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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Jessica
    et al.
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Disability Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Staland-Nyman, Carin
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Disability Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Tideman, Magnus
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Disability Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Sysselsättning för unga vuxna med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning: boendegeografiska skillnader2016In: Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning, ISSN 0809-2052, E-ISSN 2464-3076, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 241-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors conclude that the geographical variations identified in other parts of the Swedish welfare system also apply partly to post-USSID occupations. The article discusses whether municipal and regional affiliation is of particular significance for pupils from USSID, because of their low propensity to relocate.

  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Jessica
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Staland-Nyman, Carin
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Tideman, Magnus
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Post-school destination: A study of women and men with intellectual disabilities and the gender-segregated Swedish labor market2016In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about people with intellectual disability (ID) and their connections to the labor market is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the entry into and representation in the Swedish labor market for people with ID, discussed with a special focus on the gender perspective. This study included 2,745 individuals (30% women and 70% men) who graduated from Swedish upper secondary schools for pupils with intellectual disability (USSID) in the 2000s, and who were defined as employees in 2011. Graduation data from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed in relation to employment data from 2011 and adjusted for gender, graduation year, and educational program. Results show that men who attended a national USSID program and graduated between 2001 and 2006 were the most likely group to have a job. The authors conclude that the gender differences in the Swedish labor market are more clearly pronounced among women and men with ID in relation to employment rate, wage levels, and professions than in the general population. Education, welfare-services, and interventions specifically targeted to meet the needs of people with ID have to develop in more gender-sensitive ways.

  • 3. Bohlin, M. C.
    et al.
    Sorbring, E.
    Widén, Stephen E.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Erlandsson, S. I.
    Risks and music: patterns among young women and men in Sweden2011In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 13, no 53, p. 310-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women's and men's risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender-and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.

  • 4.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Väst, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Högskolan i Väst, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Risktagande: hot eller utveckling?2008In: Ung på 2000-talet: Perspektiv på ungdomars vardag / [ed] Soly Erlandsson & Emma Sorbring, Trollhättan: Högskolan i Väst , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    University teacher and student judgements on misleading behavior in study situations2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with teachers’ and students’ judgments of misleading (e.g. cheating or plagiarism) behaviors during examinations. The data was collected at a university in Sweden using a questionnaire presenting specific behaviors to be judged. In total, 253 individuals completed the questionnaire. The teachers, in contrast to the students, tended to judge the behaviors presented as more serious. There was, however, plenty of variation in the judgments made by both teachers and students. Although the teachers, on average, tended to judge the behaviors as more serious, about 20% of the students were found to judge the behaviors as more serious than the average teacher. It was also found that about 20 % of the teachers judged the scenarios as less serious compared to the average student judgments. This indicates a lack of agreement among teachers and students on the definition of misleading behavior. Subjective opinions seem to play a more important role for judgment than having actual knowledge about the rules and regulations stating what misleading behaviors really are in academic work.

  • 6.
    Båsjö, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; HEAD Graduate School, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jutengran, Göran
    School of Health Sciences, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Division of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hearing thresholds, tinnitus, and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old children2016In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 587-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Investigate hearing function and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old Swedish children. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and included otoscopy, tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry, and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE). A questionnaire was used to evaluate headphone listening habits, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. Study sample: A total of 415 children aged nine years.

    Results: The prevalence of a hearing threshold 20 dB HL at one or several frequencies was 53%, and the hearing thresholds at 6 and 8 kHz were higher than those at the low and mid frequencies. SOAEs were observed in 35% of the children, and the prevalence of tinnitus was 5.3%. No significant relationship between SOAE and tinnitus was found. Pure-tone audiometry showed poorer hearing thresholds in children with tinnitus and in children who regularly listened with headphones.

    Conclusion: The present study of hearing, listening habits, and tinnitus in nine-year old children is, to our knowledge, the largest study so far. The main findings were that hearing thresholds in the right ear were poorer in children who used headphones than in children not using them, which could be interpreted as headphone listening may have negative consequences to children’s hearing. Children with tinnitus showed poorer hearing thresholds compared to children without tinnitus.

  • 7.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    et al.
    Division of Psychology and Organizational Studies, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan.
    Holmes, Alice
    Department of Communicative Disorders, College of Public Health & Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
    Widén, Stephen
    Division of Psychology and Organizational Studies, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    Division of Psychology and Organizational Studies, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan .
    Cultural and social perspectives on attitudes, noise and risk behaviour in children and young adults2008In: Seminars in Hearing, ISSN 0734-0451, E-ISSN 1098-8955, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 29-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary research is critical to the prevention of hearing loss in children and young adults. To meet that goal, this paper focuses on the relationship between the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss, attitudes to noise and exposure, and how hearing protection use seems to be linked to cultural and socioeconomic factors. Results of a series of studies point to attitudes as one explanatory factor. Additionally, the experience of hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity increases the likelihood that adolescents and young adults will choose to wear earplugs when attending clubs or discotheques. This behavior can be referred to as an important ‘‘trigger’’ mechanism for the development of health-related behavior. Some general theories on health behavior are discussed to understand the role attitudes play for hearing prevention in young people. Finally, the finding that adolescents seeking professional help for tinnitus appear to have strong fears related to anxious thoughts and reactions associated with the condition is addressed. These fears can be a sign of a phobic reaction, something that most often first appears during adolescence. For these reasons, interdisciplinary research in the investigation of tinnitus distress and hearing conservation in young people seems to be the most relevant approach.

  • 8.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    et al.
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg.
    Olsen, Stephen E.
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    The effects of noise, attitudes, and risk-taking on children and young adults2004In: Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders in Childhood, ISSN 1940-7726, Vol. 10, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    et al.
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg.
    Widén, Stephen
    University Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg; University of Göteborg, Göteborg.
    Riskbeteende och sociala faktorers betydelse för barn och ungdomars hörsel2006In: Inre och yttre världar: Funktionshinder i psykologisk belysning / [ed] Erland Hjelmquist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2006, p. 111-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hjaldahl, Jennie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Audiological Research Center, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per-Inge
    Audiological Research Center, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Severe to profound hearing impairment: Factors associated with the use of hearing aids and cochlear implants and participation in extended audiological rehabilitation2017In: Hearing, Balance and Communication, ISSN 2169-5717, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine whether various demographic variables are associated with hearing aid (HA) and cochlear implant (CI) use and participation in extended audiological rehabilitation among patients with severe to profound hearing loss (HL) and to compare the use of unilateral and bilateral HAs.

    Materials and Methods: Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze general HA use, binaural HA use, CI use and participation in extended audiological rehabilitation. A total of 2297 adult patients from The Swedish Quality Register of Otorhinolaryngology with a PTA4 (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) ≥70 dB HL in the better ear were included.

    Results: The degree of HL was associated with HA and CI use and participation in extended audiological rehabilitation. The patients with at least a college degree were more likely to use bilateral HAs, have a CI and participate in audiological rehabilitation compared to those with elementary school education. The sex distribution was evenly divided, but the men indicated a lower level of participation in extended audiological rehabilitation. No significant associations where found for sex and HA or CI use.

    Conclusions: The degree of HL was the strongest factor associated with the use of HAs, CI and extended audiological rehabilitation among the patients.

  • 11.
    Holmes, Alice
    et al.
    University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Widén, Stephen
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Carver, C.L
    The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, USA.
    White, L.L
    University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Perceived hearing status and attitudes towards noise in young adults2007In: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 16, no 2, p. S182-S189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of perceived hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary threshold shift (TTS) in community college students and to see whether those students’ attitudes toward noise affected their perception of their own possible hearing loss, tinnitus, and TTS.

    Method: Young adults (N = 245; age 18–27) completed 3 questionnaires: the Hearing Symptom Description, Youth Attitude to Noise Scale, and Adolescents’ Habits and Hearing Protection Use.

    Results: Perceived TTS and pain associated with loud noise were the most common hearing related factors, followed by perceived tinnitus and hearing loss. The students’ attitudes toward noise in their daily environment showed the most negative response, whereas attitudes toward noise and concentration indicated a more positive, or less harmful, response. Chi-square analysis indicated a significant correlation between perceived hearing loss and respondents’ overall attitudes toward noise exposure. Hearing protection use was limited for all participants, with the majority reporting never having used hearing protection.

    Conclusion: Approximately 6% of respondents reported perceived hearing loss, and 13.5% reported prolonged tinnitus. In general, participants had neutral attitudes toward noise. Over 20% of participants reported ear pain, tinnitus, and/or TTS after noise exposure at least sometimes. Coincidentally, few participants reported consistent use of hearing protection.

  • 12.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided hearing impairment: A phenomenographic study2015In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim was to explore the conceptions of working life among employees with mild-moderate aided hearing impairment (HI).

    Design: This study has a descriptive design, in which data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The text was analysed in accordance with the phenomenographic approach.

    Study sample: Fifteen participants with mild-moderate aided HI were recruited to the current study.

    Results: The analysis of the interviews resulted in four main categories describing the participants’ conceptions of working life: (1) diffiiculties in daily work, (2) communication strategies, (3) facilitating factors in work environment, and (4) impact on daily life. The four identified descriptive categories show that the effects of HI on the lives of working adults generate far-reaching psychosocial consequences for the individual.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates that difficulties and impact of having a HI interact with strategies used by the individual and contextual facilitators made in the work environment. We argue that there is a need for extensive services in aural rehabilitation for this population. This includes identifying the need of assistive listening devices, teaching the individual with HI about communication strategies and informing stakeholders about the consequence of having a HI.

  • 13.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The impact of different background noises: effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2014In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 859-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care professionals frequently meet employees with hearing impairment (HI) who experience difficulties at work. There are indications that the majority of these difficulties might be related to the presence of background noise. Moreover, research has also shown that high-level noise has a more detrimental effect on cognitive performance and self-rated disturbance in individuals with HI than low-level noise.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of different types of background noise on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance (PD) in employees with aided HI and normal hearing.

    Research Design: A mixed factorial design was conducted to examine the effect of noise in four experimental conditions.

    Study Sample: A total of 40 participants (21 men and 19 women) were recruited to take part in the study. The study sample consisted of employees with HI (n = 20) and normal hearing (n = 20). The group with HI had a mild-moderate sensorineural HI, and they were all frequent hearing-aid users.

    Intervention: The current study was conducted by using four general work-related tasks (mental arithmetic, orthographic decoding, phonological decoding, and serial recall) in four different background conditions: (1) quiet, (2) office noise at 56 dBA, (3) daycare noise at 73.5 dBA, and (4) traffic noise at 72.5 dBA. Reaction time and the proportion of correct answers in the working tasks were used as outcome measures of cognitive performance. The Borg CR-10 scale was used to assess PD.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Data collection occurred on two separate sessions, completed within 4 wk of each other. All tasks and experimental conditions were used in a counterbalanced order. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to analyze the results. To examine interaction effects, pairwise t-tests were used. Pearson correlation coefficients between reaction time and proportion of correct answers, and cognitive performance and PD were also calculated to examine the possible correlation between the different variables.

    Results: No significant between-group or within-group differences in cognitive performance were observed across the four background conditions. Ratings of PD showed that both groups rated PD according to noise level, where higher noise level generated a higher PD. The present findings also demonstrated that the group with HI was more disturbed by higher than lower levels of noise (i.e., traffic and daycare setting compared with office setting). This pattern was observed consistently throughout four working tasks where the group with HI reported a significantly greater PD in the daycare and traffic settings compared with office noise.

    Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that background noise does not impair cognitive performance in nonauditory tasks in employees with HI and normal hearing, but that PD is affected to a greater extent in employees with HI during higher levels of background noise exposure. In addition, this study also supports previous studies regarding the detrimental effects that high-level noise has on employees with HI. Therefore, we emphasize the need of both self-rated and cognitive measurements in hearing care and occupational health services for both employees with normal hearing and HI.

  • 14. Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Quality of life, effort and disturbance perceived in noise: a comparison between employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2013In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 642-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aims were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and hearing handicap between two groups of employees with normal hearing and aided hearing impairment (HI). HRQOL was also compared to a normative population. The second aim was to compare perceived effort (PE) and disturbance after completing a task in office noise between the two study groups. Design: A Swedish version of the short form-36 (SF-36) and the hearing handicap inventory for adults (HHIA) was used to determine HRQOL and hearing handicap. The Borg-CR 10 scale was used to measure PE and disturbance. Study sample: Hearing impaired (n = 20) and normally hearing (n = 20) participants. The normative sample comprised of 597 matched respondents. Results: Hearing-impaired employees report relatively good HRQOL in relation to the normative population, but significantly lower physical functioning and higher PE than their normally-hearing peers in noise. Results from the HHIA showed mild self-perceived hearing handicap. Conclusions: The current results demonstrate that physical health status can be negatively affected even at a mild-moderate severity of HI, and that a higher PE is reported from this group when performing a task in noise, despite the regular use of hearing aids.

  • 15.
    Jessica, Arvidsson
    et al.
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Disability Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tideman, Magnus
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Disability Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Post-school options for young adults with intellectual disabilities in Sweden2015In: Research and Practice in Intellectual and Developmental, ISSN 2329-7018, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 180-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine life after school for young adults with intellectual disabilities in Sweden. It identifies a snapshot of the post-school destination in 2011 of students of Swedish Upper Secondary Schools for Pupils with Intellectual Disability (Special Secondary Schools), who graduated between 2001 and 2011. This national registry study used personal identification numbers to link data for about 12,269 former students in the Halmstad University Register on Pupils with Intellectual Disability with data about labour market participation and service provision under the Swedish disability legislation (Swedish LSS Act, 1994, the Act Concerning Support and Service for Persons With Certain Functional Impairment). Results showed that the largest proportion (47%) of former students participated in disability day programs, known as “daily activities”; 22.4% were employed, most with some type of wage subsidy; and 6.6% participated in various types of further education programs. A sizeable group (24%) were described as being “elsewhere”, not engaged in employment, education, or disability day programs. The type of post-school occupation is associated with gender, the type of educational program undertaken at secondary school, and age. The authors found a high risk of young people with intellectual disabilities falling through safety-net welfare or post-school participation provisions. Even in a country such as Sweden, which has comprehensive post-school programs, almost a quarter of young adults with intellectual disabilities were socially excluded, without education, disability day programs, or employment.

  • 16.
    Landälv, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Malmström, Lennart
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music2013In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 15, no 66, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  • 17.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    et al.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont TX, USA; The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Audiology India, Mysore, India.
    Zhao, Fei
    Centre for Speech Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Auzenne, Jasmin
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont TX, USA.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Ahmadi, Tayebeh
    Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Daneshjoo, Tehran, Iran.
    Tome, David
    Department of Audiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal.
    Mahadeva, Deepthi
    St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore, India.
    Krishna, Rajalakshmi
    Audiology India, Mysore, India; All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India.
    Germundsson, Per
    The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Social Representation of "Loud Music" in Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Study2017In: Journal of american academy of audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, E-ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 522-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to recreational noise, particularly music exposure, is considered one of the biggest public health hazards of our time. Some important influencing factors such as socioeconomic status, educational background, and cross-cultural perspectives have previously been found to be associated with attitudes toward loud music and the use of hearing protection. Although culture seems to play an important role, there is relatively little known about how it influences perceptions regarding loud music exposure in young adults.

    Purpose: The present study was aimed to explore cross-cultural perceptions of and reactions to loud music in young adults (18-25 yr) using the theory of social representations.

    Research Design: The study used a cross-sectional survey design.

    Study Sample: The study sample included young adults (n = 534) from five different countries (India, Iran, Portugal, the United States, and the United Kingdom) who were recruited using convenience sampling.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and also x(2) analysis.

    Results: Fairly equal numbers of positive and negative connotations (similar to 40%) were noted in all countries. However, the x(2) analysis showed significant differences between the countries (most positive connotations were found in India and Iran, whereas the most negative connotations were found in the United Kingdom and Portugal) regarding the informants' perception of loud music. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "negative emotions and actions" occurred most frequently, immediately followed by the category "positive emotions and actions." The other most frequently occurring categories included "acoustics," "physical aliment," "location," and "ear and hearing problems." These six categories formed the central nodes of the social representation of loud music exposure in the global index. Although some similarities and differences were noted among the social representations toward loud music among countries, it is noteworthy that more similarities than differences were noted among countries.

    Conclusions: The study results suggest that "loud music" is perceived to have both positive and negative aspects within society and culture. We suggest that the health promotion strategies should focus on changing societal norms and regulations to be more effective in decreasing the noise-and/or music induced auditory symptoms among young adults.

  • 18.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    et al.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont TX, USA; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Audiology India, Mysore, India.
    Zhao, Fei
    Centre for Speech Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, UK; Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Auzenne, Jasmin
    Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont TX, USA.
    Beukes, Eldré W.
    Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
    Ahmadi, Tayebeh
    Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Tomé, David
    Department of Audiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal.
    Deepthi, Mahadeva
    St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore, India.
    Rajalakshmi, Krishna
    Audiology India, Mysore, India; All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India.
    Germundsson, Per
    The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Social representation of "music" in young adults: A cross-cultural study2017In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study was aimed to explore perceptions of and reactions to music in young adults (18-25 years) using the theory of social representations (TSR).

    Design: The study used a cross-sectional survey design and included participants from India, Iran, Portugal, United States, and United Kingdom. Data were analyzed using various qualitative and quantitative methods.

    Study sample: The study sample included 534 young adults.

    Results: The Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the countries regarding the informants’ perception of music. The most positive connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Iranian participants (82.2%), followed by Portuguese participants (80.6%), while the most negative connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Indian participants (18.2%), followed by Iranian participants (7.3%). The participants’ responses fell into 19 main categories based on their meaning; however, not all categories were found in all five countries. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category “positive emotions or actions” was the most frequent category occurring in all five countries.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that music is generally considered to bring positive emotions for people within these societies, although a small percentage of responses indicate some negative consequences of music.

  • 19.
    Olsen-Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg; Department of psychology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    Department of psychology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg.
    Self-Reported Tinnitus and Noise Sensitivity among Adolescents in Sweden2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems to be a common opinion among researchers within the field of audiology that the prevalence of tinnitus will increase as a consequence of environmental factors, for example exposure to loud noise. Young people are exposed to loud sounds, more than any other age group, especially during leisure time activities, i.e. at pop concerts, discotheques and gyms. A crucial factor for the prevention of hearing impairments and hearing-related symptoms in the young population is the use of hearing protection. The focus of the present study is use of hearing protection and self-reported hearing-related symptoms, such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity in a young population of high-school students (N=1285), aged 13 to 19 years. The results show that the prevalence of permanent tinnitus and noise sensitivity, reported in the total group, was 8.7% and 17.1% respectively. Permanent tinnitus was not significantly related to level of socio-economic status, but age-related differences in the prevalence rates of experienced tinnitus and noise sensitivity were found to be significant. Older students reported such symptoms to a greater extent than younger students did. Those who reported tinnitus and other hearing-related symptoms protected their hearing to the highest extent and were the ones most worried.

  • 20.
    Olsen-Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg; Department of psychology, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg.
    The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on Adolescent Attitude to Social Noise and Hearing Protection2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study, of 1285 adolescents, was young people's attitudes towards noise and their use of hearing protection at discos and pop concerts. Comparisons were made between adolescents from different age groups, and with different socio-economic status. Logistic regressions indicated that "worry before attending noisy activities" and "hearing symptoms" such as tinnitus and noise sensitivity could, to some degree, explain the use of hearing protection in noisy environments. Another conclusion to be drawn from this study was that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing protection use differed between levels of socio-economic status. Individuals with high SES expressed more negative attitudes and used ear protection to a greater extent than those with lower SES. This result might indicate differences in the development of future auditory problems among individuals with different levels of socio-economic status. The cause of hearing impairment and tinnitus may not be restricted merely to noise exposure. Psychological aspects, such as attitudes towards noisy environments and the individual's behavior regarding the use of hearing protection may be considered as important factors in the understanding of why the prevalence of hearing­ related problems has increased among adolescents.

  • 21.
    Strandberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Möller, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Doctoral theses within the Swedish Institute for Disability Research 2000-2012: A review of content and interdisciplinarity2017In: International Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 2372-5060, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR) was founded in 2000. The SIDR graduate programmedis a leading research programmedin disability science. The scientific method at SIDR is based on an interdisciplinary approach.The aim of this study is to describe content of doctoral theses presented within SIDR, and to analyzethe occurrence of interdisciplinarywithin the theses published between 2000 and 2012. Forty-one theses were included in the study. First, the manifest data was categorized in a matrix, and second, the latent content was analyzedwithin a scheme. The scheme included seven criteria within interdisciplinary theory, namely: Is the phenomenon multi-dimensional? Does the aim reflect an interdisciplinary approach? Are the studies non-reductionist? Have multiple methods been used? Is the knowledge integrated? Are the results discussed as a whole?Do they explicitly show an interdisciplinaryknowledge?Findings show a variety of disability groups studied within SIDR, but the main disabilities are hearing impairment or deafness, and cognitive and communication difficulties. Different theoretical perspectives are used within the theses. To different extents, an interdisciplinary approach is used as an overall meta-theory.

  • 22.
    Strandberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Möller, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Doctoral theses within the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, 2000-2012: a survey study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    A suggested model for decision-making regarding hearing conservation: towards a systems theory approach2013In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate potential health promotion variables associated with adolescents' hearing protection use at concerts.

    STUDY SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 242 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years.

    DESIGN: Variables defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TBP) and health belief model were tested in this quantitative study.

    RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of the adolescents reported that they used hearing protection at concerts to some degree, and 33 individuals (14%) reported that they used hearing protection in 50% of cases or more. The average degree of hearing protection use was reported to be 17% of the visits at concerts. Norms, perceived control, barriers, and noise sensitivity were associated with attitudes towards loud music. In addition, norms, barriers, permanent tinnitus, and noise sensitivity were significantly correlated with hearing protection use. However, intention was not significantly correlated with hearing protection use.

    CONCLUSIONS: From a systems theoretical approach it can be suggested that preventive strategies must consider more levels than just the individual, in order to achieve long lasting behavioural changes in adolescents' listening habits. To be able to get useful knowledge about preventive strategies, it is necessary to add context-specific variables into generic models such as TPB.

  • 24.
    Widén, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hearing assistive technology in school, necessary but not enough2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    Department of Psychology and Organizational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingemar
    Department of Psychology and Organizational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gender perspectives in psychometrics related to leisure time noise exposure and use of hearing protection2011In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 13, no 55, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible gender differences regarding psychometric scales measuring risk perception in noisy situations, attitudes towards loud music, perceived susceptibility to noise, and individual norms and ideals related to activities where loud music is played. In addition the purpose was to analyze whether these variables are associated with protective behavior such as the use of hearing protection. A questionnaire was administered to a Swedish sample including 543 adolescents aged 16 to 20. The result revealed significant gender differences for all the psychometric scales. In addition, all psychometric measures were associated with hearing protection use in musical settings. Contrary to previous studies, gender did not contribute to any explanation of protective behavior by itself in the analysis. One conclusion is that although gender does not contribute by itself for the explanation of protective behavior, gender may affect psychological variables such as risk perception, attitudes and perceived susceptibility and that these variables may in turn be valuable for decision-making and protective behavior in noisy situations. Although women tend to be more careful psychologically, they nevertheless tend to behave in the same way as men as regards actual noise-related risk taking.

  • 26.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Båsjö, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Departments of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Headphone listening habits and hearing thresholds in swedish adolescents2017In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 19, no 88, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported hearing and portable music listening habits, measured hearing function and music exposure levels in Swedish adolescents. The study was divided into two parts.

    Materials and Methods: The first part included 280 adolescents, who were 17 years of age and focused on self-reported data on subjective hearing problems and listening habits regarding portable music players. From this group, 50 adolescents volunteered to participate in Part II of the study, which focused on audiological measurements and measured listening volume.

    Results: The results indicated that longer lifetime exposure in years and increased listening frequency were associated with poorer hearing thresholds and more self-reported hearing problems. A tendency was found for listening to louder volumes and poorer hearing thresholds. Women reported more subjective hearing problems compared with men but exhibited better hearing thresholds. In contrast, men reported more use of personal music devices, and they listen at higher volumes.

    Discussion: Additionally, the study shows that adolescents listening for ≥3 h at every occasion more likely had tinnitus. Those listening at ≥85 dB LAeq, FF and listening every day exhibited poorer mean hearing thresholds, reported more subjective hearing problems and listened more frequently in school and while sleeping.

    Conclusion: Although the vast majority listened at moderate sound levels and for shorter periods of time, the study also indicates that there is a subgroup (10%) that listens between 90 and 100 dB for longer periods of time, even during sleep. This group might be at risk for developing future noise-induced hearing impairments.

  • 27.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Risk perception in musical settings: a qualitative study2007In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study was undertaken in order to investigate young people's perspectives on risk-taking and music experiences in musical settings. The study sample included nine women and seven men of whom eight were musicians and eight were not. Open-ended interviews were performed and analysed by the guidance of Grounded Theory. “Music as a mean in creating identity” was seen as the core category, essential for the understanding of risk-taking behaviour in musical settings. Three higher-order categories, meaningfully related to the core category, emerged in the interviews and they were labelled “self-image”, “risk consideration” and “norms and ideals”. The individual's self-identification as being vulnerable to negative consequences of a particular type of risk behaviour seems to be a central aspect in transforming health-risk behaviour into a health-preventive behaviour. The higher-order category “risk consideration” was built up by concepts as “risk awareness” and “meaning of risk-taking”. Finally, “norms and ideals” consisted of two categories: “acting in accordance with social norms”, and “acting in accordance with normative ideals”. If people believe that exposure to loud music without wearing hearing protection is an acceptable norm, regardless of the accuracy of this perception, they are more likely to become involved in risk-taking behaviour regarding their hearing. We believe that risk consideration, social norms and ideals are meaningful concepts for the understanding of risk-taking behaviour in young people.

  • 28.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Organisational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg; Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Holmes, Alice
    Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Florida, USA .
    Erlandsson, Soly
    Department of Psychology and Organisational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Vänersborg.
    Reported Hearing Protection Use in Young Adults from Sweden and the USA: Effects of Attitude and Gender2006In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 273-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates differences between a Swedish and an American sample of young students regarding attitudes towards noise and the use of hearing protection at concerts. The study population was comprised of 179 participants from Sweden and 203 participants from the United States, who ranged in age from 17 to 21 years. Questionnaires were used to gather information on hearing symptoms and attitudes towards noise (Youth Attitude to Noise Scale). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that attitudes towards noise differed significantly due to gender and country. Men had slightly more positive attitude towards noise than women, and men from the USA had more positive attitudes than men from Sweden. Least positive were the women from Sweden (except regarding attitudes towards the ability to concentrate in noisy environments). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the influence of attitudes towards noise and country on young people’s use of hearing protection at concerts. The results indicated that attitudes and country explained 50% of the variance in use of hearing protection.

  • 29.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Organisational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan.
    Holmes, Alice
    Department of Communicative disorders, University of Florida, Gainsville, USA.
    Johnson, Ted
    Elmira College, Elmira, New York, USA.
    Bohlin, Margareta
    Department of Psychology and Organisational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan.
    Erlandsson, Soly
    Department of Psychology and Organisational Studies, Institution of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan.
    Hearing, hearing-related risk-taking behavior andattitudes towards noise among young American adults2009In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 537-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible associations between college students’ attitudes, risk-taking behaviour related to noisy activities, and hearing problems such as threshold shifts or self-experienced hearing symptoms. The sample included 258 students aged between 17 and 21 enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. A questionnaire measuring attitudes towards noise, use of hearing protection, and selfreported hearing symptoms was distributed among the students. After completing the questionnaire a hearing screening, including pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry, was conducted. The result revealed that 26% had thresholds poorer than the screening level of 20 dBHL. Attitudes were significantly related to self-experienced hearing symptoms, but not to threshold shifts. Attitudes and noise sensitivity was, significantly related to use of hearing protection. Hearing protection use was found in activities such as using firearms, mowing lawns, and when using noisy tools but was less reported for concerts and discotheques. It can be concluded that the young adults in this study expose themselves to hearing risks, since the use of hearing protection is in general very low.

  • 30.
    Widén, Stephen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro, Sweden; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Departments of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Headphone listening habits, hearing thresholds and listening levels in Swedish adolescents with severe to profound HL and adolescents with normal hearing2018In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 57, no 10, p. 730-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Research has minimally focussed on the music listening habits and preferred sound volumes among adolescents with severe to profound congenital HL. Listening to music played at loud sound volumes and for a long duration of time could imply risks of worsening the HL. Therefore, it is important to investigate the listening habits in adolescents with HL. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of personal music devices, subjective estimated sound levels, measured sound levels, listening habits, and hearing symptoms in adolescents with severe to profound hearing loss compared with adolescents with normal hearing.

    DESIGN: The study was conducted in two steps. First, a questionnaire was given to students with or without hearing loss. In step two, hearing and sound level measurements were made in a subsample from both groups.

    STUDY SAMPLE: The study sample were based on 112 seventeen-year-old students with severe to profound hearing loss and 279 adolescents with normal hearing. Hearing thresholds and listening levels was measured on two subsamples based on 29 adolescents with severe to profound hearing loss and 50 adolescents from the group with normal hearing.

    RESULTS: The results showed that adolescents with severe to profound hearing loss listened to significantly louder sound levels for longer periods. For both groups, those listening at louder sound levels had poorer hearing thresholds. This finding is especially alarming for subjects with hearing loss. Among those listening above 85 dB per occasion, the sound level ranged between 85.8 dB up to 109 dB for those with hearing loss, whereas the sound level ranged between 85.5 dB and 100 dB for those with normal hearing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with congenital hearing loss used portable music devices in the same manner as adolescents with normal hearing. However, adolescents with hearing loss listened to louder sound volumes most likely to compensate for their hearing loss, which significantly increases the risk of further damage to their hearing. From a hearing rehabilitation perspective it could be concluded that aspect of music listening habits should be focussed in order to prevent noise induced hearing loss among individuals with congenital hearing loss.

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