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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    A conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    A description of a Swedish midwifery work environment in an assistance project in West africa]1992In: Jordemodern, ISSN 0021-7468, Vol. 105, no 1-2, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Applying Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology to women's miscarriage experience2010In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 3, p. 75-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about measuring the feelings and impressions of women regarding their experience of miscarriage. According to the existential philosopher Heidegger life experiences such as the experience of a woman having a miscarriage can be interpreted and explained only in the context of the totality of the women's experiences in the past, the present, and the future. Thirteen in-depth interviews with women about their experiences of miscarriage were interpreted with respect to Heidegger's "Being and Time". By using his interpretive phenomenology the essence of the miscarriage experience was explored and defined. The women's feelings and impressions were influenced by past experiences of miscarriage, pregnancy, and births. Present conditions in the women's lives contributing to the experience include their relationships, working situation, and living conditions. Each woman's future prospects and hopes have been structurally altered with regard to their aspirations for their terminated pregnancy. The impact of miscarriage in a woman's life was found to be more important than caregiver providers and society have previously attributed to in terms of scale. The results of the interviews reveal that the women believed that only women who had experienced their own miscarriages were able to fully understand this complex womanly experience and its effects on the woman who had miscarried.

  • 4. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Barnmorskans avancerade kliniska omvårdnad vid gynekologisk öppenvårdsmottagning2011In: Avancerad klinisk sjuksköterska: avancerad klinisk omvårdnad i teori och praxis / [ed] Lisbeth Fagerström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2011, 1, p. 355-376Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Blödning under tidig graviditet2009In: Lärobok för barnmorskor, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 3, p. 118-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Confronting the inevitable: a conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research2010In: , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Meta-analysis to obtain a scale of psychological reaction after perinatal loss: focus on miscarriage2011In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 4, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy has different meanings to different women depending upon their circumstances. A number of qualitative studies have described the experience of miscarriage by women who had desired to carry their pregnancy to full term. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify a scale of psychological reaction to miscarriage. Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach for reviewing articles from scientific journals through statistical analysis of findings from individual studies. In this review, a meta-analytic method was used to identify and analyze psychological reactions in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Different reactions to stress associated with the period following miscarriage were identified. The depression reaction had the highest average, weighted, unbiased estimate of effect (d(+) = 0.99) and was frequently associated with the experience of perinatal loss. Psychiatric morbidity was found after miscarriage in 27% of cases by a diagnostic interview ten days after miscarriage. The grief reaction had a medium d(+) of 0.56 in the studies included. However, grief after miscarriage differed from other types of grief after perinatal loss because the parents had no focus for their grief. The guilt is greater after miscarriage than after other types of perinatal loss. Measurement of the stress reaction and anxiety reaction seems to be difficult in the included studies, as evidenced by a low d(+) (0.17 and 0.16, respectively). It has been recommended that grief after perinatal loss be measured by an adapted instrument called the Perinatal Grief Scale Short Version.

  • 8. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Miscarriage: women’s experience and its cumulative incidence2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many women experience miscarriage every year. Every fourth woman who has given birth reports that she has previous experience of miscarriage. In a study of all women in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1983-2003, we found that the number of cases of self reported miscarriage had increased in Sweden during this 21 year period. This increase can be explained by the introduction of sensitive pregnancy tests around 1990, as well as an increase in the mean age of the mothers, by approximately 3 years, during the observation period. The risk of miscarriage is 13% with the first child. With subsequent pregnancies, the risk of miscarriage is 8%, 6% and 4% with the second, third and fourth child, respectively.

    Thirteen of these women who had suffered a recent miscarriage were interviewed four months later, and their feelings of guilt and emptiness were explored. Their experience was that they wanted their questions to be answered, and that they wanted others to treat them as the mothers to be that they felt themselves to be. They also experienced the need for time to grieve their loss.

    Measurement of grief by means of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) is used in research but has also been proposed for clinical use. We have translated this psychological instrument to Swedish, back-translated and tested it in a small pilot study. In a randomized controlled study, women with early miscarriage were allocated, either to a structured visit (study group) or a regular visit (control group) to a midwife. The structured visit was conducted according to the Swanson caring theory. We could conclude that the structured visit had no significant effect on grief compared to the regular visit, as measured using the PGS. However, women with the sub-diagnosis missed abortion have significantly more grief four months after early miscarriage, regardless of visit type.

    We also performed a content analysis of the tape-recorded structured follow-up visit. The code-key used was Bonanno and Kaltman’s general grief categorization. Women’s expression of grief after miscarriage was found to be very similar to the grief experienced following the death of a relative. Furthermore, the grief was found to be independent of number of children, women’s age, or earlier experience of miscarriage.

    Conclusions: Every fourth woman who gives birth reports that she has also experienced early miscarriage. The experience of these women is that they have suffered a substantial loss and their reaction is grief similar to that experienced following the death of a relative.

    List of papers
    1. Cumulative incidence of previous spontaneous abortion in Sweden in 1983-2003: a register study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cumulative incidence of previous spontaneous abortion in Sweden in 1983-2003: a register study
    2006 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 741-747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study is to find out how common miscarriages are among women who have delivered a child. METHODS: The numbers of deliveries and miscarriages were extracted from the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1983 and 2003. Linear regression was performed in order to investigate whether the increasing mean age of mothers or differences in pregnancy identification methods could explain the increased frequency of miscarriage. RESULTS: The reported number of miscarriages increased each year during the 21-year period, with a marked increase between 1991 and 1993 and only a slight increase during the final 10 years. For primiparous women, the frequency of reported miscarriages per delivery increased from 8.6% in 1983 to 13.9% in 2003. The corresponding figures for 2-parous women showed an increase from 14.5% to 21.3% respectively. Women aged 30-34 years had an odds ratio of 1.43 (95% CI 1.40-1.45) to suffer spontaneous abortion compared to the age group 25-29 years. Linear regression showed that an increase in mean age at delivery could only partly explain the increase in the frequency of reported miscarriages. A possible explanation could be differences in methods of identifying early pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Of all women who deliver a child, nearly 20% have experienced previous miscarriage. The increased mean age of women could only explain a small portion of the seen increase in miscarriage. The marked increase from 1991 to 1993 is interesting. Possible reasons for the increase are discussed.

    Keywords
    Abortion, Spontaneous/*epidemiology
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-27333 (URN)10.1080/00016340600627022 (DOI)16752269 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-02-05 Created: 2013-02-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Guilt and emptiness: women's experiences of miscarriage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guilt and emptiness: women's experiences of miscarriage
    2004 (English)In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 543-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Women who lose an early pregnancy are shocked when they are first given the information that they have miscarried. Later they feel guilt and emptiness. Heideggerian interpretive phenomenology has been used with 13 women from southwest Sweden to uncover their lived experience of miscarriage. Women plan their future with a child during early pregnancy. When miscarriage occurs it is not a gore, an embryo, or a fetus they lose, it is their child. They feel that they are the cause of the miscarriage through something they have done, eaten, or thought. They feel abandonment and they grieve for their profound loss; they are actually in bereavement.

    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25616 (URN)10.1080/07399330490444821 (DOI)15354621 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish
    2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Women's emotions and grief after miscarriage are influenced not only by the context in which the miscarriage occurred but also by their past experience, the circumstances around the miscarriage and their future prospects. Their emotions therefore express a specific form of grief. Normally the time needed to work through the loss varies. A number of different scales, measuring women's emotions and grief after miscarriage have been published. One instrument that measures the specific grief, such as the grief after miscarriage is the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) that was designed to measure grief after perinatal loss and has good reliability and validity.

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Swedish and to use the translation in a small pilot study.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: The original short version of the PGS was first translated from English into Swedish and then back-translated into English, using different translators. During translation and back-translation, not only the linguistic and grammatical aspects were considered but also cultural differences. The Likert 5-point and a 10-point scale were tested in a pilot study where 12 volunteers anonymously answered the PGS twice. The intra-personal correlations were compared and analysed with weighted kappa-coefficient.

    FINDINGS: In all, five different versions were tested before the final Swedish version was established. The weighted kappa-coefficient for the volunteers was 0.58, which is regarded as representing good reproducibility.

    CONCLUSION: The PGS was translated successfully into Swedish and could be used in a Swedish population. As this work is rather time-consuming we therefore wish to publish the Swedish version so that it may be used by other researchers.

    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25613 (URN)10.1111/j.1471-6712.2006.00404.x (DOI)16922980 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. Effect of a structured follow-up visit to a midwife on women with early miscarriage: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of a structured follow-up visit to a midwife on women with early miscarriage: a randomized study
    2006 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 330-335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women's grief after miscarriage is substantial and important. Women who experience early miscarriage do not constitute a homogenous group. The aim of this study is to measure whether a structured follow-up visit to a midwife (group 1) at 21-28 days after early miscarriage could reduce the women's grief, measured using the perinatal grief scale Swedish short version (PGS) after a further 3 months (i.e. 4 months after the miscarriage), compared to a regular follow-up visit to a midwife (group 2).

    Methods: We performed an open randomized study of women who experienced early miscarriage (n = 88). The midwife's attitude in group 1 came from Swanson science theory of midwifery. In group 2, the women were offered only the ordinary type of consultation at a regular visit. A questionnaire with the PGS was used in both groups. Four months after the miscarriage, a second questionnaire with the same perinatal grief scale was sent by post.

    Results: There was a 30% greater reduction in grief in group 1 than that in group 2, when comparing the first and second measurements (not significant). The biggest differences were in the subscales active grief and difficulty in coping. Women with the subdiagnosis missed abortions had, as a group, significantly higher PGS scores at both visits, especially in active grief and difficulty in coping, regardless of the type of follow-up visit.

    Conclusions: A structured follow-up visit did not, in comparison with a regular follow-up visit, imply any significant reduction in grief as measured using the PGS scale. However, the subgroup missed abortion had more extensive grief than the other women with miscarriage. Structured follow-up visits are not imperative for all women with early miscarriage.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oslo, Norway: Taylor & Francis, 2006
    Keywords
    Early miscarriage, grief, midwife, support, treatment
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Nursing
    Research subject
    Caring sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25614 (URN)000236110500012 ()16553182 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    5. Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women's experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno's taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women's experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno's taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale
    2010 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Grief is a normal phenomenon but showing great variation depending on cultural and personal features. Bonanno and Kaltman have nonetheless proposed five aspects of normal grief. The aim of this study was to investigate if women with miscarriage experience normal grief.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Content analyses of 25 transcribed conversations with women 4 weeks after their early miscarriages were classified depending on the meaning-bearing units according to Bonanno and Kaltman's categories. In the factor analyses, these categories were compared with the Perinatal Grief Scale and women's age, number of children and number of miscarriages, and gestational weeks.

    RESULTS: Women with miscarriage fulfill the criteria for having normal grief according to Bonanno and Kaltman. All of the 25 women had meaning-bearing units that were classified as cognitive disorganization, dysphoria, and health deficits, whereas disrupted social and occupational functioning and positive aspects of bereavement were represented in 22 of 25 women. From the factor analysis, there are no differences in the expression of the intensity of the grief, irrespective of whether or not the women were primiparous, younger, or had suffered a first miscarriage.

    CONCLUSION: Women's experience of grief after miscarriage is similar to general grief after death. After her loss, the woman must have the possibility of expressing and working through her grief before she can finish her pregnancy emotionally. The care-giver must facilitate this process and accept that the intensity of the grief is not dependent on the woman's age, or her number of earlier miscarriages.

    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25610 (URN)10.3109/03009731003739851 (DOI)000281013000008 ()20636255 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Per-Göran Larsson is also affiliated toDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborgs sjukhus, Kärnsjukhuset Skövde, Skövde, SwedenandDivision of Women and Child Health, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Missfall2006In: , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Women's well-being improves after missed miscarriage with more active support and application of Swanson's caring theory2011In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 4, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide better organization and more efficient use of resources within the health care system in order to identify women with nonviable pregnancy earlier in their gestation terms and also to identify those women who experience severe grief reaction after the miscarriage. The proposed solution is to offer an appointment with a gynecologist during regular office hours after consultation with the patient's midwife to women experiencing symptoms and who are concerned with the viability of their pregnancy. Unnecessary contact with the emergency room by the patients would be reduced as a result of this improvement in organization. The aim of the study was to give the women experiencing missed miscarriage an increased sense of well-being by applying Swanson's Caring Theory to their recovery, in addition to the better organization and more efficient use of resources.

    METHOD: Both the original study from 2002 to 2003 and the later study from 2004 to 2005 applied Swanson's Caring Theory in the follow-up care management of the women, but only the later study was influenced by the changes made in the health care system. In the past, diagnosis of missed miscarriage was delayed because women experiencing minor symptoms were not highly prioritized in the health care system. More active support was introduced in order to get the proper information to the patient throughout the health care system. The size of the original study database was n = 43, compared with the later study database, which was n = 56. All of the women answered the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) questions twice, 1 month and 4 months after their diagnosis. Some additional questions about their circumstances unrelated to the PGS were also mailed to the women 4 months after their diagnosis.

    RESULTS: As a result of the more active support, women felt that they received professional care when they needed it most. The patients were satisfied that they were treated as if they were suffering from normal grief. The group score above the limits for deep grief 4 months after diagnosis was significantly lowered. The chances of receiving their diagnosis at an appointment during office hours increased (odds ratio 3.38). Sick leave time of more than a week was reduced from 44% in the original study to 22% in the later study.

  • 11.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. The Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud & Vestfold University, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Arbhede, Emelie
    Department Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Marklund, Elisabeth
    Women’s Clinic, Highland Distric County Hospital, Eksjö, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Institutes of Health and Care Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Miscarriage: Evidence Based Information for the Web and Its Development Procedure2015In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5191, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 89-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the process of developing web information on miscarriage based on scientific evidence, for women and couples in Sweden experiencing miscarriage. Method: A participatory design was used which included researchers, professional  xperts and users. A participatory design was used involving researchers, professional experts and users. The information was developed in six stages: 1) identifying the needs of information; 2) identifying and constructing the main areas of information and its paths; 3) identifying and inviting experts for revision; 4) developing the text; 5) reviewing the text; 6) design and structuring for adaption to website. Results: The text of information developed gradually based on the seven steps. The final text comprised three parts: 1) what is miscarriage; 2) experiences of miscarriage; 3) processing and lanning for new pregnancy. Conclusion: Using participatory design was time and resource consuming, however it was functional for producing appropriate information for the target group. The developed evidence based facts text is assumed to be a complement to the information that is provided by the health care system.

  • 12.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Heidegger’s interpretive phenomenology given the understanding that experience from the past affecting the present and the future in women who had miscarried2005In: , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sorgen vid missfall, kvalitativ innehållsanalys av strukturerat samtal med barnmorska2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Division of Nursing Science, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effect of a structured follow-up visit to a midwife on women with early miscarriage: a randomized study2006In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 330-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women's grief after miscarriage is substantial and important. Women who experience early miscarriage do not constitute a homogenous group. The aim of this study is to measure whether a structured follow-up visit to a midwife (group 1) at 21-28 days after early miscarriage could reduce the women's grief, measured using the perinatal grief scale Swedish short version (PGS) after a further 3 months (i.e. 4 months after the miscarriage), compared to a regular follow-up visit to a midwife (group 2).

    Methods: We performed an open randomized study of women who experienced early miscarriage (n = 88). The midwife's attitude in group 1 came from Swanson science theory of midwifery. In group 2, the women were offered only the ordinary type of consultation at a regular visit. A questionnaire with the PGS was used in both groups. Four months after the miscarriage, a second questionnaire with the same perinatal grief scale was sent by post.

    Results: There was a 30% greater reduction in grief in group 1 than that in group 2, when comparing the first and second measurements (not significant). The biggest differences were in the subscales active grief and difficulty in coping. Women with the subdiagnosis missed abortions had, as a group, significantly higher PGS scores at both visits, especially in active grief and difficulty in coping, regardless of the type of follow-up visit.

    Conclusions: A structured follow-up visit did not, in comparison with a regular follow-up visit, imply any significant reduction in grief as measured using the PGS scale. However, the subgroup missed abortion had more extensive grief than the other women with miscarriage. Structured follow-up visits are not imperative for all women with early miscarriage.

  • 15.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    Effekten av strukturerat återbesök till barnmorska för kvinnor med tidiga missfall: en randomiserad studie2004In: , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    Missfall, cumulativ incidence och kvinnors upplevelser2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden.
    The effect of structured second visit to midwifes in women with early miscarriage: a randomized study2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs sjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    The effect of structured second visit to midwifes in women with early miscarriage: a randomized study2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Finnerup Andresen, Janne
    Örebro Läns Landsting, Örebro, Sweden.
    Brattström Edgren, Kristin
    Örebro Läns Landsting, Örebro, Sweden.
    Why obese women feel better about their "big" condition when they are pregnant: a qualitative study performed in Sweden2013In: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 2160-8792, E-ISSN 2160-8806, Vol. 3, p. 544-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity as measured by the body mass index (BMI) is an increasing problem worldwide according to the World Health Organization (WHO) [1]. Women having a body mass index greater than or equal to30 kg/m2 are considered to be obese and they run a greater risk of complications when they are pregnant. Complications such as high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, risk of intrauterine fetal death and slower delivery when giving birth to the baby are risks that can affect the well being of the woman and the child. According to the study on the women, the midwife’s most important role when meeting with the pregnant obese woman is to inform them about potential risks during pregnancy. The midwife must withhold judgment. For many women living with obesity means that they are not seen as the person they actually are. Obese women feel that they do not conform to the societal ideal of an attractive woman because of their size and because of other people’s prejudices regarding their obesity. When an obese woman becomes pregnant they may feel more comfortable with their standing in society because there is a happy explanation for the size of their abdomen. They experience that they are happy and proud about their stomach and this gives them a sense of relief and belonging.

  • 20.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Granevik, Karin
    Primärvården Skaraborg, Skövde, Sverige.
    Paulsson, Kerstin
    Primärvården Skaraborg, Skövde, Sverige.
    The reasons why women do not participate in the papsmear screening and testing program in Sweden2012In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5191, Vol. 2, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women worldwide. In Sweden cervical cancer is the fifteenth most common cancer among women and accounts for 1.9 percent of all female cancers. The Swedish Pap smear screening program is enabling early detection of cell changes in order that treatment may be administered to pre- vent the development of cancerous cells. There are approximately four hundred and fifty cases of cervical cancer de-tected each year in Sweden and of these cases, approximately seventy five percent occur in women who do not partici-pate in the screening and testing program. The purpose of this study was to illustrate and examine the reasons why women did not participate in the program even though they had received a notice that they had an appointment for a Pap smear test. In the study fourteen women from a district in the west of Sweden were interviewed. In order to analyse the interviews a qualitative content analysis according to Lundman and Graneheim was used. The analysis resulted in the development of three categories which were identified as communication, treatment and subterfuge (reasons or excuses for not participating). The theme of the study was the professional treatment of the women’s conditions. In the inter-views the women emphasize the importance of professional treatment that is administered with respectful and sympa-thetic care throughout the whole healthcare system regardless of where and when the visit was conducted. Efficient or-ganization and clear communication would minimize the inconvenience for the women during their visit.

  • 21.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University College of Southeast Norway, Tonsberg, Norway.
    Hagander, Anna
    University College, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mahjoubipour, Farzane
    University College, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden; University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    How Vaginal Infections Impact Women's Everyday Life: Women's Lived Experiences of Bacterial Vaginosis and Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis2017In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5205, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reoccurring symptoms and persistent problems that continue post treatment can becharacteristic of the vaginal infections Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) and recurrent vulvovaginalcandidiasis (RVVC). The purpose of this study was to describe women’s lifeexperiences in managing the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis and Candida. Sixteenwomen were recruited and participated in an interview study when they contacted aSwedish gynecology clinic with vaginal complaints that ranged from and includedabnormal discharge, irritation itching along with serious malodor. An interpretivephenomenological approach was used with an individual interview to get a more intimateunderstanding of the women experiencing these problems. The finding of thisstudy shows that managing the recurrent symptoms of the infections remains to be achallenge for women as it has a clearly negative impact on the quality of their lives.Four themes developed: frustration and mood disorders, intimacy changes in the relationship,exposure, hope and relief. The women had high hopes of eliminating thesymptoms within the six-month study period. The treatment program, with itswell-developed guidelines and continuity of care within the context of the studygreatly improved the quality of life of these women. Women had feelings of frustrationand anxiety when nothing could cure their problem while they had also a greathope to get rid of the symptoms with a long striking treatment. Well-developedguidelines and continuity of care can help these women to have an improved qualityof life.

  • 22.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hogström, Lars
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marianne
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janson, Per Olof
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Francis, Jynfiaf
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sogn, Jan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Hellström, Anna-Lena
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Livskvalitet bland par i Sverige efter adoption, efter IVF och efter spontan befruktning och förlossning2011In: Svenska barnmorskeförbundet 300 år. Stockholm Abstrakt bok, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Jansson, Malin
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Prototype for Internet support of pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes: focus group testing2012In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 5, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to pilot test a prototype website called MODIAB-web designed to support pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes.

    METHOD: A focus group was undertaken and the results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Eight subthemes were identified, comprising "blood glucose versus insulin," "application for smart phones," "the time aspect," "interface and technology," "forum," "direct link to the diabetes midwife," "ask the expert," and "lack of contact information." These subthemes were condensed into two main themes. The first theme was "easily understood interface, but in need of a more blood-glucose focused orientation" and the second theme was "forum for interaction with both equals and experts."

    CONCLUSION: The women in this study had positive impressions of several of the MODIAB-web functions, including a forum for pregnant mothers with type 1 diabetes and the possibility of being able to put their blood glucose levels into a diagram which could be sent directly to the diabetes midwife. Access to articles and information via the "fact" tab and the ability to ask questions of experts were also significantly helpful to women in the focus group. Pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes can gain support from such a Web-based self-help system.

  • 24.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Nilsson, Emma
    Swedish women's emotional experience of the first trimester in a new pregnancy after one or more miscarriages: a qualitative interview study2012In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5191, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how Swedish women describe their emotional state of being during the eighth week through the eleventh week after they have become pregnant again after suffering a previous miscarriage. Method: A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach has been used to analyze fourteen interviews that served as the data base for this study. The content analysis resulted in the development of five categories which evolved into one primary theme. Findings: The five categories identified were Worry and preoccupation; Distance; managing their feelings; Mourning what is lost; Guarded happiness and expectations. These categories were compiled into a main theme, “Worry consumes a lot of energy, but on the other side lies happiness”. This theme focused on whether the women could feel any happiness about being pregnant again despite their concerns with the previous miscarriage. Conclusions: The emotional states of the women when they get pregnant again are typically characterized by anxiety, worry and concerns about their current pregnancy. The women have a tendency to distance themselves emotionally from their pregnancy but also strive to find the joy of being pregnant again. During the new pregnancy they find themselves in need of support from their family and friends as well as in need of support from the healthcare system.

  • 25.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jordmorfag, Innen
    Fakultet for helsevitenskap, Institutt for sykepleievitenskap – Vestfold, University College of Southeast, Kongsberg, Norway.
    The EKC-Model Provides Empathy, Knowledge and Care for Women that Encounter Health issues During the Reproductive Life2016In: International Journal of Gynecology & Clinical Practices, ISSN 2394-4986, Vol. 3, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EKC model (Empathy, Knowledge and Care) provides the necessary empathy, knowledge andcare for the women who encounter health issues during their reproductive life. This approach to caring requires that healthcare workers are knowledgeable in order to confirm that a patient has suffered a miscarriage or a IUFD (Intra-uterine fetus death). Through understanding and training in the EKC model the healthcare professional increases their ability to be sympathetic and empathetic to a patient’s needs. The workers get training in sexual and reproductive health in order to intimately understand how they affect the lives of individuals and their families.                                                                            l

    Sexual and reproductive health is a cross-sectional science that includes medicine, psychology, sociology and the caring sciences. Some of the more commonly experienced issues are in the areas of spontaneous abortion, miscarriages, invitrofertilization and adoption. Issues such as sexual abuse and violence towards women is another issue that is treatable with the EKC model. Pregnant women with diabetes type 1 fall under “maternity and diabetes” issues.

    Intimate knowledge about how the grieving process works is essential to be able to provide the necessary support to the patient. It is possible that the support will give them the courage and motivation to try and conceive again. One key aspect of the EKC model is to provide open and clear communication between the healthcare personnel and the patient, whether that communication is done face-to-face or otherwise. The structured EKC conversation provides a viable tool to help healthcare professionals assist their patients in coming to terms and resolving their loss.

  • 26.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Barbara
    EKO-modellen: en personalhandbok om förlorad graviditet2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women's experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno's taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Grief is a normal phenomenon but showing great variation depending on cultural and personal features. Bonanno and Kaltman have nonetheless proposed five aspects of normal grief. The aim of this study was to investigate if women with miscarriage experience normal grief.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Content analyses of 25 transcribed conversations with women 4 weeks after their early miscarriages were classified depending on the meaning-bearing units according to Bonanno and Kaltman's categories. In the factor analyses, these categories were compared with the Perinatal Grief Scale and women's age, number of children and number of miscarriages, and gestational weeks.

    RESULTS: Women with miscarriage fulfill the criteria for having normal grief according to Bonanno and Kaltman. All of the 25 women had meaning-bearing units that were classified as cognitive disorganization, dysphoria, and health deficits, whereas disrupted social and occupational functioning and positive aspects of bereavement were represented in 22 of 25 women. From the factor analysis, there are no differences in the expression of the intensity of the grief, irrespective of whether or not the women were primiparous, younger, or had suffered a first miscarriage.

    CONCLUSION: Women's experience of grief after miscarriage is similar to general grief after death. After her loss, the woman must have the possibility of expressing and working through her grief before she can finish her pregnancy emotionally. The care-giver must facilitate this process and accept that the intensity of the grief is not dependent on the woman's age, or her number of earlier miscarriages.

  • 28. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Cumulative incidence of previous spontaneous abortion in Sweden in 1983-2003: a register study2006In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 741-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study is to find out how common miscarriages are among women who have delivered a child. METHODS: The numbers of deliveries and miscarriages were extracted from the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1983 and 2003. Linear regression was performed in order to investigate whether the increasing mean age of mothers or differences in pregnancy identification methods could explain the increased frequency of miscarriage. RESULTS: The reported number of miscarriages increased each year during the 21-year period, with a marked increase between 1991 and 1993 and only a slight increase during the final 10 years. For primiparous women, the frequency of reported miscarriages per delivery increased from 8.6% in 1983 to 13.9% in 2003. The corresponding figures for 2-parous women showed an increase from 14.5% to 21.3% respectively. Women aged 30-34 years had an odds ratio of 1.43 (95% CI 1.40-1.45) to suffer spontaneous abortion compared to the age group 25-29 years. Linear regression showed that an increase in mean age at delivery could only partly explain the increase in the frequency of reported miscarriages. A possible explanation could be differences in methods of identifying early pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Of all women who deliver a child, nearly 20% have experienced previous miscarriage. The increased mean age of women could only explain a small portion of the seen increase in miscarriage. The marked increase from 1991 to 1993 is interesting. Possible reasons for the increase are discussed.

  • 29.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden.
    Kvinnors sorg efter missfall kan minska med ändrade vårdrutiner2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Women's emotions and grief after miscarriage are influenced not only by the context in which the miscarriage occurred but also by their past experience, the circumstances around the miscarriage and their future prospects. Their emotions therefore express a specific form of grief. Normally the time needed to work through the loss varies. A number of different scales, measuring women's emotions and grief after miscarriage have been published. One instrument that measures the specific grief, such as the grief after miscarriage is the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) that was designed to measure grief after perinatal loss and has good reliability and validity.

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Swedish and to use the translation in a small pilot study.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: The original short version of the PGS was first translated from English into Swedish and then back-translated into English, using different translators. During translation and back-translation, not only the linguistic and grammatical aspects were considered but also cultural differences. The Likert 5-point and a 10-point scale were tested in a pilot study where 12 volunteers anonymously answered the PGS twice. The intra-personal correlations were compared and analysed with weighted kappa-coefficient.

    FINDINGS: In all, five different versions were tested before the final Swedish version was established. The weighted kappa-coefficient for the volunteers was 0.58, which is regarded as representing good reproducibility.

    CONCLUSION: The PGS was translated successfully into Swedish and could be used in a Swedish population. As this work is rather time-consuming we therefore wish to publish the Swedish version so that it may be used by other researchers.

  • 31.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Missfall: kvinnans upplevelser2004In: , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs Sjukhus Skövde.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sverige.
    Swansons omvårdnadsteori tillämpad vid samtal med barnmorska efter tidiga missfall2005In: Konferens Reproduktiv Hälsa, Svenska Barnmorskeförbundet, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Linköpings universitet.
    Berterö, Carina
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Guilt and emptiness: women's experiences of miscarriage2004In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 543-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women who lose an early pregnancy are shocked when they are first given the information that they have miscarried. Later they feel guilt and emptiness. Heideggerian interpretive phenomenology has been used with 13 women from southwest Sweden to uncover their lived experience of miscarriage. Women plan their future with a child during early pregnancy. When miscarriage occurs it is not a gore, an embryo, or a fetus they lose, it is their child. They feel that they are the cause of the miscarriage through something they have done, eaten, or thought. They feel abandonment and they grieve for their profound loss; they are actually in bereavement.

  • 34.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Karolina
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sparud Lundin, Carina
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A web-based support for pregnant women and new mothers with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sweden (MODIAB-Web): study protocol for arandomized controlled trial2014In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 15, p. 513-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women with type 1 diabetes face particular demands in their lives in relation to childbearing. During pregnancy, in order to optimize the probability of giving birth to a healthy child, their blood glucose levels need to be as normal as possible. After childbirth, they experience a 'double stress': in addition to the ordinary challenges they face as new mothers, they also need to focus on getting their blood glucose levels normal. To improve self-management of diabetes and overall well-being in women with type 1 diabetes, a person-centered web-based support was designed to be tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to be used during pregnancy and early motherhood. This protocol outlines the design of this RCT, which will evaluate the effectiveness of the specially designed web-based support for mothers with type 1 diabetes in Sweden.

    Methods: The study is designed as an RCT. The web support consists of three parts: 1) evidence-based information, 2) a self-care diary, and 3) communication with peers. The primary outcome is general well-being evaluated with the Well-Being Questionnaire short version (W-BQ12) and diabetes management evaluated with the Diabetes Empowerment Scale, short version (SWE-DES). Women attending six hospital-based antenatal care centers in Sweden are invited to participate. The inclusion period is November 2011 to late 2014. The allocation of participants to web support (intervention group) and to usual care (control group) is equal (1:1). In total, 68 participants in each group will be needed to reach a statistical power of 80% with significance level 0.05.

    Discussion: The web support is expected to strengthen the women's personal capacity and autonomy during pregnancy, breastfeeding, and early motherhood, leading to optimal well-being and diabetes management.

  • 35.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Renström, Ragna
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, sweden.
    Kvalitetshandbok, gynmottagningen, KSS1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tullander-Tjörnstrand, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Decreased need for emergency services after changing management for suspected miscarriage2011In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 90, no 8, p. 921-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of a changed routine to identify women with a nonviable pregnancy, in order to utilize health care resources more efficiently during office hours rather than relying on emergency care services. From hospital register data about where and when women with miscarriages were treated, there was a significant trend during a nine-year period for miscarriages to be more rarely diagnosed (p-value<0.001) in the emergency ward after office hours. The proportion of miscarriages that were diagnosed and handled at the emergency ward decreased from 31% in 2001 to 17% in 2009. Furthermore, the number of women showing up with bleeding at the emergency ward, but who also had a normal viable pregnancy, declined during the same period (p-value<0.01). Women with suspected miscarriage benefit from structured information and standardized management and can effectively be scheduled for day-time assessment including ultrasound with a concomitant reduced need for emergency services.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. The Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud & Vestfold University, College, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Namegabe, Edmond Ntabe
    Faculty of Community Health and Development, Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, Congo Democratic Republic.
    Health Workers’ Assessment of the Frequency of and Caring for Urinary and Fecal Incontinence among Female Victims of Sexual Violence in the Eastern Congo: An Exploratory Study2015In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 5, p. 354-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Throughout the long war that the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has endured,women and children have been depicted as the primary victims of widespread sexual violence. Insome settings women have been raped in entire villages, with devastating physical and psychologicalconsequences, which include sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, trauma and fistulas,as well as social isolation and involuntary pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess theprevalent perceptions of health professionals on the magnitude of urine and/or fecal incontinenceamong assaulted women, caused by sexual violence, as well as the opinions regarding the type ofcare provided to affected women.

    Methods: The study was part of a larger pilot study that had across-sectional design and a descriptive approach, which explored health professionals’ views regarding their own levels of competence at responding to the health needs of victims of sexual violence, in the form of a semi-structured questionnaire.

    Results: 104 health workers responded to the questionnaire. Nurses reported seeing raped women more frequently on a day-to-day basis (69.2%), in comparison to medical doctors and social workers (11.5%). Urinary incontinence was common according to 79% of health workers, who estimated that up to 15% of the women affected experienced huge amounts of urine leakage. Only 30% of the care seekers underwent in depth investigations, but the majority of the victims were not offered any further examination or appropriate treatments.

    Conclusion: Urinary and fecal incontinence due to urogenital or colorectalfistulas among women exposed to sexual violence is a common in the specified setting, but lack of systematic investigation and appropriate treatment means that the quality of life of the victims may be negatively affected. An improvement in the ability of health workers to manage these complex diagnoses is urgently needed, as well as adequately equipping health services in the affected settings.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Sandra
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    How women who have experienced one or more miscarriages manage their feelings and emotions when they become pregnant again: a qualitative interview study2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 262-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how women who have experienced one or more miscarriages manage their feelings when they become pregnant again.

    Method: Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 women who were pregnant again after experiencing one or more miscarriages. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach.

    Results: The analysis of the material ended up in five categories: distancing herself from her pregnancy, focusing on her pregnancy symptoms, searching for confirming information, asking for ultrasound examination and asking for professional and social support. Because of their past experience with miscarriage, it could be painful to have another pregnancy terminate in disappointment. Therefore, the women manage their feelings by distancing themselves from their pregnancies. Simultaneously, they are managing their emotions by seeking affirmation that their current pregnancy is normal.

    Conclusion: Generally speaking, women manage their emotions by themselves. They feel isolated with their worries and concerns, and they are in need of the support provided from their intimate circle of friends and family as well as from the staff of the maternity health care ward. Unfortunately, the women do not feel that they get the support they need from the staff, instead they have to rely on their friends, family and partners to help them manage their emotions.

  • 39.
    Berg, Marie
    et al.
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ranerup, Agneta
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sparud-Lundin, Carina
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Person-centered web support to women with type 1 diabetes in pregnancy early motherhood: the development process2013In: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, ISSN 1520-9156, E-ISSN 1557-8593, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pregnancy and early motherhood are extraordinarily demanding periods for women with type 1 diabetes, who therefore need optimal support. This article describes the process of developing person-centered Web-based support for women with type 1 diabetes during the period of pregnancy through early motherhood. Important aspects of perrsoncenteredness are a broader scope of medicine, viewing the patient as a person, shared decision-making to accomplish a therapeutic alliance, and the role of documentation.

    Materials and Methods: A participatory design was used in the development process to capture the target group’s knowledge, experiences, and needs, and a systematic process map for Web-based support was used to describe the process.

    Results: Content and layout in the Web support were developed collaboratively by project managers, advisory and scientific reference groups, technical producers, and representatives for the target group. Based on needs assessment and evidence synthesis, three main components of complementary Web-based support were identified: (1) specific information about pregnancy, childbirth, and early motherhood in relation to type 1 diabetes; (2) a self-care diary, including a device for documenting and evaluating blood glucose levels, insulin doses, food intake, physical activities, and overall well-being; and (3) a forum for communication between women with type 1 diabetes in the childbearing period.

    Conclusions: Using a perspective of person-centered care, a participatory design and the process map were fruitful for developing person-centered Web support for self-care and self-learning. The developed Web support product will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial and further developed based on this result.

  • 40.
    Berg, Marie
    et al.
    Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Linden, Karolina
    Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Sparud Lundin, Carina
    Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ranerup, Agneta
    Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Web-Based Intervention for Women With Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy and Early Motherhood: Critical Analysis of Adherence to Technological Elements and Study Design2018In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 20, no 5, article id el60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Numerous Web-based interventions have been implemented to promote health and health-related behaviors in persons with chronic conditions. Using randomized controlled trials to evaluate such interventions creates a range of challenges, which in turn can influence the study outcome. Applying a critical perspective when evaluating Web-based health interventions is important.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to critically analyze and discuss the challenges of conducting a Web-based health intervention as a randomized controlled trial.

    Method: The MODIAB-Web study was critically examined using an exploratory case study methodology and the framework for analysis offered through the Persuasive Systems Design model. Focus was on technology, study design, and Web-based support usage, with special focus on the forum for peer support. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were used.

    Results: The persuasive content and technological elements in the design of the randomized controlled trial included all four categories of the Persuasive Systems Design model, but not all design principles were implemented. The study duration was extended to a period of four and a half years. Of 81 active participants in the intervention group, a maximum of 36 women were simultaneously active. User adherence varied greatly with a median of 91 individual log-ins. The forum for peer support was used by 63 participants. Although only about one-third of the participants interacted in the forum, there was a fairly rich exchange of experiences and advice between them. Thus, adherence in terms of social interactions was negatively affected by limited active participation due to prolonged recruitment process and randomization effects. Lessons learned from this critical analysis are that technology and study design matter and might mutually influence each other. In Web-based interventions, the use of design theories enables utilization of the full potential of technology and promotes adherence. The randomization element in a randomized controlled trial design can become a barrier to achieving a critical mass of user interactions in Web-based interventions, especially when social support is included. For extended study periods, the technology used may need to be adapted in line with newly available technical options to avoid the risk of becoming outdated in the user realm, which in turn might jeopardize study validity in terms of randomized controlled trial designs. Conclusions: On the basis of lessons learned in this randomized controlled trial, we give recommendations to consider when designing and evaluating Web-based health interventions.

  • 41.
    Berg, Marie
    et al.
    Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Linden, Karolina
    Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Sparud-Lundin, Carina
    Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ranerup, Agneta
    Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Web-Based Intervention for Women With Type 1 Diabetes inPregnancy and Early Motherhood: Critical Analysis of Adherenceto Technological Elements and Study Design2018In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 20, no 5, article id e160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Numerous Web-based interventions have been implemented to promote health and health-related behaviors inpersons with chronic conditions. Using randomized controlled trials to evaluate such interventions creates a range of challenges, which in turn can influence the study outcome. Applying a critical perspective when evaluating Web-based health interventions is important.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to critically analyze and discuss the challenges of conducting a Web-based health intervention as a randomized controlled trial.

    Method: The MODIAB-Web study was critically examined using an exploratory case study methodology and the framework for analysis offered through the Persuasive Systems Design model. Focus was on technology, study design, and Web-based support usage, with special focus on the forum for peer support. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were used.

    Results: The persuasive content and technological elements in the design of the randomized controlled trial included all four categories of the Persuasive Systems Design model, but not all design principles were implemented. The study duration was extended to a period of four and a half years. Of 81 active participants in the intervention group, a maximum of 36 women were simultaneously active. User adherence varied greatly with a median of 91 individual log-ins. The forum for peer support was used by 63 participants. Although only about one-third of the participants interacted in the forum, there was a fairly rich exchange of experiences and advice between them. Thus, adherence in terms of social interactions was negatively affected by limited active participation due to prolonged recruitment process and randomization effects. Lessons learned from this critical analysis are that technology and study design matter and might mutually influence each other. In Web-based interventions, the use of design theories enables utilization of the full potential of technology and promotes adherence. The randomization element in a randomized controlled trial design can become a barrier to achieving a critical mass of user interactions in Web-based interventions, especially when social support is included. For extended study periods, the technology used may need to be adapted in line with newly available technical options to avoid the risk of becoming outdated in the user realm, which in turn might jeopardize study validity in terms of randomized controlled trial designs.

    Conclusions: On the basis of lessons learned in this randomized controlled trial, we give recommendations to consider when designing and evaluating Web-based health interventions.

  • 42.
    Bodén, Emma
    et al.
    Palmlunds skolor AB, Helsingborg, Sweden; Systerbirgitta, Glumslöv, Sweden.
    Wendel, Carina
    Skolpool Sverige AB, Lund, Sweden; Lunds kommun, Lund, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Adolescents with endometriosis: Their experience of the school health care system in Sweden2013In: British Journal of School Nursing, ISSN 1752-2803, E-ISSN 2052-2827, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate what type and level of support women diagnosed with endometriosis received in Sweden from the school medical network and school nurses during their secondary and upper secondary school years and how it affected their quality of life.

    A quantitative method with an inductive approach was used to collect data for the study.

    Young women were found to be absent from school or missing extra-curricular activities due to pain and abnormal bleeding associated with their menstrual cycles. Some of the women thought that these symptoms were normal and did not consult the school nurse as a result of their limited experience. Others did not consult with the nurses because of a perception of poor treatment.

    Endometriosis can be managed and adequate treatment can have a substantial impact on improving quality of life. It is important that school nurses are aware of the condition and that young women understand what constitutes a normal menstrual cycle and when they should seek help from health professionals.

  • 43.
    Broberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); The Regional Cancer Centre, Western Health Care Region, Gothenburg, Sweden; Närhälsan Primary Care, Western Health Care Region, Skövde, Sweden .
    Jiangrong, Wang
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Public Dental Service, Region Västra Götaland, Vänersborg, Sweden; Department of Behavioural and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. The Centre for Women’s, Family and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud & Vestfold University College, Kongsberg, Norway .
    Szilard, Nemes
    The Regional Cancer Centre, Western Health Care Region, Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björn, Strander
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg /The Regional Cancer Centre, Western Health Care Region, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Socio-economic and demographic determinants affecting participation in the Swedish cervical screening program: A population-based case-control study2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0190171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cervical screening programs are highly protective for cervical cancer, but only for women attending screening procedure.

    OBJECTIVE: Identify socio-economic and demographic determinants for non-attendance in cervical screening.

    METHODS: Design: Population-based case-control study. Setting: Sweden. Population: Source population was all women eligible for screening. Based on complete screening records, two groups of women aged 30-60 were compared. The case group, non-attending women, (N = 314,302) had no smear registered for 6-8 years. The control group (N = 266,706) attended within 90 days of invitation. Main outcome measures: Risk of non-attendance by 9 groups of socioeconomic and demographic variables. Analysis: Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and OR after adjustment for all variables in logistic regression models were calculated.

    RESULTS: Women with low disposable family income (adjOR 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.11), with low education (adjOR 1.77; CI 1.73-1.81) and not cohabiting (adjOR 1.47; CI 1.45-1.50) were more likely to not attend cervical screening. Other important factors for non-attendance were being outside the labour force and receiving welfare benefits. Swedish counties are responsible for running screening programs; adjusted OR for non-participation in counties ranged from OR 4.21 (CI 4.06-4.35) to OR 0.54 (CI 0.52-0.57), compared to the reference county. Being born outside Sweden was a risk factor for non-attendance in the unadjusted analysis but this disappeared in certain large groups after adjustment for socioeconomic factors.

    CONCLUSION: County of residence and socio-economic factors were strongly associated with lower attendance in cervical screening, while being born in another country was of less importance. This indicates considerable potential for improvement of cervical screening attendance in several areas if best practice of routines is adopted.

  • 44.
    Broberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    The Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Regional Cancer Centre, Western Health Care Region, Gothenburg, Sweden; Närhälsan Primary Care, Western Health Care Region, Sweden.
    Strander, Björn
    The Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Regional Cancer Centre, Western Health Care Region, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ellis, Joy
    The Regional Cancer Centre, Western Health Care Region, Gothenburg, Sweden; Närhälsan Primary Care, Western Health Care Region, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Attending cervical cancer screening, opportunities and obstacles: a qualitative study on midwives' experiences telephoning non-attendees in Sweden2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 691-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Aspart of a research project aimed at increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program (CCS), we explored midwives’ unique experiences of telephoning non-attendees and offering Pap smear appointments.

    Methods: Twenty midwives, in four focus groups, discussed their experiences of a study investigating ways to increase participation in the CCS. The group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim and underwent qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Speaking with more than 1000 non-attendees provided the midwives with new perspective on the CCS and they realisedthat improving it might address a number of reasons for not participating. These reasons were often related to logistics, such as scheduling flexibility and appointment booking. The telephone conversations revealed that some women required more individual attention, while it was discovered that others did not require screening. The midwives considered the CCS to be life-saving; participating in this screening activity gave them a sense of satisfaction and pride.

    Conclusions: This study shows that midwives can improve access and prevent non-attendance at the cervical cancer screening program when they are aware of women’s varying requirements for attending screening.

  • 45.
    Broberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Strander, Björn
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ellis, Joy
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Attending cervical cancer screening, opportunities and obstacles: a qualitative study on midwives’ experiences telephoning non-attendees in Sweden2013In: Barnmorskekonferens 2013 Arlanda Sverige, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Department of Health and Nursing, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Centre for Person-Centered Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Sparud Lundin, Carina
    Centre for Person-Centered Care (GPCC), Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reprioritizing life: A conceptual model of how women with type 1 diabetes deal with main concerns in early motherhood2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no Sup. 2, article id 1394147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Becoming a mother is related to increased demands for women with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and more research is needed to identify their needs for support in everyday living. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the main concerns in daily life in early motherhood for women with type 1 diabetes and how they deal with these concerns.

    Method: A grounded theory study was conducted in which 14 women with type 1 diabetes were interviewed individually 7 to 17 months after childbirth.

    Results: A conceptual model was identified with the core category “reprioritizing life”, and three related categories: adjusting to motherhood, taking command of the diabetes, and seeking like-minded women. Becoming a mother was a turning point towards a greater awareness and acceptance of prioritizing diabetes management and health, and thus, life. There was a gap in provision of diabetes care after birth and during the time of early motherhood compared with during pregnancy.

    Conclusions: Healthcare contacts already planned before delivery can promote person-centred care during the whole period from pregnancy to motherhood. Moreover, providing alternative sources for health information and peer support could improve the life situation during early motherhood.

  • 47.
    Dahlén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Instituionen för vård och natur, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Westin, Lars
    Istitutionen för vård och natur, Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Experience of being a low priority patient during waiting time at an emergency department2012In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Work in the emergency department is characterized by fast and efficient medical efforts to save lives, but can also involve a long waiting time for patients. Patients are given a priority rating upon their arrival in the clinic based on the seriousness of their problem, and nursing care for lower priority patients is given a lower prioritization. Regardless of their medical prioritization, all patients have a right to expect good nursing care while they are waiting. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the experience of the low prioritized patient during their waiting time in the emergency department.

    METHODS: A phenomenological hermeneutic research method was used to analyze an interview transcript. Data collection consisted of narrative interviews. The interviewees were 14 patients who had waited more than three hours for surgical, orthopedic, or other medical care.

    RESULTS: The findings resulted in four different themes, ie, being dependent on care, being exposed, being vulnerable, and being secure. Lower priority patients are not paid as much attention by nursing staff. Patients reported feeling powerless, insulted, and humiliated when their care was delayed without their understanding what was happening to them. Not understanding results in exposure that violates self-esteem.

    CONCLUSION: The goal of the health care provider must be to minimize and prevent suffering, prevent feelings of vulnerability, and to create conditions for optimal patient well being.

  • 48.
    Ekström, Linnea
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ericson, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Poutakidis, Georgios
    Skaraborgs Sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden.
    Charonis, Georgios
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Vaginal flora and urinary and vaginal group B streptococci in early pregnancy2013In: Gynecology, ISSN 2052-6210, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a risk factor for premature birth and group B streptococci (GBS) colonizing the vagina are etiological agents of neonatal infections. Significant growth of GBS in the vagina has been assumed to be detectable through urinary culture. The aim was to investigate the correlation between BV and the presence of GBS in qualitative vaginal or quantitative urinary culture, since this could predict a higher risk for perinatal morbidity.

    Design and setting: A consecutive prospective study of women in early pregnancy included 3101 women between 2007 and 2010, in a region of south-western Sweden.

    Methods: Vaginal and urine samples were obtained from women in early pregnancy at maternity health care clinics. BV was diagnosed according to the Ison/Hay classification. GBS in urine were detected in amounts as low as 100 CFU/ml. Vaginal culturing for GBS was obtained from a selected group of 481 women.

    Results: There was no difference in the prevalence of GBS in the urine among women with BV compared with women with lactobacilli flora (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Vaginal presence of GBS was found among 17.3% of women with BV and among 23.5% of women with lactobacilli flora (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.3-1.4). Among the 105 women who had vaginal GBS, the urine culture of GBS was positive in only 21.9% of cases.

    Conclusions: Even though women with BV. have much higher concentration of bacteria in the vagina, they do not necessarily have more GBS in the vagina or urine. The modest correlation between positive vaginal culture and positive urine culture of GBS question the value of urinary culture for detection of vaginal GBS.

  • 49.
    Ericson, Hanna
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Sunnergren, Malin
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    The recollection of morning sickness and their support system as documented by women post pregnancy2013In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5205, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nausea during pregnancy affects about ten percent of all pregnant women. The causes of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy are unclear. The condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte derangement, impaired organ function and lead to serious health issues or even death if left untreated. The treatment conducted today is symptomatic and is not completely satisfactory.

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe women’s experience of morning sickness and their experience of support.

    Design: Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed by qualitative content analysis.

    Participants: Nine women responded to the survey.

    Results: The result shows that women who suffer from morning sickness during pregnancy feel a loss of control over their lives which has a significant impact on their mental and physical health making it difficult to function normally. Feelings of isolation, loneliness and alien- ation are common. It is essential that midwives are attentive in order to provide the help and support that these women require.

    Conclusion: It is essential that the personnel providing the care are knowledgeable about the condition. More research is necessary to find the root cause of the condition in order to develop effective strategies for treatment.

     

  • 50.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    et al.
    Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Forsum, Urban
    Hälsouniversitetet Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs Sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden.
    Prevalens och incidens av BV hos Ålands befolkning under fem år2008Conference paper (Refereed)
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