and customers with real feedback is important in combination with reflection exercises.

    Conclusions: This paper highlights how a methods approach and entrepreneurship education with a “through” perspective can be achieved by utilizing design thinking. This is elaborated conceptually and illustrated with an example. We argue that a methods approach for teaching entrepreneurship is beneficial, where design thinking can be one valuable tool and approach for teaching entrepreneurship.

    Download full text (pdf)
    University entrepreneurship education: a design thinking approach to learning
  • 32.
    Linton, Gabriel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A Conceptual Development of a Business Model Typology in Tourism: the impact of digitalization and location2020In: Technology Innovation Management Review, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 16-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to conceptually develop a business model typology in tourism. It focuses on digitalization and destination location as important contextual factors when developing the typology. The paper builds on prior research on business models and tourism research by adopting configuration theory to create a typology of business models in tourism businesses. Four business model archetypes are identified: (1) bricks and mortar business models, (2) digitalized destinations, (3) create a destination, and (4) intermediary business models. The typology contributes to the literature by identifying different types of business models in the tourism sector. The typology also helps to ground the business model concept theoretically, something that has been considered as missing in previous business model research.

    Download full text (pdf)
    A Conceptual Development of a Business Model Typology in Tourism: the impact of digitalization and location
  • 33.
    Prenkert, Frans
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Towards a systematic analytical framework of resource interfaces2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 100, p. 139-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we posit that current Industrial Marketing and Purchasing literature on resource interaction and resource interfaces is hampered by fragmentation and conceptual imprecision, hindering scholars to build systematically on each other's works. To rectify this, a systematic analytical framework acknowledging the empirical variation of resource interfaces along a coherent conceptualization of resources and resource interfaces is suggested to enable further scholarly development. A case study focusing on a central product and the network surrounding the product is used to illustrate the analytical framework. We employ the analytical framework to show how interaction through resource interfaces of a European rail logistics network play out. Our findings suggest that the analytical framework has the capacity to fruitfully distinguish between the multitude of empirical manifestations and the need for a coherent conceptual framework. It also enables explanations of what may seem paradoxical by exploring the deeper cores of the phenomena.

  • 34.
    Prenkert, Frans
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Interaction sites and resource interfaces: A conceptualization of resource interaction2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Ragén, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sensemaking, sensegiving and sensedrifting in the university‐innovation ecosystem2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Ragén, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shooting next to the target? Balancing stakeholder goals in university knowledge-technology transfer2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ragén, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Leite, Emilene
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Öberg, Christina
    University of Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Ecosystem for Academic Innovations and Commercial Activities – Tensions, Conflicts and Contradictions2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant investments in promoting entrepreneurship, there has been a decline in the number of successful innovative firms in Europe and North America. Universities are crucial for transforming research into commercially viable innovations, and various support ecosystems have emerged to facilitate this process. This study investigates the early-stage activities at Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) and incubators within university innovation support ecosystems, exploring the potential misalignments and inconsistencies that may hinder the overarching goal of commercializing academic knowledge. Employing a qualitative case study method, we conducted an in-depth examination of the Swedish academic entrepreneurial ecosystem. Our findings indicate the presence of tensions, conflicts, and contradictions among different stakeholders, each with their unique interests, values, and perspectives. This study contributes to the understanding of these complex relationships and emphasizes the importance of aligning goals and fostering collaboration within the academic ecosystem to effectively commercialize university research.

1 - 37 of 37
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