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  • 1.
    Armstrong, Jo
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Walby, Sylvia
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Context Study Ireland2008Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Armstrong, Jo
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Walby, Sylvia
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Issue Histories Ireland: Series of Timelines of Policy Debates2007Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Armstrong, Jo
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Walby, Sylvia
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Intersectionality and the quality of gendered employment policy2009Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Armstrong, Jo
    et al.
    Walby, Sylvia
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The gendered division of labour: how can we assess the quality of employment and care policy from a gender equality perspective?2009In: Benefits: a Journal of Social Security Research, Policy And Practice, ISSN 0962-7898, E-ISSN 1741-7325, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 263-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating the quality of employment and care policy in relation to gender equality is important given the continuing inequalities between men and women in paid and unpaid work. However, assessment raises dilemmas: quality according to what criteria; quality for whom; and quality of what? It is proposed here that good quality means transformation in gender relations towards an equal distribution of paid and unpaid work, equal pay and de-segregation; that sensitivity to differences between women is required, but not the adoption of different quality standards; and that working towards the goal of transformation demands consideration of several interconnected policy arenas. Assessing quality is difficult; but it is possible - and it is crucial to achieving gender equality.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Lina
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Qualitative indications of inequalities produced by COVID-19 and its policy responses: RESISTIRÉ 1st cycle summary report.2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report on qualitative indications of inequalities reports on the identification of inequalities produced by COVID-19 and/or (re)produced by its policy responses. It is based on the collection and analysis of qualitative data identified within the framework developed in RESISTIRÉ. It derives from extensive, mixed methods to gather data in the project’s first of three research cycles. It includes workshops and interviews with inequality experts, and narrative interviews with individual people living throughout Europe. These provide us with insights on the impact of COVID from both professional and personal perspectives, including the insights and experiences from experts in civil society, experts in public authorities, academics, and the individual stories of lived experiences during COVID-19. These insights allow us to analyse the behavioural, economic, social, and environmental impacts of COVID-19 from a gender+ perspective and on vulnerable/marginalised groups. Through this data collection and analysis, the report provides analytical insights during the second year of the outbreak.  

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Education, Center for Feminist Social Studies.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Gender Studies, Center for Feminist Social Studies.
    Minority migrant men's attitudes toward female genital mutilation: Developing strategies to engage men2020In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 709-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores minority migrant men's attitudes towards female genital mutilation (FGM), and how these attitudes can be used to develop strategies to engage men in the eradication of FGM. Based on interviews and focus group discussions, the article finds that men's attitudes can be enabling, disabling or neutral: the identification of and variations between these need to be taken into account when developing strategies to engage men in the eradication of FGM. There is currently a window of opportunity for involving minority migrant men in the prevention of FGM and in the challenging of a minority migrant gender regime.

  • 7.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Särnstedt, Emmie
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar: En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017-2018: Del II: Redovisning av den kvalitativa delstudien i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm2018Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar: En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018
  • 8.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Complexities facing social work: Honor-based violence as lived reality and stereotype2024In: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: It is widely accepted that honor-based violence is a lived reality and a serious problem. However, honor-based violence is also a contested academic and political field, characterized by a polarized debate about whether or not the violence comprises stereotyping images of immigrants. This article asks how honor-based violence can be understood in light of this polarization, and what consequences it may have for clients and social workers. It is based on interview data with 235 adults with either professional (n = 199) or personal experiences (n = 36) of honor-based violence in Sweden. The data has been thematically coded and analyzed using the concepts of culturalization and intersectionality.

    Findings: Honor-based violence is simultaneously a lived reality and teeming with stereotypes that are constructed by culturalizing images of nation, gender, age, religion, and sexuality. These stereotypes constitute forms of violence themselves and decrease clients’ trust in society and its institutions. Hence, the stereotypes become obstacles to social workers’ capacity to support those exposed to violence. At a general level, the stereotypes contribute to retaining the exposed in violence. In contrast, intersectional approaches to understanding honor-based violence have the potential to capture clients’ self-perceived and complex formulations of the causes of, and the character of, their situation, and thus increase the possibilities for adequate support.

    Applications: The article's findings can support social workers’ understanding of the complexity of honor-based violence and strengthen their possibilities and capacities to develop antiracist and nonviolent communicative practices and, thus, acknowledge clients’ varying experiences and individual needs.

  • 9.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Migration, Honour, Violence and Inequality: Developing Isolation and Mobility as Mechanisms of Honour Related Violence2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to contribute to the expanding knowledge-base for reducing honour related violence (HRV), that has becomeincreasingly complicated, not to say corrupt, by ongoing neoliberalism and right-wing agendas.

    HRV is a serious problem with complex roots, causes and sometimes deadly consequences. It is a contested academic and political fieldconstructed through various borders, boundaries, and intersections such as nation, ethnicity, gender, age, sexuality, religion, and migration.

    The paper examines some of these borders, boundaries, and intersections by analysing the expressions, prevalence, and patterns of HRV in Sweden, a historically social democratic and femocratic welfare state, challenged by increasing social, economic, and political inequalities,and a mainstream discourse describing HRV as a distinctively dangerous form of violence linked to culture, religion, and migrants’ failure to‘assimilate’ to Nordic ideals of gender equality. As such, positionings on HRV have played and continue to play straight into the hands ofnationalist politics, racist agendas, and right-wing assimilationism.

    In contrast, the paper draws on feminist and intersectional sociological theory, at the interface of honour, integration, migration, to develop theconcepts of isolation and mobility. It is based on a substantial qualitative and quantitative empirical material: focus groups and individual in-depth interviews with people with direct, personal experiences and indirect, professional experiences of HRV (n=259) and three surveysanswered by fifteen-year-olds in Swedish metropolitan areas (n=6002).

    The paper shows first, how isolation and mobility reinforce or weakenhonour norms and violence, respectively

  • 10.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Storstadskartläggningen om hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Särnstedt Gramnaes, Emmie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Enelo, Jan-Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Heder och samhälle: Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är resultatet av den hittills mest omfattande studien av det hedersrelaterade våldets uttryck, former och mekanismer som genomförts i Sverige. Studien bygger på kvalitativa och kvantitativa delstudier och har gjorts på uppdrag av Stockholms, Göteborgs och Malmö stad 2017–2018. Bredden gör studien unik inom detta område. Den kvalitativa datainsamlingen: 235 nyckelpersoner med djupgående kunskap om hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck har intervjuats i 95 öppna intervjuer. Några av intervjupersonerna har kunskap utifrån sitt arbete eller från sitt engagemang i föreningar. Andra har kunskap på grund av egen erfarenhet av livet i en hederskontext och av utsatthet för våld och förtryck. Några har båda dessa positioner. Den kvantitativa datainsamlingen: 6 002 ungdomar i årskurs nio har besvarat en enkät om relationer, begränsningar och olika former av utsatthet i hemmet, skolan och på fritiden. Det sammantagna resultatet visar att människor med olika etniska tillhörigheter, trosuppfattningar, funktionsnedsättningar, sexuell läggning, ålder och socioekonomiska förhållanden lever med våldsutsatthet och normer som förtrycker dem. Vidare visas att hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck är uttryck för olika svårigheter som kan sammanfattas med begreppen inneslutning och mobilitet på individ-, grupp- och samhällsnivå och i samspelet mellan dessa. Inneslutning och mobilitet betecknar att våldsutövning ökar i introverta eller inneslutna grupper där samspelet med andra grupper är låg; dvs. att mobiliteten är låg. Hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck närs bland annat av minoritetsskap, särskilt i kombination med kollektiv statslöshet, krig, migration och segregation. Social, ekonomisk och politisk rörlighet urholkar däremot våldsnormerna och minskar våldsanvändandet. Sammantaget visar resultatet att hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck drabbar individer på ett flertal sätt och att samhället genom socialpolitiken bör ta ett förnyat ansvar på flera nivåer, både akut, kortsiktigt och långsiktigt.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Heder och samhälle: Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar
  • 12.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Disperse violence: gender-based violence and environmental violence2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is part of the session Violence Regimes: Analysing the Multiplicity of Gendered Violence(s). Violence regime is a framework developed for analysing the multiplicity of violence(s) (Hearn et al 2018; Strid et al 2018). The framework concerns direct and indirect violence; across four pillars of comprehensiveness; across macro, meso and micro levels; often with increasing amount of time and space between act and impact; and vary in both manifestation and understanding of violence, extending the continuum of violence (Kelly 1988) across four pillars: Deadly, Damaging, Diffuse and Dispersed violence.

    Empirically, this paper explores manifestations of violence in the first and fourth pillar of the violence regime framework:  deadly and direct forms of violence such as homicide, femicide and suicide; and dispersed manifestations not necessarily understood as violence, usually indirect, sometimes directed towards a group but with a less easily identifiable ‘victim’ or ‘object; manifestations not usually recognized as violence; e.g. environmental destruction. Two different cases will be discussed, 1) automobility and 2) killings of animals for food, both associated with negative impact on the environment. First, we examine the violent, damaging and deadly effects of automobility across country comparisons of the EU28. Second, we examine slow violence (Nixon 2011) and the levels of slaughtering of animals in relation to the levels of homicide, femicide and suicide through cross country comparisons of the EU28. The paper contributes to the violence regime framework analyzing how manifestations of violence not usually understood as violence correlate with the most direct and deadly forms of violence. 

  • 13.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Disperse violence: gender-based violence and environmental violence2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is part of the session Violence Regimes: Analysing the Multiplicity of Gendered Violence(s). Violence regime is a framework developed for analysing the multiplicity of violence(s) (Hearn et al 2018; Strid et al 2018).

    The framework concerns direct and indirect violence; across four pillars of comprehensiveness; across macro, meso and micro levels; often with increasing amount of time and space between act and impact; and vary in both manifestation and understanding of violence, extending the continuum of violence (Kelly 1988) across four pillars: Deadly, Damaging, Diffuse and Dispersed violence. Empirically, this paper explores manifestations of violence in the first and fourth pillar of the violence regime framework:  deadly and direct forms of violence such as homicide, femicide and suicide; and dispersed manifestations not necessarily understood as violence, usually indirect, sometimes directed towards a group but with a less easily identifiable ‘victim’ or ‘object; manifestations not usually recognized as violence; e.g. environmental destruction. Two different cases will be discussed, 1) automobility and 2) killings of animals for food, both associated with negative impact on the environment.

    First, we examine the violent, damaging and deadly effects of automobility across country comparisons of the EU28. Second, we examine slow violence (Nixon 2011) and the levels of slaughtering of animals in relation to the levels of homicide, femicide and suicide through cross country comparisons of the EU28.

    The paper contributes to the violence regime framework analysing how manifestations of violence not usually understood as violence correlate with the most direct and deadly forms of violence. 

  • 14.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    On violence policy and “women friendly” welfare regimes: From gender regimes to (gender) violence regimes?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    On violence policy and “women friendly” welfare regimes2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to critically interrogate the concepts of gender violence regime and violence regime, and how societal welfare state regimes and gender regimes translate, or do not translate, into gender violence regimes or violence regimes. Taking violence as the point of departure, this paper addresses violence as problem with many contested meanings and politics. Welfare state regime research (Esping-Andersen 1990, 1992), including that on gender welfare regimes (e.g. Lewis 1992; Sainsbury 1999), has generated different frames, for understanding the problem of violence. It is argued that some welfare regimes are more women-friendly than others. However, empirical bases for these conclusions often exclude violence; welfare state regime research has thereby overlooked one of the most substantial, deep-rooted causes and consequences of gendered inequalities. The question is, is assumptions of women-friendliness turned upside down when gender-based violence is taken into account? 

  • 16.
    Bares Lopez, Lydia
    et al.
    University of Cadiz, Faculty of Law, General Economics, Cadiz, Spain.
    Costanza, Francesca
    LUMSA University Rome, Department of Law, Palermo, Italy.
    Ortega Gil, Manuela
    University of Cadiz, Faculty of Law, General Economics, Cadiz, Spain.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Sociology and Work Science, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Integrating Gender Equality in Economics and Management2023In: Gender-Competent Legal Education / [ed] Dragica Vujadinović; Mareike Fröhlich; Thomas Giegerich, Springer, 2023, 1, p. 631-666Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with gender economics, gender and management, and genderand innovation. After introducing the general concept of feminist economics andits critique of mainstream economics, this chapter explains the meaning of genderindicators, gender parity, gender equality, and gender mainstreaming. It furtherinvestigates the factors causing inequalities in the labour market. Gender isafterwards addressed from a managerial perspective, embracing a multidimen-sional notion of performance, and considering both the management of privateand public organisations. Finally, the topic gender and innovation is deepened byexplaining the importance of intellectual property rights, as well as the poorvisibility of women inventors in society.

  • 17.
    Bruno, Linnéa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hoppet i mobilisering och arbete2021In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 130-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bruno, Linnéa
    et al.
    Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Reproduktiva rättigheter: för vem?2019In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 40, no 3-4, p. 166-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Centre for Feminist Social Studies.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Department of Sociology and Work Science, Gothenburg, Sweden; Örebro University. School of Humanities Education, and Social Sciences, Centre for Feminist Social Studies, Sweden.
    Gender mainstreaming in times of crisis: Missed opportunities in pandemic policymaking2023In: Papers: Revista de Sociologia, ISSN 0210-2862, Vol. 108, no 3, article id e3174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematises gender-mainstreaming in Swedish policy responses to COVID-19 in relation to economic politics. The aim is to understand how gender mainstreaming was implemented, and with what effects. Little is still known about gender mainstreaming in crisis management and policymaking, and even less is known in relation to pandemic policy responses. To contribute to this field of knowledge, the article therefore analyses the Swedish National Recovery and Resilience Plan, supplemented by interviews with public servants, to understand the factors that impact the implementation of gender mainstream-ing in policymaking in times of societal crises. At a theoretical level, the article draws on feminist institutionalism and implementation studies, the notion of resilience, and insights from critical frame analysis. The data is based on a larger dataset collected as part of the EU-funded RESISTIRe: Responding to Outbreaks through Co-creative Inclusive Equality Strategies project. The results indicate that gender mainstreaming is limited in its rationale and scope in times of crisis and that the integration of a gender equality perspective in crisis management needs to be developed in several important ways.

  • 20.
    Delaunay, Marine
    et al.
    Bordeaux University, France.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gendered violence regimes: Context, policy and practice in intimate partner violence in France and Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues for more complex analyses of welfare state gender regimes by focusing on a key element frequently forgotten in cross-national comparisons: intimate partner violence (IPV) and responses thereto, especially criminal justice system (CJS) responses. We return to the notions of gender regime and welfare regimes, and critically elaborate them through the notion of gendered violence regime, to analyse gendered socio-political and judicial institutions and practices. According to Haney (2004), welfare state regimes, gender regimes and judicial regimes tend to match together in how policies are named, debated and implemented. However, many comparative welfare analyses do not attend to violence; moreover, violence and responses thereto are rooted in institutions and inequality regimes (Walby 2008).

    Building on earlier work (Hearn, Strid et al. 2016), we use comparative methods to address discursive dynamics and judicial practices in France and Sweden in the light of transformations in gender regimes, illustrative of broader contextualizing and theoretical concerns. First, we review relevant laws and policy, inspired by the Critical Frame Analysis (Verloo 2007), noting differences, similarities and convergences in welfare and judicial systems. Second, we focus on judicial practices in two countries, particularly in CJS treatment of IPV. In Sweden, more explicitly gendered structural policy is accompanied by cases being constructed and treated more individually by professionals with real expertise on domestic violence; while in more corporatist regime France, only very serious cases are so treated, and less individual, more proceduralised assessment of cases by workdays lost is used. CJS procedure impact the construction and definition of the problem, especially regarding how professionals consider the gendering and seriousness of the violence in making a case.

    Finally, we critically interrogate how useful “regime” typologies are, including in providing avenues for intersectional analyses combining sociological theories of change (Muller 2005) and transformation (Felstiner et al. 1980).

  • 21.
    Gottzén, Lucas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sweden: Femicide Across Europe2018In: Femicide Across Europe: Theory, Research and Prevention / [ed] Shalva Weil, Consuela Corradi and Marcekine Naudi, Bristol: Policy Press, 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gunnarsson, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Chemistry or service? Sugar daddies’ (re)quest for mutuality within the confines of commercial exchange2022In: Journal of Sex Research, ISSN 0022-4499, E-ISSN 1559-8519, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 309-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emergence and global proliferation of ‘sugar dating’ websites, the phenomenon of sugar dating is gaining increased attention. Sugar dating is described by these websites as arrangements based on an exchange of financial or other forms of support for intimacy and companionship. The framing of sugar dating as something in-between a business transaction and mutually enjoyable dating serves as the point of departure of this article, which draws on semi-structured interviews and a survey questionnaire with ‘sugar daddies’ engaged in heterosexual sugar dating in Sweden. The article examines how the tension between economic instrumentality and the ideal of mutual enjoyment is played out in ‘sugar daddies’ accounts of their sugar dating experiences. We demonstrate that the participants desire encounters with ‘sugar babies’ to be based on both sexual and relational mutuality, i.e., they want the women to enjoy being with them beyond the economic rewards. We show that the men’s use of economic incentives to gain access to ‘sugar babies’ stands in a relationship of tension with their desire for interactions to be based on mutuality. However, through various mechanisms they still manage to reap the fruits of the experience of mutuality offered in sugar dating encounters.

  • 23.
    Gunnarsson, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Dimensional Theories of Abuse: The case of sugar dating2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation adresses what we call Dimensional Theories of Abuse, that set of feminist theories which point out the interlinkages between normative and abusive gender relations. Through concepts such as ‘grey area’, ‘continuum’ and ‘dimensional view’ feminist scholars in the field of violence research have analysed how gendered normalcy and abuse often meet/co-mingle/overlap in ways that obscure the boundary between them. For example, whereas love and violence are commonly seen as radically different experiences, possessiveness may be part as much of a passionate love dynamic as of intimate partner violence. Similarly, it is not always easy to neatly distinguish conventional relationships based on economic dependence from prostitution. Further, as scholars in the field of sexual violence have pointed out, normative heterosexual scripts are organized in line with a gendered logic of conquering which has much in common with the dynamics of sexual violence.

    In the presentation we compare different ways of conceptualizing gendered abuse in dimensional terms, analysing some tensions among and within different approaches. One key tension revolves around the fact that dimensional thinking affirms the similarities between the normative and the abusive, while at the same time taking their difference as their point of departure. Some theories tend to emphasize the similarities – ‘it’s all abuse but to different degrees’ – whereas some affirm that there is a divide between the abusive and non-abusive but that this divide is more of a murky grey area than a clear line. We identify potentials and problems with both tendencies and suggest ways forward in feminist dimensional thinking.

  • 24.
    Gunnarsson, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Mapping sugar dating in Sweden2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the launch of the first sugar dating site in Sweden in 2017, sugar dating has recurred as a hot topic in media and public debate. Although, as this paper will address, the very definition of sugar dating is contested, it is generally comprised of an arrangement between a ‘sugar babe’ and a ‘sugar daddy’ (or sometimes ‘mama’), where dating and/or sex is compensated for by the daddy in the form of money and/or other gifts. 

    The aim of this paper is to map the practices of sugar dating in a Swedish context, answering two broad questions:

    • What are the practices of sugar dating?
    • Who are the sugar daters?

    The paper is based on qualitative and quantitative data from an ongoing Forte-funded research project on sugar dating. The bulk of the material was gathered in 2019 and consists of three sets of empirical data: semi-structured interviews with sugar babes and sugar daddies; survey data of members of a major sugar dating site; and membership data of registered users of the same sugar dating site.

    The paper uses a broad definition of sugar dating, reflecting the participants’ own understandings. A striking feature in the material is the wide variety of practices engaged in under the rubric of ‘sugar dating’, including: the straight-forward selling of sex; economically compensated relationships imitating conventional coupledom; fancy, gender-traditional dates paid for by the ‘daddy’ and ending with sex (with or without additional monetary compensation); and economically compensated online relationships with no sexual content. This multiplicity contrasts both with the wide-spread discourse in Swedish public debate that sugar dating is simply a cover for conventional prostitution, and with the sugar dating industry’s – and some sugar dating researchers’ – claims that sugar dating is something other than prostitution.

  • 25.
    Gunnarsson, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Varieties of Sugar Dating in Sweden: Content, Compensation, Motivations2023In: Social problems, ISSN 0037-7791, E-ISSN 1533-8533, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 1044-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emergence and global proliferation of “sugar dating” websites, the phenomenon of sugar dating is increasingly on the public agenda. Sugar dating is described by thesesites as dating arrangements based on an exchange of intimacy and companionship for financial or other forms of support. Given that sex is often part of the arrangements, claims are widespread, yet disputed, that sugar dating is a form of prostitution. Based on interviews and a survey questionnaire, this article maps the practice of heterosexual sugar dating in Sweden as described by “sugar babies” and “sugar daddies” themselves. It shows a striking diversity in regard to what sugar dating means for participants, both in terms of what they do when sugar dating and in terms of how money and/or other material goods are involved in arrangements. A further key difference between sugar dating arrangements is whether “sugar babies” enter them for purely instrumental reasons or enjoy them in and of them-selves. Although not all kinds of sugar dating include sex, we argue that sugar dating sitesshould be seen as key actors in the expansion of the sex (and intimacy) industry, drawing on and articulating pre-existing tendencies within it.

  • 26.
    Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Delaunay, Marine
    Bordeaux University, Bourdeaux, France.
    Lost in translation: The connections and disjunctions between welfare regimes, gender regimes and violence regimes2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Lost intranslation: The connections and disjunctions between welfare regimes, gender regimes and violence regimes
  • 27.
    Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Delaunay, Marine
    Centre Emile Durkheim, Bordeaux University, France.
    Losing Violence in Translation: Theorising gender violence regimes2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper critically interrogates the concept of gender violence regime, and how welfare state regimes translate, or not, into gender violence regimes. We begin with clarification of concepts and meanings of welfare/gender system/order/regime, explaining why we focus on ‘regime’. Despite the significance of violence, mainstream social sciences and social theory have often either avoided it or underestimated its importance (special issues Current Sociology, 61(2)2013; 64(4)2016 address such changes in theorising). Welfare state regime research (Esping-Andersen), including gender regimes, has generated different frames, reflecting debate on naming and framing the problem. They have often concluded that some welfare regimes are more women-friendly than others. However, empirical bases for these conclusions often exclude violence and anti-violence responses; welfare state regime research has thereby overlooked one of the most substantial, deep-rooted causes and consequences of gendered inequalities.

    The paper utilises existing survey data to examine how changing welfare state regime typologies, developed by Esping-Andersen and taken further by feminist research, translate or not, into a gender violence typology: when violence is introduced, are previous results still valid? We draw on collective work within major research programmes (EUFP6 “Coordination Action on Human Rights Violations” CAHRV 2004-2007; EUFP6 “Quality in Gender+ Equality Policy in Europe” QUING 2006-2011; Swedish Research Council “Feminist Theorizings of Intersectionality, Transversal Dialogues and New Synergies” 2012-2017), and interpret their findings to theoretically address and develop typologies of welfare state regime and gender violence regime.

    The paper takes up challenges in taking violence, especially violence against women, seriously by addressing changes in: 1) welfare state structuring; 2) the place of violence in contemporary state regulation, gender relations, and their intersection; and 3) configurations of violence and responses thereto, including criminal justice system responses to violence against women. In sum, the paper critically considers the contribution of the concept of gender violence regime.

  • 28.
    Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Human Geography, and Centre for Feminist Social Studies, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Sociology, Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Gender Studies, and Centre for Violence Studies.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Centre for Diversity Policy Research and Practice, Oxford Brookes Business School, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Oxford, UK.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Gender Studies, and Centre for Violence Studies.
    Violence Regimes: A Useful Concept for Social Politics, Social Analysis, and Social Theory2022In: Theory and society, ISSN 0304-2421, E-ISSN 1573-7853, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 565-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper critically interrogates the usefulness of the concept of violence regimes for social politics, social analysis, and social theory. In the first case, violence regimes address and inform politics and policy, that is, social politics, both around various forms of violence, such as gender-based violence, violence against women, anti-lesbian, gay and transgender violence, intimate partner violence, and more widely in terms of social and related policies and practices on violence and anti-violence. In the second case, violence regimes assist social analysis of the interconnections of different forms and aspects of violence, and relative autonomy from welfare regimes and gender regimes. Third, the violence regime concept engages a wider range of issues in social theory, including the exclusion of the knowledges of the violated, most obviously, but not only, when the voices and experiences of those killed are unheard. The concept directs attention to assumptions made in social theory as incorporating or neglecting violence. More specifically, it highlights the significance of: social effects beyond agency; autotelic ontology, that is, violence as a means and end in itself, and an inequality in itself; the relations of violence, sociality and social relations; violence and power, and the contested boundary between them; and materiality-discursivity in violence and what is to count as violence. These are key issues for both violence studies and social theory more generally.

  • 29.
    Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Finland; Sociology, Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, UK; Institute for Social and Health Studies, University of South Africa.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Centre for Diversity Policy Research and Practice, Oxford Brookes Business School, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Delaunay, Marine
    Centre Emile Durkheim (UMR 5116), Department of Sociology, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    From gender regimes to violence regimes: Re-thinking the position of violence2022In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 682-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when we focus primarily on violence as a central question—either within the gender regime approach or by making violence regime an approach in itself? The article first interrogates gender regimes theoretically and empirically through a focus on violence, and then develops violence regimes as a fruitful approach, conceptualizing violence as inequality in its own right, and a means to deepen the analysis of gender relations, gender domination, and policy. The article is a contribution to ongoing debate, which specifically and critically engages with the gender regime framework.

  • 30.
    Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Delaunay, Marine
    Bourdeaux University, Bourdeaux, France.
    Rethinking the place of violence: The interrelations between welfare regimes, gender regimes and violence regimes2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when we focus primarily on violence as a central question – either within the gender regime approach or by making violence regime an approach in itself? The paper first interrogates gender regimes theoretically and empirically through a focus on violence, and then develops violence regimes as a fruitful approach, conceptualizing violence as inequality in its own right, and a means to deepen analysis of gender relations, gender domination, and policy. 

  • 31.
    Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Husu, Liisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Interrogating violence against women and state violence policy through gendered intersectionalities and intersectional gender: local, national and transnational contexts2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper arises from collective work within the 5-year Swedish Research Council project, “Feminist Theorizings of Intersectionality, Transversal Dialogues and New Synergies”, organised within GEXcel Collegium for Advanced Transdisciplinary Gender Studies (Örebro-Karlstad-Linköping Universities), with specific focus on violence seen as inequalities (Hearn, Sociological Review, 2012; Current Sociology, 2013). The larger project examines intersectionality in gender studies, in relation and dialogue with the diverse, sometimes conflictual, theoretical and political positions in feminist debates (Walby, Armstrong, Strid, 2012; Strid et al. Social Politics, forthcoming). The project is designed against this background of rich, diverse feminist traditions for theorizing of intersectionality, and informed by tensions between these traditions. This paper takes up this challenge in terms of violence, especially violence against women, and state policy thereon, addressing the place of violence in contemporary state regulation and intersectional gender relations. The paper examines the complex, situated and spatial relationship between theorizing on violence against women and state policy on such violence (Hearn and McKie, Policy & Politics, 2008; Violence Against Women, 2010). This focus continues feminist traditions on multiple linkages between practice, politics, policy and theory, in local, national and transnational contexts. More specifically, drawing on extensive comparative European data at local, national and transnational, it explores the concepts of gendered intersectionalities and intersectional gender by examining how multiple inequalities, long been prominent in feminist activism and intervention on violence, are made (in)visible and conceptualized in state gender-based violence policy and debates. Attention is paid especially to tendencies to degendering strategies in violence research and state policy. A key aim of the paper is to investigate how analysis can be a starting point for assessing if, how and to what extent the inclusion of multiple inequalities could increase the quality of policy, for both reducing and stopping violence, and assisting those subject to violence.

  • 32.
    Hearn, Jeff
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Husu, Liisa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Verloo, Mieke
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Interrogating violence against women and state violence policy: Gendered intersectionalities and the quality of policy in The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK2016In: Current Sociology, ISSN 0011-3921, E-ISSN 1461-7064, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 551-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article builds on feminist scholarship on intersectionality to address violence against women, and state policy thereon. It takes up the challenge of analysing the complex, situated and spatial relationship between theorizing on violence against women and state policy on such violence. Drawing on extensive comparative European data, it explores the relations of gender and intersectionality, conceptualized as gendered intersectionalities, by examining how multiple inequalities are made visible and invisible in state policy and debates in the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. Attention is paid to different forms of gendered intersectionalities in policy, for example, tendencies to degender violence against women. A key aim of the article is to investigate how comparative analysis can be a starting point for assessing if, how and to what extent the inclusion of multiple inequalities could increase the quality of policy, for both reducing and stopping violence, and assisting those subject to violence.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Interrogating violence against women and state violence policy - Gendered intersectionalities and the quality of policy in The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK
  • 33.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    et al.
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Contextual and methodological factors affecting the prevalence of violence against women across the EU2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    et al.
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Undoing the Nordic paradox2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the so-called Nordic gender equality paradox, whereby rates of gender-based violence are higher in countries that are typically associated with greater gender equality (Gracia and Merlo, 2016). In this paper, we want to explore the ‘Nordic Paradox’ further. We critically examine EU Agency for Fundamental Rights’ (FRA) EU-wide survey on violence against women as measure of prevalence (2012). While recognising the rigorous and robust methodology employed by such surveys, we also recognise that they only capture disclosed violence as opposed to actual levels of violence. This means that we conceptualise actual violence as the sum of disclosed and undisclosed violence. The ‘Nordic Paradox’ needs to be reassessed in relation to this conceptual shift. It might be for example that it is not that there is more violence in Nordic countries, but instead greater awareness, less acceptance and therefore higher levels of disclosure. In this analysis, we therefore consider a range of methodological and contextual factors of relevance to prevalence data on violence against women. In a second related step, we use the results of these analyses to provide a tentative ‘corrected’ ranking of EU countries. We discuss similarities and differences between the two classifications, and draw out methodological and policy implications. 

  • 35.
    Humbert, Anne Laure
    et al.
    Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Undoing the ‘Nordic Paradox': Factors affecting rates of disclosed violence against women across the EU2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 5, article id e0249693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring violence against women raises methodological questions, as well as the wider question of how to understand violence and locate it in relation to a societal context. This is all the more relevant given that measurement of violence against women in the EU has made an interesting phenomenon apparent, the so-called 'Nordic Paradox', whereby prevalence is higher in more gender equal countries. This article examines this phenomenon by exploring a range of factors – methodological, demographic and societal – to contextualise disclosed levels of violence. The analysis makes use of a multilevel analytic approach to take into account how macro and micro levels contribute to the prevalence of violence. The intercepts are then used to illustrate how taking these into account might provide an alternative ranking of levels of violence against women in EU countries. The results show that the 'Nordic Paradox' disappears – and can be undone – when factors at individual and country levels are considered. We conclude that the 'Nordic Paradox' cannot be understood independently from a wider pattern of violence in society, and should be seen as connected and co-constituted in specific formations, domains or regimes of violence. Our results show that the use of multi-level models can provide new insights into the factors that may be related to disclosed prevalence of violence against women. This can generate a better understanding of how violence against women functions as a system, and in turn inform better policy responses.

  • 36. Humbert, Anne Laure
    et al.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Tanwar, Jagriti
    Lipinsky, Anke
    Schredl, Claudia
    The role of intersectionality and context in measuring gender-based violence in universities and research performing organisations in Europe for the development of inclusive structural interventions2023In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Jónasdóttir, Anna G.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Introduction2011In: GEXcel work in progress report volume IX: Proceedings from GEXcel theme 10: Love in our time - a question for feminism. Conference of Workshops 2-4 December 2010 / [ed] Sofia Strid, Anna G. Jónasdóttir, Örebro and Linköping: Örebro University and Linköping University , 2011, p. 17-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    López Belloso, María
    et al.
    University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain.
    Strid, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Navigating the pandemic: Gendered perspectives on vulnerability, resilience and institutional change in times of crisis2023In: Papers: Revista de Sociologia, ISSN 0210-2862, Vol. 108, no 3, article id e3243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has been a multifaceted crisis, impacting health, the economy, policy and society at large, and also resulting in a humanitarian crisis. These crises have impacted everyone, although the effects have been unevenly distributed, leading to further disadvantage and marginalisation for those who were already vulnerable and marginalised. The pandemic laid bare and intensified pre-existing gender inequalities in many aspects of life, from the labor market and educational opportunities to health and social protection systems. The unequal impacts on women and men have been observed in the economy and employment, in domestic work and care, in physical and mental health, and in violence. The collection of articles in this special issue critically interrogates these key issues relat-ing to the impact of the pandemic on gender equality in Europe, highlighting exacerbated gender inequalities, policy responses and the potential for a gender-responsive recovery. This special issue brings together a collection of eight articles that investigate various aspects of gender inequality exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, and that explore potential pathways towards achieving greater gender equality in the post-pandemic world. They summarise the findings and contributions of several social scientists and also of two EU funded projects: RESISTIRe (GA 101015990) and GEARING Roles (GA 824536). The articles are structured around five main themes: labor market disparities, education and skill development, social and political responses, post-pandemic opportunities, and care. Each article contributes unique insights, empirical findings and policy recommendations from a feminist perspective to enrich the ongoing discourse on gender equality. Together, the articles show the necessity of feminist analysis of crisis, and reveal the structural roots of inequalities while simultaneously emphasising the necessity for transformative action to address inequalities.

  • 39.
    Mergaert, Lut
    et al.
    Yellow Window.
    Arnaut, Catarina
    Yellow Window.
    Exterkate, Marja
    O'Brien, Siobán
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Leye, Els
    Novak, Fadela (Contributor)
    Candler, Philippa (Contributor)
    Langbakk, Virginija (Author of afterword, colophon, etc.)
    European Institute for Gender Equality.
    Estimation of girls at risk of female genital mutilation in the European Union2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Mergaert, Lut
    et al.
    Yellow Window, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Linkova, Marcela
    Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Feminist Social Studies, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Theorising Gender-Based Violence Policies: A 7P Framework2023In: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and critically interrogates a comprehensive 7Ps framework for analysing and addressing gender-based violence. It takes the UN and the Council of Europe's models as points of departure and develops the framework beyond the current state of the art, explains its different components, and offers reflections on its use in the practice of gender-based violence research. The UN 3P model, encompassing prevention, protection, and prosecution, later developed by the Council of Europe's Istanbul Convention into a 4P model, comprising prevention, protection, prosecution, and integrated policies, has since been revisited, elaborated upon, and expanded in work focusing on gender-based violence in particular domains, such as female genital mutilation or gender-based violence in sport. To study gender-based violence in academia, the comprehensive 7Ps analytical framework has been deployed to interrogate the policies in place at national and institutional levels, including sexual harassment. Based on empirical data and conceptual analysis in the EU project UniSAFE: Gender-based violence and institutional responses: Building a knowledge base and operational tools to make universities and research organisations safe (2021-2024), the paper argues that the refined 7Ps model, comprising Prevalence, Prevention, Protection, Prosecution of offenders (and disciplinary measures), Provision of services, Partnerships between actors, and Policies specifically addressing the issue, allows for a more encompassing approach, in turn allowing a more fine-grained understanding of variations and explanations for success (or lack thereof) in terms of outcomes.

  • 41.
    Saeidzadeh, Zara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Intersectionality of trans and feminism: The politics of recognition2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Saeidzadeh, Zara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Trans* Politics and the Feminist Project: Revisiting the Politics of Recognition to Resolve Impasses2020In: Politics and Governance, E-ISSN 2183-2463, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 312-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debates on, in, and between feminist and trans* movements have been politically intense at best and aggressively hostile at worst. The key contestations have revolved around three issues: First, the question of who constitutes a woman; second, what constitute feminist interests; and third, how trans* politics intersects with feminist politics. Despite decades of debates and scholarship, these impasses remain unbroken. In this article, our aim is to work out a way through these impasses. We argue that all three types of contestations are deeply invested in notions of identity, and therefore dealt with in an identitarian way. This has not been constructive in resolving the antagonistic relationship between the trans* movement and feminism. We aim to disentangle the antagonism within anti-trans* feminist politics on the one hand, and trans* politics’ responses to that antagonism on the other. In so doing, we argue for a politics of status-based recognition (drawing on Fraser, 2000a, 2000b) instead of identity-based recognition, highlighting individuals’ specific needs in society rather than women’s common interests (drawing on Jónasdóttir, 1991), and conceptualising the intersections of the trans* movement and feminism as mutually shaping rather than as trans* as additive to the feminist project (drawing on Walby, 2007, and Walby, Armstrong, and Strid, 2012). We do this by analysing the main contemporary scholarly debates on the relationship between the trans* movement and feminism within feminist and trans* politics. Unafraid of a polemic approach, our selection of material is strategic and illuminates the specific arguments put forward in the article.

  • 43.
    Sandström, Lina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Axelsson, Tobias K.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bobek, Alicja
    Technological University Dublin, Ireland.
    RESISTIRÉ: Building back better? Qualitative indications of inequalities produced by Covid-19 and its policy and societal responses. Second cycle summary report. Deliverable report D4.22022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of RESISTIRÉ is to understand the unequal impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak and its policy and societal responses on behavioural, social and economic inequalities and to work towards individual and societal resilience. RESISTIRÉ does so by collecting and analysing policy data, quantitative data and qualitative data in the EU27, Iceland, Serbia, Turkey and the UK, and translating these into insights to be used for designing, devising and piloting solutions for improved policies and social innovations, which in turn can be deployed by policymakers, stakeholders and actors in the field across different policy domains. The project relies on a ten-partner multidisciplinary and multisectoral European consortium, and a well-established network of researchers in 31 countries. 

    The aim of this report is to analyse the gender+ inequality dimensions and the impacts that policies and societal responses implemented in Europe as a response to COVID-19 have had on people, to give voice to those people and groups who may not have been heard in the public debate, and to identify enablers and obstacles towards recovery, with a specific focus on four domains: gender-based violence, education, work and care; and with a specific focus on vulnerable groups, including: LGBTQI+, migrants, young people. 

    The report is based on three methods of qualitative data collection: pan-European workshops, expert interviews and narrative interviews. The material is extensive; all in all it includes 368 individuals, who generously shared their knowledge and experiences as activists and experts in civil society, public authorities and academia, and as individuals with lived experiences during COVID-19 across Europe. The data were collected via three pan-European workshops with inequality experts from civil society representing the voices of specific target groups, public authority experts and academics (n=38); semi-structured interviews with predominantly public authority experts and academics (n=24); and via individual narrative interviews with people from across Europe (n=306) and analysed using thematic analysis. The workshops addressed the domains gender-based violence, work, and education. The semi-structured interviews collected data from the national level in the same domains, as well as the care domain. The narrative interviews were conducted and analysed by the consortium partners and a network of 21 national researchers covering the EU27, Iceland, Serbia, Turkey, and the UK. 

    In line with the theoretical and conceptual approach of RESISTIRÉ, the report builds on an intersectional approach to gender which acknowledges the mutual shaping of multiple complex inequalities. Based on the research agenda produced in the first cycle, the analysis also draws on concepts of unintended consequences, resilience, recovery and better stories (Živković et al. 2022). 

    The overall findings of this second cycle of qualitative data collection describe a Europe where:

    • recovery is not taking place, despite an extensive political and societal response to the pandemic. Instead, we are witnessing an increase in inequalities, and emerging forms of new inequalities, including
    • Intensification of gender-based violence and emergence of new mechanisms and methods of perpetrating violence. 
    • Educational debts – similar to the health debt - affecting millions of pupils and students around Europe and with long term effects that could be potentially devastating for a whole generation. 
    • Digital poverty, including unequal digital literacy and unequal access to digital tools, was prevalent across all domains and strongly interlinked with gender+ inequalities, but with different effects in different domains. Technological and digital shortages among some groups, influenced individual lives in terms of work and education, social contact and opportunities for health prevention. For instance, elderly and some migrant communities were not provided with health information, booking systems for testing and vaccines in an accessible format. 
    • Time poverty: Although remote work improved work-life balance for some, many women struggled to combine paid work with unpaid care work during the pandemic. 
    • Welfare system favouring insiders: while those with secure employment received some support, others were left without. People relying on casual work in the informal sector and the self-employed stood out as particularly vulnerable. Complicated bureaucratic procedures also excluded some people. 
    • Difficulties (re)entering the labour market: the pandemic made it more challenging for individuals to (re) enter the labour market either because employers were not recruiting new staff or because opportunities for education and training were more limited. 
    • Social isolation and psychological concerns: Tha The pandemic, and the social isolation it has caused, has had a detrimental effect on mental health which was apparent in cycle one. What the second cycle shows is that these effects appear to be persistent for many. A sense of hopelessness and helplessness are coming through strongly in some narratives. 
  • 44.
    Sandström, Lina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lionello, Lorenzo
    Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.
    Rossetti, Federica
    Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.
    RESISTIRE D4.3 Summary report on qualitative indicators - cycle 32023Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of RESISTIRÉ is to understand the unequal impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak and its policy and societal responses on behavioural, social and economic inequalities and to work towards individual and societal resilience. RESISTIRÉ does so by collecting and analysing policy data, quantitative data and qualitative data in the EU27 (except Malta), Iceland, Serbia, Turkey and the UK, and translating these into insights to be used for designing, devising and piloting solutions for improved policies and social innovations, which in turn can be deployed by policymakers, stakeholders and actors in the field across different policy domains. The project relies on an eleven-partner multidisciplinary and multisectoral European consortium and a well-established network of researchers in 30 countries.

    Throughout the course of RESISTIRÉ, research conducted consistently show how already vulnerable and marginalised groups have become even more vulnerable and marginalised; existing inequalities have increased, and new ones have emerged (Axelsson et al. 2021; Cibin et al. 2021, 2022; 2023; Harroche et al. 2023; Sandström et al. 2022; Stovell et al. 2021, 2022). Significantly less overall attention has been paid to practices that may transform inequalities and very little attention has been given to individual agency. The third and final research cycle in RESISTIRÉ therefore looked to the future and shifted focus to individual ‘better stories’ (Georgis 2013; Altınay 2019) and strategic forms of agency (Lister 2004, 2021) of marginalised groups during the pandemic. With an analytical focus on gender+ inequalities, this report addresses the following overall research question: What kind of agency is practiced, or available to practice, by individuals and street-level bureaucrats, with an emphasis on what enables and what hinders strategic agency?

    The report is based on two methods of qualitative data collection: narrative interviews with individuals strategically recruited based on their marginalised or vulnerable profile and semi-structured interviews with front-line workers in public authorities, so called ‘street-level bureaucrats’. The material is extensive; all in all, it includes 321 individuals, who generously shared their knowledge and experiences. The semi-structured interviews with street-level bureaucrats (n=24) covers nine European countries and were conducted by consortium partners. The narrative interviews (n=297) were conducted by the consortium partners and a network of 21 national researchers covering the EU27 (except Malta), and Iceland, Serbia, Turkey, and the UK. The interview material was analysed thematically, drawing on Ruth Lister’s (2004, 2021) typology of agency and an intersectional approach to gender which acknowledges the centrality of gender and the mutual shaping of multiple complex inequalities (Walby et al. 2012).

  • 45.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, SofiaÖrebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.Nyman, MariaÖrebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete, Örebro.
    Vi talar om relationer: Hur kan vi hantera det relationsbaserade våldet?2021Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Vi talar om relationer: Hur kan vi hantera det relationsbaserade våldet?
  • 46.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, SofiaÖrebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.Nyman, MariaÖrebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete, Örebro.
    Vi talar om unga: Hur kan vi hantera våldet i ungas liv?2022Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Vi talar om unga: Hur kan vi hantera våldet i ungas liv?
  • 47.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Anna van der Vleuten: The price of gender equality: member states and governance in the European Union2009In: Feminist Theory, ISSN 1464-7001, E-ISSN 1741-2773, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 136-138Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Betydelser av könsstympning hos migrerade minoriteter i Sverige [Meanings of female genital mutilation among migrant minorities in Sweden]: En feministisk våldsforskningsanalys [A feminist violence studies analysis]2020In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 141-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines meanings and attitudes to female genital mutilation among migrated minorities in Sweden. It explores the importance of family, networks, work, the role of laws and regulations, and the meaning and importance of female genital mutilation. It draws conclusions on power structures around and determinants of female genital mutilation in relation to attitudes and attitudinal change. 

    The material was collected via four focus groups with 47 migrated men and women, originally from Somalia. Theoretically, the article draws on feminist institutionalism and the framework on gender regimes, and scholarship on intersectional violence, and expands the concept of violence beyond the physical, individual and intentional.

    The article argues that the risk of female genital mutilation decreases considerably with migration. While some previous research has failed to consider migration as a process of attitudinal change, the article shows that attitudes do not simply migrate with migrants; they change through the processes of migration. It contributes to debates on violence from an integration-theoretical perspective, and shows how the concepts of isolation and mobility can contribute to better explanations of attitudes and practices of female genital mutilation.

  • 49.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water2008In: Gender and the interests of love: essays in honour of Anna G. Jónasdóttir / [ed] Kathleen B. Jones, Gunnel Karlsson, Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Strid, Sofia
    Dept Sociol, Univ Lancaster, Lancaster, England.
    Even feminists fall in love2011In: GEXcel work in progress report, Vol. 9: Proceedings from GEXcel theme 10: Love in our time - a question for feminism: conference of workshops 2-4 December 2010 / [ed] Sofia Strid and Anna G. Jónasdóttir, Örebro: Örebro University , 2011, p. 51-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 142
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