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  • 1.
    Abalos, M.
    et al.
    MTM Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Dept., IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, S. P. J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands; RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    de Boer, J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Results for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCBs in the first round of UNEPs biennial global interlaboratory assessment on persistent organic pollutants2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first worldwide interlaboratory assesment on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized in the Asian/Pacific, Latin American and African regions during 2009-11.

    A relatively large number of laboratories reported data for the PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, especially in the Asian region. Within the Asian region, several participants used high-resolution GC/high-resolution MS systems optimized for dioxin analysis. The availibility of High-resolution mass spectrometer instrumentation is limited in the Latin America and African regions, although recently several new laboratories for dioxins have started in the Latin American region.

  • 2.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. MTM Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Per
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

    Methods: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

    Results: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

    Conclusion: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

  • 3.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala Univeristy, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine UU, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Acute & Internal Medicine, UU, Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine UU, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Per
    Clinical Nutrition & Metabolism, UU, Sweden.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary pattern2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, no Supplement, p. S101-S101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Sjögren, Per
    Lind, P. Monica
    Lampa, Erik
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Dietary pattern affects blood levels of environmental pollutants in elderly Swedish men and women2011In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 58, no Suppl. 3, p. 59-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bao, Jia
    et al.
    Sch Sci, Shenyang Univ Technol, Shenyang, Peoples R China.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jin, Yihe
    Sch Environm Sci & Technol, Key Lab Ind Ecol & Environm Engn MOE, Dalian Univ Technol, Dalian, Peoples R China.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood samples from a male population of Sweden2014In: Chinese Science Bulletin, ISSN 1001-6538, E-ISSN 1861-9541, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 388-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been determined in the blood samples from several countries globally including a female population in Sweden recently, yet little is known about the time trends in the blood levels of these compounds in Swedish male populations over recent years. In this study, the fourteen target PFASs consisted of four perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and ten perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the whole blood samples, collected from 153 Swedish elderly men during the period between 2008 and 2010, were analyzed via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFASs contaminants in the blood samples, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed the highest geometric mean (GM) at 8.5 ng/mL, ranging from 1.7 to 29 ng/mL, while blood perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contained the GM of 1.8 ng/mL, ranging from 0.35 to 6.4 ng/mL. Both the levels of these two compounds were lower than those determined in the blood samples of Swedish elderly populations derived from the late 1990s. According to the temporal trend analysis, over the three years, the blood levels of PFOS in Swedish male populations declined 16 % per annum, while those of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) increased 6.1 % per annum, which were consistent with those reported previously for the populations from other countries.

  • 6.
    Bogdal, C.
    et al.
    Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland; International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Office ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abalos, M.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scheringer, M.
    Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland; International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Office ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Worldwide distribution of persistent organic pollutants in air, including results of air monitoring by passive air sampling in five continents2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air on a global scale, including recent measurements and an extensive compilation of literature data. In this study, passive air samplers (PASs) were successfully employed to assess concentrations of POPs in ambient air from Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands. The project aimed to extend the knowledge on environmental contamination by POPs in these regions, where the currently available data are still limited to a few monitoring studies.

    The ambient air concentrations of PCB in Africa were relatively high when compared to other regions. Waste, in particular electronic waste, exported to Africa from industrialized countries may be a possible source of PCB in Africa, where PCB have never been extensively used or produced. For DDTs, the wide range of concentrations and particularly high levels in some countries of Africa and the Pacific Islands reflect the use of DDT for malaria control in these regions. For PCDD/PCDF, concentrations in Africa and Latin America are similar to or even higher than in Europe, probably due to unfavorable combustion practices of chlorine-containing materials.

    The data support the needs for further monitoring in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and action to reduce environmental contamination by, and human exposure to, hazardous chemicals.

  • 7. Covaci, Adrian
    et al.
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neels, Hugo
    Evaluation of total lipids using enzymatic methods for the normalization of persistent organic pollutant levels in serum2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 1, p. 361-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is conveniently assessed through analysis of blood serum or plasma and the POPs concentrations are traditionally expressed on a lipid weight basis. Enzymatic determinations of total lipid (TL) content in serum, which imply the measurement of individual lipid classes, such as triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHOL) and phospholipid (PL), use small amounts of serum/plasma (<100 microl). These have also become a more precise and less laborious alternative for the gravimetric lipid determinations which were preferred in the past. However, PL are not routinely measured in most clinical laboratories and therefore, TL values are often predicted from formulas based on measurements of only TG and CHOL. In the present study, a large data set (n=483) from Belgian, Swedish and Norwegian populations was used to compute a new formula for TL [TL=1.33*TG+1.12*CHOL+1.48 (g/l)] by means of multiple linear regression. A very good correlation (r=0.949, p<0.001) was found between TL values calculated with the proposed formula and TL values obtained by summation of TG, CHOL and PL. Statistically different values of TL were computed when different previously published formulas were compared, which can have a strong influence on the calculation of lipid-normalized concentrations of POPs. Nevertheless, TL values derived using a mathematical formula which includes only TG and CHOL will be less accurate than TL values obtained by summation of TG, CHOL and PL, which should be the calculation method of choice if PL measurements are available.

  • 8. de Boer, J.
    et al.
    Leslie, H.
    van Leeuwen, S. P. J.
    Wegener, J.-W.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lahoutifard, N.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project: training and interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention2008In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 617, no 1-2, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of laboratories (reality check) and a series of training sessions. The target compounds were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Seven laboratories from five countries (Ecuador, Uruguay, Kenya, Moldova, and Fiji) participated. Most of the laboratories had no experience in determining PCBs. Although chromatograms improved considerably after the training and installation of new gas chromatographic (GC) columns at participating laboratories, the level of performance in the interlaboratory study was essentially on par with the moderate performance level achieved by European POP laboratories in the 1980s. Only some individual results were within +/-20% of the target values. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) in POP concentrations determined by laboratories in a sediment sample were >200% in a number of cases. The results for a certified herring sample were better with at least some R.S.D. values below 50% and most below 100%. Clean up was as one of the main sources of error. After inspection it was ascertained that training of laboratory staff and investments in simple consumables such as glassware and GC columns would help to improve the quality of the analysis more than major investments in expensive instrumentation. Creating an effective network of POP laboratories at different continents together with a series of interlaboratory studies and workshops is suggested to improve the measurements of POPs in these countries.

  • 9. de Boer, Jacob
    et al.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Special Issue Tools for the Reach Programme - Analytical Methods for the Evaluation of Industrial Contaminants: Foreword2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 301-301Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Devia, L.
    et al.
    Capra, A.
    Mendoza, M.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of PCB in the Mining Sector within the Latin American Region2015In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 77, p. 789-792Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Domingo, JL.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Perelló, G.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds through drinking water, and fish and seafood by the population of Catalonia (Spain)2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 969-972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Domingo, Jose L.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Martorell, Isabel
    Perello, Gemma
    Nadal, Marti
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Human dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend2012In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 1575-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assessed the levels of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the most widely consumed foodstuffs in Catalonia, Spain, as well as the total dietary intake of these compounds. Forty food items were analysed. Only perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctanoicdecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were not detected in any sample. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the compound found in the highest number of samples (33 out of 80), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS). Fish and shellfish was the food group in which more PFASs were detected and where the highest PFAS concentrations were found. The highest dietary intakes corresponded to children, followed by male seniors, with values of 1787 and 1466 ng/day, respectively. For any of the age/gender groups of the population, the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDIs) recommended by the EFSA were not exceeded. In general terms, PFAS levels found in the current study are lower than the concentrations recently reported in other countries.

  • 13. Domingo, Jose L.
    et al.
    Ericson-Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perello, Gemma
    Nadal, Marti
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: contribution of drinking water and fish and shellfish2012In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 60, no 17, p. 4408-4415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in 30 water samples collected in Catalonia (Spain) at three stages of the drinking water treatment process in several water purification plants. In addition, the concentrations of 13 PFCs were determined in samples of fish and shellfish collected from coastal areas of Catalonia. The intake of PFCs through both pathways, drinking water intake and fish and shellfish consumption, was also estimated. In water samples, the highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (1.81 and 2.40 ng/L, respectively), whereas perfluorodecanosulfonate (PFDS) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTDA) were under their respective limits of detection in all analyzed samples. The results show that although the current treatment processes caused slight reductions in PFC concentrations, these processes did not mean significant changes in the amounts of PFCs already contained in the raw water. Among the analyzed PFCs in fish and shellfish, only seven compounds could be detected in at least one composite sample. PFOS showed the highest mean concentration (2.70 ng/g fw), being detected in all species with the exception of mussels. With regard to PFOA (mean, 0.074 ng/g fw), the highest concentrations were detected in prawn and hake (0.098 and 0.091 ng/g fw, respectively). The current exposure to PFCs through consumption of fish and shellfish indicates that it should not be of concern for the consumers. The amounts ingested are well below the recommended tolerable daily intakes, at least for those PFCs for which information is available.

  • 14.
    Eichbaum, Kathrin
    et al.
    Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Germany.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Germany.
    Buchinger, Sebastian
    German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Koblenz, Germany.
    Hecker, Marcus
    University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Koblenz, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Germany.
    The dioRAMA project: assessment of dioxin-like activity in sediments and fish (Rutilus rutilus) in support of the ecotoxicological characterization of sediments2013In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 770-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Given the complex interactions of re-suspension processes and bioavailability of sediment-bound pollutants such as dioxin-like chemicals, there is need for a better integrative understanding of the cause-effect relationship of these pollutants. Currently, the majority of studies investigating potential risks of these chemicals only focus on characterizing sediment extracts via in vitro bioassays, thereby disregarding bioavailability, uptake, metabolism, and elimination rates of these compounds in vivo. To determine to which extent mechanism-specific effects in vitro reflect possible adverse effects in vivo, the research project dioRAMA, involving partnership between the Institute for Environmental Research of RWTH Aachen University and the Department Biochemistry/Ecotoxicology of the German Federal Institute of Hydrology, was established.

    Methods: Animals from an elevated trophic level-common roach (Rutilus rutilus)-will be exposed to sediments from two major German rivers. Exposure will be performed in a system that enables a concurrent monitoring of environmental parameters. In parallel, in vitro studies will be conducted to determine dioxin-like potentials of sediment and fish extracts from the in vivo exposure experiments using different cell lines with varying endpoints. Moreover, extract fractionation procedures, using the strategy of effect-directed analysis, will enable the detection of specific contaminant groups responsible for the biological activity observed.

    Conclusion: A closer interconnection between applied ecotoxicological science and regulatory needs will facilitate the improved assessment of dioxin-like compounds in sediment and biota. Consequently, this will enable their application in sediment management programs, which is one of the main goals of the dioRAMA project.

  • 15.
    Eichbaum, Kathrin
    et al.
    Dept Ecosystem Anal, Inst Environm Res, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Brinkmann, Markus
    Dept Ecosystem Anal, Inst Environm Res, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Buchinger, Sebastian
    Dept Biochem G3, Fed Inst Hydrol BFG, Koblenz, Germany.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    Dept Biochem G3, Fed Inst Hydrol BFG, Koblenz, Germany.
    Hecker, Markus
    Sch Environm & Sustainabil, Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Toxicol Ctr, Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Giesy, John P.
    School of the Environment and Sustainability and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Zoology and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI, United States; Department of Biology and Chemistry, State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Environment of Education Ministry of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China; College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; School of Environment, Nanjing University, China.
    In vitro bioassays for detecting dioxin-like activity: Application potentials and limits of detection, a review2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 487, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of in vitro assays as screening tool to characterize contamination of a variety of environmental matrices has become an increasingly popular and powerful toolbox in the field of environmental toxicology.

    While bioassays cannot entirely substitute analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the increasing improvement of cell lines and standardization of bioassay procedures enhance their utility as bioanalytical pre-screening tests prior to more targeted chemical analytical investigations. Dioxin-receptor-based assays provide a holistic characterization of exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) by integrating their overall toxic potential, including potentials of unknown DLCs not detectable via e.g. GC-MS. Hence, they provide important additional information with respect to environmental risk assessment of DLCs.

    This review summarizes different in vitro bioassay applications for detection of DLCs and considers the comparability of bioassay and chemical analytically derived toxicity equivalents (TEQs) of different approaches and various matrices. These range from complex samples such as sediments through single reference to compound mixtures. A summary of bioassay derived detection limits (LODs) showed a number of current bioassays to be equally sensitive as chemical methodologies, but moreover revealed that most of the bioanalytical studies conducted to date did not report their LODs, which represents a limitation with regard to low potency samples.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, Jose L.
    Nadal, Marti
    Bigas, Esther
    Llebaria, Xavier
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications2009In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (PFBuS, PFHxS, PFOS, THPFOS, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTDA, and PFOSA) were analyzed in municipal drinking water samples collected at 40 different locations from 5 different zones of Catalonia, Spain. Detection limits ranged between 0.02 (PFHxS) and 0.85 ng/L (PFOA). The most frequent compounds were PFOS and PFHxS, which were detected in 35 and 31 samples, with maximum concentrations of 58.1 and 5.30 ng/L, respectively. PFBuS, PFHxA, and PFOA were also frequently detected (29, 27, and 26 samples, respectively), with maximum levels of 69.4, 8.55, and 57.4 ng/L. In contrast, PFDoDA and PFTDA could not be detected in any sample. The most contaminated water samples were found in the Barcelona Province, whereas none of the analyzed PFCs could be detected in two samples (Banyoles and Lleida), and only one PFC could be detected in four of the samples. Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L/day, the maximum daily intake of PFOS and PFOA from municipal drinking water would be, for a subject of 70 kg of body weight, 1.7 and 1.6 ng/kg/day. This is clearly lower than the respective Tolerable Daily Intake set by the European Food Safety Authority. In all samples, PFOS and PFOA also showed lower levels than the short-term provisional health advisory limit for drinking water (200 ng PFOS/L and 400 ng PFOA/L) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in drinking water in Catalonia are not expected to pose human health risks, safety limits for exposure to the remaining PFCs are clearly necessary, as health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure is set to 40 ng/L for PFOA.

  • 17.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gómez, Mercedes
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Domingo, José L.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

  • 18.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Detection of polybrominated dibenzo-p dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in human tissue from Sweden2008In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 70, p. 220-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1787-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

  • 21.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Marti
    Rovira il Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jose Luis, Domingo
    Rovira il virgili university, Reus, Spain.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain).

    Materials and methods: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%.

    Results: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively.

    Discussion: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78–1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants.

    Conclusions: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries.

    Recommendations and perspectives: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 22.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 23.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

  • 24.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, JL.
    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in indoor sources: Levels in house dust and indoor air from Catalonia, Spain2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCullagh, M.
    Burgess, J.
    Dillon, L.
    Hodgkinson, M.
    Determination and characterisation of PFOS in the environment using high definition mass spectrometry2012In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 74, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDÆA-CSIC Barcelona, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    de Boer, J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bogdal, C.
    Institute of Chemical and Bioingeneering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Malisch, R.
    State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg, Germany.
    The need for capacity building and first results for the Stockholm convention global monitoring plan2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) established an effectiveness evaluation to assess the efficiency of measures taken by Parties under the Convention. Among these measures, a Global Monitoring Plan requires countries to analyze core matrices for POPs. To assist countries in setting up networks for these core matrices and to generate high-quality, comparable results, the United Nations Environment Program has implemented projects in 32 developing countries. The results demonstrate the worldwide presence of POPs in air and in humans, although at different scales.

  • 27.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    de Boer, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of Results for the 2nd Interlaboratory Study of POPs Laboratories2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 777-780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme, DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, B.
    van der Veen, I.
    de Boer, J.
    Results from UNEPs 2nd Global Interlaboratory Assessment: Basic and New POPs2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1497-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Fuglei, E.
    et al.
    Bustnes, J. O.
    Hop, H.
    Mørk, T.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: relationships with feeding ecology and body condition2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 146, no 1, p. 128-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43<p<0.97) and age (0.15<p<0.95) were not significantly related to any of the organohalogen groups. Body condition showed a significant inverse relationship with SigmaPBDE, SigmaChlordane and HCB, suggesting that increased tissue contaminant concentrations are associated with depletion of adipose tissue. The seasonal cyclic storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue, characteristic in Arctic wildlife, may then provide increased input of contaminants to sensitive, vital effect organs. Trophic position was estimated by delta(15)N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain.

  • 30.
    Gauthier, Marie-Soleil
    et al.
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada; Montreal Diabetes Research Centre, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de L'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montréal QC, Canada.
    Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada; Montreal Diabetes Research Centre, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de L'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montréal QC, Canada; Nutrition Department, Université de Montréal, Canada; Endocrinology Division, Montreal University Hospital, Montréal QC, Canada; School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa ON, Canada.
    Prud'homme, Denis
    Institut de Recherche de L'Hôpital Montfort, Ottawa ON, Canada .
    Karelis, Antony D.
    Department of Kinanthropology, Université du Québec À Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada .
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ruzzin, Jeorme
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    The Metabolically Healthy But Obese Phenotype Is Associated With Lower Plasma Levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants as Compared to the Metabolically Abnormal Obese Phenotype2014In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 99, no 6, p. E1061-E1066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Although obesity is strongly linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, a subset of obese individuals termed metabolically healthy but obese(MHO) appears relatively protected from the development of cardiometabolic complications. The origins of this metabolically healthy phenotype remain unclear. Recently, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have emerged as potential endocrine disruptors.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the MHO phenotype presents lower circulating levels of POPs as compared to the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype.

    Design, Setting, and Patients: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 76 nondiabetic obese (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) postmenopausal women.

    Main Outcome Measures: Plasma concentrations of 21 POPs as well as cardiometabolic risk factors were analyzed.

    Results: For similar age, body mass index, and fat mass index, MHO women (n = 40) showed higher insulin sensitivity levels and a more favorable cardiometabolic profile than MAO women (n = 36), as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in glucose disposal rates measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (P = .001). Among 18 detectable pollutants measured, MAO women had higher plasma concentrations of 12 POPs (fold increase, 1.4-2.9; P < .001-.036). Logistic regression analyses showed that the prevalence of the MAO phenotype was significantly associated with higher levels of total dioxin and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-12.5; P = .002), as well as trans-nonachlor (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% CI, 2.2-16.4; P < .001).

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the metabolically healthy and abnormal phenotypes have distinct plasma POP profiles.

  • 31.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dunstan, Jody
    Waters Corporation, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ruzzin, Jerome
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Montreal Diabetes Research Centre at the Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM) Montréal, Québec,Canada; Nutrition Department of Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Endocrinology Division, Montreal University Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1453, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300 pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r2) &gt;0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4 pg/μL) and CS 3 (4 pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS.

  • 32.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department for Environmental Research and Monitoring , Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden .
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparison on atmospheric pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1593-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dunstan, J.
    Ruzzin, J.
    Rémi, RL.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography (APGC) coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the quantitative analysis of pesticides and PCBs regulated by the Stockholm Convention2013In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, A.
    Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 20132016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hollert, Henner
    Jönsson, Sofie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds: effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-C genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Gustavsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hollert, Henner
    Jönsson, Sofie
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds: Effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)2007In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background:  Sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since January, 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. One common method in the USA and parts of Europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. The capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is not fully elucidated. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was therefore treated in artificial reed beds and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of many pharmaceuticals and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Recently performed studies have also showed that embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are sensitive to nitroaromatic compounds. Therefore, we tested the sludge passing through constructed wetlands in order to detect any changes in levels of embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and dioxin-like activity (AhR-agonists). We also compared unplanted and planted systems in order to examine the impact of the root system on the fate of the toxicants. Methods:  An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics was added daily to small-scale constructed wetlands (vertical flow), both unplanted and planted with Phragmites australis. Sludge with an average dry weight of 1.25%, was added with an average hydraulic loading rate of 1.2 L/day. Outgoing water was collected daily and stored at −20°C. The artificial wetland sediment was Soxhlet extracted, followed by clean-up with multi-layer silica, or extracted by ultrasonic treatment, yielding one organic extract and one water extract of the same sample. Genotoxicity of the extracts was measured according to the ISO protocol for the umu-C genotoxicity assay (ISO/TC 147/SC 5/WG9 N8), using Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 as test organism. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity were studied using the fish egg assay with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay. Chemical analyses of nitroaromatic compounds were performed using Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Results:  Organic extracts of the bed material showed toxic potential in all three toxicity tests after two years of sludge loading. There was a difference between the planted and the unplanted beds, where the toxicity of organic extracts overall was higher in the bed material from the planted beds. The higher toxicity of the planted beds could have been caused by the higher levels of total carbon in the planted beds, which binds organic toxicants, and by enrichment caused by lower volumes of outgoing water from the planted beds. Discussion:  Developmental disorders were observed in zebrafish exposed directly in contact to bed material from unplanted beds, but not in fish exposed to bed material from planted beds. Hatching rates were slightly lower in zebrafish exposed to outgoing water from unplanted beds than in embryos exposed to outgoing water from planted beds. Genotoxicity in the outgoing water was below detection limit for both planted and unplanted beds. Most of the added toxicants via the sludge were unaccounted for in the outgoing water, suggesting that the beds had toxicant removal potential, although the mechanisms behind this remain unknown. Conclusions:  During the experimental period, the beds received a sludge volume (dry weight) of around three times their own volume. In spite of this, the toxicity in the bed material was lower than in the sludge. Thus, the beds were probably able to actually decrease the toxicity of the added, sludge-associated toxicants. When testing the acetone extracts of the bed material, the planted bed showed a higher toxicity than the unplanted beds in all three toxicity tests. The toxicity of water extracts from the unplanted beds, detected by the fish egg assay, were higher than the water extracts from the planted beds. No genotoxicity was detected in outgoing water from either planted or unplanted beds. All this together indicates that the planted reed beds retained semi-lipophilic acetone-soluble toxic compounds from the sludge better than the unplanted beds, which tended to leak out more of the water soluble toxic compounds in the outgoing water. The compounds identified by SPME/GC in the outgoing water were not in sufficient concentrations to have caused induction in the genotoxicity test. Recommendations and Perspectives:  This study has pointed out the benefits of using constructed wetlands receiving an industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics to reduce toxicity in the outgoing water. The water from planted, constructed wetlands could therefore be directed to a recipient without further cleaning. The bed material should be investigated over a longer period of time in order to evaluate potential accumulation and leakage prior to proper usage or storage. The plants should be investigated in order to examine uptake and possible release when the plant biomass is degraded.

  • 37.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Li, Y. M.
    Leslie, Heather
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in samples from African countries participating in the United Nations Environment Programme2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 795-798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Screening of polybrominated dibenzo-p dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in adipose tissue from the Swedish population2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2011, Vol. 73, p. 591-594Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsman, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Chemical and toxicological characterisation of PBDFs from photolytic decomposition of decaBDE in tolueneManuscript (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsman, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Chemical and toxicological characterisation of PBDFs from photolytic decomposition of decaBDE in toluene2006In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 851-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A substantial formation of PBDF congeners was observed during photolytic decomposition of decaBDE in toluene. The decaBDE degradation was monitored by chemical and toxicological analysis and in all, twenty-seven mono- to hexasubstituted polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) were detected in toluene solutions of decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) after irradiation with UV-A, UV-AB and UV-ABC. The concentration levels of PBDFs formed after 16 h of UV exposure increased with wider spectra and were determined to be 3.5, 4.2 and 14 microg/ml after UV-A, UV-AB and UV-ABC irradiation, respectively. In accordance, bioassay derived TEQs (bio-TEQs), determined with the DR-CALUX assay, increased with a similar pattern. The PBDFs formed after the three UV exposures accounted for 0.31%, 0.35% and 1.2% of the initial amount of decaBDE (molar basis). The PBDF congener patterns were consistent in all three UV experiments which imply that no alterations were induced in the PBDF formation or degradation processes due to differences in UV irradiation. However, these processes tended to increase with wider spectra and increasing radiation energy most likely due to the strong absorbance of for example decaBDE at shorter wavelengths. After total decaBDE decomposition the PBDF formation increased significantly in the UV-ABC experiment. The tetra to hexasubstituted BDFs constituted the majority of detected compounds in all experiments. In all samples, the estimated chemical TEQ indicate that the bio-TEQs observed are largely explained by the presence of non-2,3,7,8-substituted PBDFs with relatively low toxicological potencies.

  • 41.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Àbalos, Manuela
    Abad, Esteban
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Applying pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and automated cleanup (Power Prep) for PBDD/F analysis in soil2008In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2008, Vol. 70, p. 764-767Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hardell, Elin
    et al.
    Örebro University hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Örebro University hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nordstrom, Marie
    Dept Hematol, Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Sweden during 1993-2007 and relation to age, gender, body mass index, breast-feeding and parity2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 20, p. 4412-4419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic chemicals that bioaccumulate. Most of them were resticted or banned in the 1970s and 1980s to protect human health and the environment. The main source for humans is dietary intake of dairy products, meat and fish. Little data exist on changes of the concentration of POPs in the Swedish population over time. Objective: To study if the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordanes have changed in the Swedish population during 1993-2007, and certain factors that may influence the concentrations. Methods: During 1993-2007 samples from 537 controls in different human cancer studies were collected and analysed. Background information such as body mass index, breast-feeding and parity was assessed by questionaires. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to analyse the explanatory factors specimen (blood or adipose tissue), gender, BMI, total breast-feeding and parity in relation to POPs. Time trends for POPs were analysed using linear regression analysis, adjusted for specimen, gender, BMI and age. Results: The concentration decreased for all POPs during 1993-2007. The annual change was statistically significant for the sum of PCBs -7.2%, HCB -8.8%, DDE -13.5% and the sum of chlordanes -10.3%. BMI and age were determinants of the concentrations. Cumulative breast-feeding >8 months gave statistically significantly lower concentrations for the sum of PCBs. DDE and the sum of chlordanes. Parity with >2 children yielded statistically significantly lower sum of PCBs. Conclusions: All the studied POPs decreased during the time period, probably due to restrictions of their use. (c) 2010 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Hardell, Elin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bao, Jia
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Case-control study on perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and the risk of prostate cancer2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 63, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging environmental contaminants. Possible health effects for humans include increased risk for cancer but the knowledge is limited. In this study serum concentrations of certain perfluorinated sulfonates (PFHxS and PFOS) and carboxylates (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) were analyzed among 201 cases with prostate cancer and 186 population based control subjects. All blood samples were collected during 2007-2011 and no case had been treated with radio- or chemotherapy before enrolment in the study. The blood concentrations did not differ statistically significant between cases and controls except for PFDA with higher concentration among the cases (p = 0.03). Analyses based on Gleason score and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level did not change the results. Heredity was a risk factor for prostate cancer yielding odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.1. The analyzed PFAAs yielded statistically significant higher ORs in cases with a first degree relative reporting prostate cancer, e.g., PFOA gave OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-6.0 and PFOS gave OR = 2.7,95% CI = 1.04-6.8. The results showed a higher risk for prostate cancer in cases with heredity as a risk factor. In further studies interaction between gene and environment should be considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Hardell, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Carlberg, Micael
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Concentrations of organohalogen compounds and titres of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus antigens and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma2009In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1567-1576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to some pesticides and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been indicated to be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with some subgroups of NHL. In a previous study we found an interaction between high concentrations of some POPs and titres of antibodies to EBV early antigen (EA IgG) in relation to NHL. In the present study we measured lipid adjusted plasma concentrations of 35 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), p,p'- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethyelene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), seven subgroups of chlordanes (cisheptachlorepoxide, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, oxychlordane, MC6, trans-nonachlordane, cis-nonachlordane) and one polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) congener (no. 47) in 99 cases with NHL and 99 population based controls. Odds ratios (OR) for NHL were estimated. Sum of PCBs > median in the controls gave odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-3.9. High sum of chlordanes yielded OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5. An interaction with EBV EA IgG was found. High sum of PCB gave OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.9-14 in the group with EA IgG > 40. Similarly HCB yielded OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.9-15, pp'-DDE gave OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.7 and sum of chlordanes yielded OR 6.8, 95% CI 2.3-20, whereas no association was found with PBDE. In summary, thisstudy confirmed an association between certain POPs andNHL with an interaction with titre of IgG antibody to EBV EA.

  • 45. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Carlberg, Michael
    Bohr, Louise
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ginman, Claes
    Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the risk of prostate cancer2006In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 700-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants with endocrine-disrupting properties in cases with prostate cancer and controls with benign prostate hyperplasia. METHODS: Adipose tissue was obtained from 58 cases and 20 controls. RESULTS: The median concentration among controls was used as cut-off in the statistical analysis. In the total material, a greater-than median concentration of PCB congener 153 yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.15 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.04-9.54 and one chlordane type, trans-chlordane, yielded OR 3.49 (95% CI = 1.08-11.2). In the group of case subjects with PSA levels greater than the median level of 16.5 ng/mL, PCB 153 was OR 30.3 (95% CI = 3.24-284), hexachlorobenzene OR = 9.84 (95% CI = 1.99-48.5), trans-chlordane OR = 11.0 (95% CI = 1.87-64.9), and the chlordane-type MC6 OR = 7.58 (95% CI = 1.65-34.9). The grouping of PCBs according to structural and biological activity was found to produce significantly increased risks for enzyme and phenobarbital-inducing PCBs and lower chlorinated PCBs in the case group with PSA levels greater than 16.5 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These chemicals might be of etiologic significance but need to be further investigated. The biological relevance of the arbitrary cut-off point of PSA is unclear.

  • 46.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hardell, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wickbom, Gunnar
    Ionescu, Mircea
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Decreased survival in pancreatic cancer patients with high concentrations of organochlorines in adipose tissue2007In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 0753-3322, E-ISSN 1950-6007, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 659-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analysed adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 21 cases with exocrine pancreatic cancer. The comparison group consisted of 59 subjects. Significantly increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sum of chlordanes and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were found in the cases. For 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) no significant difference was seen. For PCBs no odds ratio (OR) could be calculated since all cases had concentration>median in controls used as a cut-off. HCB yielded OR=53.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.64-605 and sum of chlordanes OR=18.4, 95% CI=2.71-124 whereas OR was not significantly increased for p,p'-DDE or PBDEs. Body mass index (BMI) at the time of tissue sampling was significantly lower for the cases. This might have influenced the results. Using BMI one year previously or decreasing the concentrations of POPs with the same percentage as weight loss among the cases did not change the results. Survival of the cases was shorter in the group with the concentration of POPs>median among cases, significantly so for the sum of PCBs (147 vs. 294 days), p,p'-DDE (134 vs. 302 days), and sum of chlordanes (142 vs. 294 days) in the high and low group, respectively. The results were based on a low number of cases and should be interpreted with caution.

  • 47.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hardell, Karin
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Increased concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants in subjects with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity: a pilot study2008In: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1536-8378, E-ISSN 1536-8386, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 197-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is used for a variety of subjective symptoms related to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in subjects with self-reported EHS. In total, 13 EHS subjects and 21 controls were included, all female. The concentration of several POPs was higher in EHS subjects than in controls. Lower concentrations were found for hexachlorobenzene and two types of chlordanes. The only significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) #47 yielding OR=11.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.45-94.7 and the chlordane metabolite MC6 with OR=11.2, 95% CI=1.18-106. The results were based on low numbers and must be interpreted with caution. This hypothesis generating study indicates the necessity of a larger investigation on this issue.

  • 48. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wedrén, Hans
    Melgaard, Birgitte
    High concentrations of organochlorines in a patient with kidney cancer and anorexia-cachexia syndrome2006In: Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates)), ISSN 1573-4064, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 607-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To determine persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue in a patient with kidney cancer. METHODS: Adipose tissue was sampled from the abdominal wall during autopsy of a 75-year old man who had died from a kidney cancer. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes and tetrabromodiphenyl ether (TeBDE) were determined on lipid basis. For comparison results from 29 male population based subjects aged 70-80 years were used. RESULTS: All concentrations except for TeBDE were very high in the patient; sum of PCBs 18 808 ng/g fat (median for controls 997), DDE 14 183 (median for controls 751), HCB 424 (median for controls 46), and sum of chlordanes 2 389 (median for controls 62). The patient lost weight from 80 kg to 48 kg when he died, which may have contributed wholly or partly to the very high concentrations of organochlorines. CONCLUSION: Changes in weight must be recorded in cancer patients and the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants should be normalized to weight. The concentrations in this patient were 10- to almost 40-times higher than in the controls. Such very high concentrations may give clinical symptoms in the final stage of a wasting cancer patient.

  • 49.
    Haug, Line Smastuen
    et al.
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Becher, Georg
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway; Dept Chem, Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Levels in food and beverages and daily intake of perfluorinated compounds in Norway2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1137-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been determined in 21 samples of selected food and beverages such as meat, fish, bread, vegetables, milk, drinking water and tea from the Norwegian marked. Up to 12 different PFCs were detected in the samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were found in concentrations similar to or lower than what has been observed in other studies world-wide. Differences in the relative proportion of PFOA and PFOS between samples of animal origin and samples of non-animal origin were observed and support findings that PFOS has a higher bio-accumulation potential in animals than PFOA. Based on these 21 measurements and consumption data for the general Norwegian population, a rough estimate of the total dietary intake of PFCs was found to be around 100 ng d(-1). PFOA and PFOS contributed to about 50% of the total intake. When dividing the population in gender and age groups, estimated intakes were decreasing with increasing age and were higher in males than females. The estimated intakes of PFOS and PFOA in the present study are lower than what has been reported in studies from Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada and Japan. This study illustrates that by improving the analytical methods for determination of PFC in food samples, a broad range of compounds can be detected, which is important when assessing dietary exposure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wingren, Gun
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 76, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides ( OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village.

    Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n = 38) and women (n = 57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations.

    Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg was associated with consumption of fish, both local and non-local, and Pb exposure was associated with the consumption of game.

    Overall, the contaminant concentrations measured in blood, urine and hair varied substantially among study participants, but on average, the concentrations were similar to concentrations measured in other groups of the general Swedish population in the same age range. Larger studies are needed to evaluate health risks (and causality) associated with historical environmental contamination.

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