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  • 1.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    From glass ceiling to firewalls: Detecting and changing gendered organizational norms2022In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 140-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on an empirical case study with an interactive research approach focusing on gendered norms in a Swedish truck Company. It discusses the combined value of using the metaphor of a firewall for (1) analysing how organizational constraining gendered norms are done in everyday organizational life, and (2) as a practical tool to facilitate the processes aimed at improving norm awareness. The metaphor embodies an understanding that makes it possible to visualize relational ongoing organizational processes and power dimensions. In addition, the firewall is useful for emphasizing variations and complexity. Variations and dynamics are manifested in the ways that employees need to fulfil varying “codes” in order to be accepted. The possession of certain codes (norms) that are required to pass through the first layer of the firewall (employment), and give access to some networks, does not automatically ensure acceptance and integration into more influential networks (referred to as the informal and inner layers of the firewall). The results furthermore show that the firewall metaphor is fruitful when facilitating reflection processes amongst employees to improve norma wareness and to discuss strategies for change. The conclusion is that the firewall metaphor facilitates an analysis of the relational and complex doing of constraining norms, and that it also can be used to initiate change.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Moving with(in) normative firewalls: a dynamic approach to study gendered careers and innovation processes in the truck industry2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore how existing work place culture and gendered norms impact on the possibilities to work with so called ”norm-critical” innovation processes in an organisation. Norm-critical reflexivity in the context of innovation processes implies to pay attention to invisible and implicit norms that may result in that certain privileged perspectives is being prevailed (over others) (Balkmar & Lykke 2015). The empirical findings emanates from a two year interactive research project, in which gender researchers in collaboration with participants at Volvo Group, Sweden, have explored the ways that the company can increase its capacity to work with norm-critical perspectives in the innovation process. Volvo is a highly gender segregated organisation. At the same time the trucking industry in itself is highly masculinized in terms of different professions; ranging from truck drivers to sales personnel to technical engineers involved in the design and manufacturing of trucks. In later years the shortage of truck drivers, in combination with more women drivers entering trucking academies and haulage contractors, has led to a questioning of male norms in the transport business. This includes reports of difficult working conditions for female truckers, including how the design of the truck itself takes the male body as the implicit norm, to the assumption that it is a man that is the presumed driver of trucks.

    This paper focus on the part of the project that seeks to better understand how existing work-place culture and norms structure who is considered the ideal employee (Acker 1992) and its implications for innovation. This includes studying its impacts on both the possibility for different categories of employees to take part in the innovation work on equal terms, and the ability to reflect upon the impact of implicit norms in the innovation process itself. In total, 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted with co-workers and managers (13 women and 5 men). The main questions concerned whether there existed ideals that formed implicit ”codes” (Bendl and Schmidt 2010) in the organization and its impact on ideas of preferred professional qualifications, behaviors, personal qualities and its links to career possibilities and innovation. The underlying theoretical assumption is that gender is a fundamental element of organisational structure and work life; “present in [its] processes, practices, images and ideologies, and distribution of power” (Acker 1992, p. 567). The way that gender plays out in the daily life in a workplace is understood as not being a static barrier prohibiting women in general, rather, it is considered fluid, relational and may vary depending on the context (Meyerson & Fletcher 2001, Bendl and Schmidt 2010). It is argued that the concept ”fire wall” (Bendl and Schmidt 2010 ), offers a fruitful way to highlight the elasticity and permeability that we believe characterize the forms of discrimination, inclusion and exclusion that takes place in these processes.

    References

    Acker, J. 1992. Gendering Organisational Theory. In Mills, A. and Tancered, P. (eds.). Gendering Organisational Analysis. London: SAGE.

    Acker, J. 2006. Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organisations. Gender and Society 20(4):441-464.

    Balkmar, D. & Lykke, N. 2015. Developing disruptive norm-critical innovation at Volvo: FINAL REPORT. Linköping: Tema Genus Report Series No. 23: 2015.

    Bendl, R. & Schmidt. 2012. From 'Glass Ceilings' to 'Firewalls' - Different Metaphors for Describing Discrimination. Gender, Work and Organization. Vol. 17. No 5:612-635.

    Meyerson, D. & Fletcher J.K. 2001. A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling. Boston: Harvard Business Review.

     

  • 3.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    A Violent Regime: Men, Masculinities and Road Conflicts in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on violence(s) in traffic space as a gendered problem. It draws on qualitative online studies and interviews with cyclists about their experiences of motorists’ violent practices, including cyclists’ negotiations of anti-cyclist discourses and their coping strategies. It follows that modal conflicts is not only a problem for cities with a low prevalence of cycling; ‘bike friendly’ cities like Copenhagen and Stockholm are also troubled by fights between cyclists and drivers (Freudendal-Pedersen 2015; Koglin 2013). Such conflicts are gendered in complex ways.

    Automobility appears to be a ‘violent regime’ (Joelsson 2013), a regime that produces uncaring, oppressive and violent configurations of men and masculinity (cf. Hanlon 2009). However, there are no clear-cut gendered frameworks to be applied. Such violence cannot be understood within a binary gendered framework; there is neither clearly a typical victim position nor a gendered perpetrator position. It is argued that automobility makes it possible for certain men to perform their ‘right to the road’, including gender-identity-shaping practices, and that this has the negative effect of violating cyclists’ bodily integrity. It follows that a shift from cars to more sustainable mobilities also demands related shifts in masculinities and men’s practices in the context of transport and traffic.

  • 4.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Arbetspendling på cykel: vardagsrisk, hälsa och arbetsorganisationers strategier för ökad cykelpendling2013In: I Rörelse/On the move: ACSIS conference 11-13 June 2013 / [ed] Johanna Dahlin, Tove Andersson, ACSIS , 2013, p. 96-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om vikten av att öka cykeltrafiken och göra den säkrare har rönt stor uppmärksamhet såväl medialt som inom forskningen under senare år. Många organisationer, kommuner och landsting uppmanar också sina anställda att cykla mer, något som ofta argumenteras för i positiva termer av dess bidrag till ökat välbefinnande, (folk)hälsa, teamkänsla och framkomlighet i storstäderna.

    Detta projekt syftar till att med utgångspunkt i ett antal arbetsorganisationer vilka arbetar med att förmå sina medarbetare att välja cykel som transport till jobbet nå en fördjupad kunskap om de vardagsvillkor som gör att vissa väljer cykel och andra inte. Med etnografisk metodologi är målet med detta projekt att bidra med en kontextualiserad beskrivning av människors vardagsvillkor för arbetspendling med cykel.

    Att färdas med cykel är förknippat med olika former av upplevelser, emotioner och (föränderliga) identiteter. Genom att beakta arbetspendling med cykel ur ett vardagsperspektiv fokuseras upplevelser av cykling relaterat till såväl cyklingens njutningar som utsatthet som oskyddad trafikant, eventuella konflikter med andra trafikslag samt hur arbetsorganisationer försöker förmå sina medarbetare att välja cykeln före mindre miljövänliga sätt att färdas.

  • 5.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Centre for Feminist Social Studies.
    Cycling politics: imagining sustainable cycling futures in Sweden2020In: Applied Mobilities, ISSN 2380-0127, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 324-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the ways in which cycling politics, established bicycle advocates and “new” forms of net-based activism in Sweden imagine and shape future cycling. The study engages with policy analysis, cultural imaginaries, cycling citizenship, power and urban planning in order to analyse expressions of contemporary cycling politics in Sweden, with aparticular focus on the national strategy for increased and safer cycling, launched in 2017. This strategy, including how advocacy responded to the strategy, and topics raised in online blogs, reflects core differences in top-down/bottom-up views on cycling as contested practice: from more pragmatic, policy- and solution-oriented approaches to making everyday cycling experiences political. The analyses address both established and alternative ways of influencing mobility transitions and seek to address the alternative imaginings for everyday cycling that their approaches and strategies suggest. This includes analysing their role in shaping or changing cycling in the future and what these cases may tell us about the sustainability of cycling itself at both local and national levels. It is argued that, while well-established organizations already enjoy aposition of access to planners and policy-makers, it remains important to find ways of including the perspectives of emergent, on-line-based initiatives and blogs, which also formulate critical perspectives on everyday cycling.

  • 6.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    De osynliga slår tillbaka: Om cyklisters plats i en bilnormativ omgivning2014In: Gränsløs : tidskrift för studier av Öresundsregionens historia, kultur och samhällsliv, ISSN 2001-4961, no 4, p. 83-94Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här texten är att undersöka olika cyklisters föreställningar om cyklisters plats i bilsamhället och de förhandlingar de utför. När cykling marknadsförs görs det ofta i positiva ordalag med hänsyn till förbättrad hälsa och miljö. I den mediala rapporteringen om cykling i stor- och medelstora städer har det dock under senare år talats om problem såsom hot, våld och aggressivitet i ett allt intensivare och trängre trafikrum. I förlängningen är det relevant att ställa frågor om cyklisters plats i bilsamhället och vad konflikter och upplevd rädsla att cykla har för konsekvenser för den numera spridda ambitionen att öka cyklingen. 

  • 7.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Filosofiska fakulteten, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Drive-by shaming: reflections on the emotions on (dangerous) car driving2008In: Thinking with Beverly Skeggs / [ed] Annika Olsson, Stockholm: Centre for Gender studies, Stockholm University , 2008, 1, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 8.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Genusrelaterade perspektiv på polisbilskörning2011In: Utryckningsföraren / [ed] Jörgen Lundälv, Gävle: Meyer , 2011, p. 54-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pia, som inte riktigt förstått varför Peter gjort den där handbromsvändningen och inte förstår varför de har så bråttom, försöker bestämma sig för hur hon ska agera. Hon känner sig rädd av den höga farten bland alla bilar och människor och önskar att Peter ville ta det lite lugnare. Hon känner hur skräcken griper tag i henne men kan inte på ett medvetet plan bli klok på om det är den höga farten som skrämmer henne eller om det är tanken på att säga till Peter att sakta farten" (Maria Gustafsson i ett kapitel om hjärnan i boken).

  • 9.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Filosofiska fakulteten, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Implicit men in traffic safety discourse: A life course perspective on (auto)mobility, violations and interventions2007In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 127-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the first country in the world to have introduced the so-called Vision Zero (Nollvisionen): an ethical approach suggesting that road safety cannot be traded for mobility. Policy writings on traffic safety have so far been very limited in terms of explicitly addressing risk taking practices as mainly performed by men or as a way of performing masculinities. In this article I discuss how the gender-neutral language in traffic safety policy constructs adulthood as signifying maturity and good driving practices. In traffic safety policy, implicit adult men are contrasted against the young(er) drivers who are constructed as problematic to traffic safety. Rather than being about maturity or something that ‘just happens’ I suggest understanding (dangerous) driving as a repertoire for some men to perform masculinities linking it with power and entitlement.

    Still, not only dangerous driving practices per se are problematic to road safety. I argue that automobility needs to be understood as much more thoroughly affecting everyday life than is acknowledged in traffic safety discourse. A way of acknowledging the multiplicity of experiences and effects from automobility is to view it as a ‘process of damaging’. This perspective takes into consideration how automobility simultaneously enables and disables ‘safe’ mobility along lines of gender, age and able-bodiedness. Despite the fact that these problematic effects to some extent are acknowledged in policy, automobility remains a privileged mode of transportation in contemporary Sweden.

  • 10.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kör så det ryker!: hälsorisker i samspelet mellan män, maskulinitet och bil2010In: Genus och kön inom medicin- och vårdutbildningar / [ed] Barbro Wijma, Goldina Smirthwaite, Katarina Swahnberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2010, 1, p. 401-413Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnor och män är delvis lika, delvis olika. Det innebär att kvinnor och män både har behov av likadan behandling och av behandling som är anpassad till det egna könets förutsättningar. Denna antologi belyser kvinnors och mäns förutsättningar och behov inom en rad olika medicinska områden och tar upp både biologiska och sociala faktorer som påverkar hälsa och behandling. Den behandlar även den roll som kön spelar inom vårdens arbetsliv samt hur köns- och genusperspektiv kan integreras inom olika typer av medicin- och vårdutbildningar. Ett av bokens teman är våld, kränkningar och diskriminering, och inom ramen för detta behandlas några av de olika maktordningar som kommer till uttryck vid behandlingar inom hälso- och sjukvården. Antologin har en stor spännvidd när det gäller ämnen och författare. Förhoppningsvis ska den bredd som antologin uppvisar, leda fram till frågeställningar där läsaren utmanar sina förgivettaganden inom både genusvetenskap och mer traditionell medicin samt väcka nya frågor: Om könet snarare ses som en konstruktion än en fysisk realitet - kan då kvinnor lika gärna äta mediciner som är utprovade på män och opereras med metoder och verktyg anpassade till mäns fysiologi? Å andra sidan - hur objektiv är den naturvetenskapligt inriktade medicinska forskningen egentligen om man börjar granska den utifrån frågeställningar om perspektivval och genus? Antologin vänder sig till lärare på utbildningar inom medicin, hälsa och vård. Andra målgrupper är studenter på sådana utbildningar, vårdpersonal och en intresserad allmänhet.

  • 11.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Manliga maktdemonstrationer i trafiken2017In: Ikaros, ISSN 1796-1998, no 3, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Genus.
    Manlighetens pyspunka2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Masculinity and Autonomous Vehicles: From automotive emotions to transport robots2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Men, masculinities and motor vehicles: an unsustainable equation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Men on the move: masculinities, (auto)mobility and car cultures2019In: Routledge International Handbook on Masculinity Studies / [ed] Lucas Gottzén, Ulf Mellström and Tamara Shefer, Abingdon Oxon/New York: Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more societies around the globe will have to reduce the dominance of motorized transport for more sustainable mobilities, masculinity studies have much to contribute towards engaging more fully with mobility and transport issues, not least the many ways in which technologies of movement relates to men, masculinities and (un)sustainable transport futures. Against this background, the chapter begins with a brief note on gendered mobilities and transport more generally, then moves on to discuss the connections between men, masculinity and automobility, followed by a section that focuses on driving, emotions and risk-taking. The chapter ends with a discussion on the implications of a transport future populated with increasingly automated vehicles, including what the implications for men and masculinities may be.

  • 16.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Män, maskulinitet och bilar: en fråga om makt2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Negotiating the ‘plastic rocket’: masculinity, car styling and performance in the Swedish modified car community2014In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 166-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article adds new knowledge on the ways that car modifiers negotiate their cars in elation to design, power and performance as qualities that make cars attractive. Inorder to understand the complex ways in which masculinity and cars co-constitute asculine subjectivities and communities, the article uses the modifier-car as a tool to discuss how certain ways of modifying and personifying cars create links between masculinity and cars at risk in male-dominated communities. Despite the fact that modified cars may share the looks and sounds of typical racing cars – and therefore appear to encompass some of the most convincing elements of power in automobile systems, namely the capacity for risk-taking – it is rather an alleged lack of power ascribed to some versions of modified cars –the plastic rocket–that stand out as a risk to constructions of modifier masculinity. Viewed as a feminized car, the plastic rocket has come to be negotiated as an inauthentic, foreign, powerless and vulgarexample of modifying cars compared to the Swedish modified car community’s working-class self-image. At the very core of the plastic rocket is a threat to modifier masculinity which is the inability to back up one’s looks with strength. It is argued that the discourses formed around the plastic rocket indicate ‘queer’ possibilities in the ways cars extend male bodies.

  • 18.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Tema Genus, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    On Men and Cars: An Ethnographic Study of Gendered, Risky and Dangerous Relations2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that young men constitute a high-risk group in terms of accidents involving both themselves and others. But comparatively little is known about the roles of gender, masculinity and automobility in reproducing or subverting such particularly risky performances of identity. The study aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of how gender, primarily masculinity, is interrelated with car-related identities, practices and material constructions. Contributing with qualitative insights, this study explores the ways in which gendered individuals and cars co-constitute one another in a particular context, the community of Swedish car modifiers. By using an ethnographic approach, this thesis investigates the lives of young and middle-aged car enthusiasts who invest considerable time, money, skill and passion in modifying, showing and driving their cars. The material stems from fieldwork carried out at car shows, in cars, on online modified-car forums and in garages between 2006 and 2008. In total, 53 men and 14 women between the ages of 19 and 60 make up the informants.

    The study shows how gender, in particular masculinity, is reproduced and negotiated in the modifiers’ attempts to become “unique” subjects through making their own versions of the car. Cars are not only a means of self-expression and constructing identity, but serve to build community and regulate relations between, primarily, men through competition at car shows and when driving. The study examines the reproduction of craftsmanship as a purified ideal that distinguishes car modifiers as a “special kind” of men, a figure that takes its form through intersecting imaginaries of Swedishness, class and masculinity. To rely on one’s own ideas and hands represented a more authentic way of creating one’s dream car in a heavily commercialised culture. Constructions of masculinity in driving are explored in its profoundly embodied, emotional and dangerous aspects developed in the context of men, cars and risk-taking. The personalised car is shown to generate different forms of risk-taking, which are also productive of counter-discourses on dangerous and risky driving.

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  • 19.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    On the road to sustainable mobility: shared space, conflicts and micro-politics in everyday traffic interaction2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary transport policy interventions in Swedish cities have lately come to contest the car hegemony in favor for more sustainable ways of moving about. Cycling is often argued to be one of the answers to the problem of unsustainable automobility. However, when cyclists take up more space in traffic than before, conflicts appear. In Sweden, the media reporting’s goes as far as to speak about ‘cycling hate’ in some cities, to describe the antagonism between cyclists and car drivers and between cyclists and pedestrians. This project investigates what these everyday conflicts look like, the impact of gender and what gendered implications come to mean in the much needed change towards more sustainable mobility.

    Research on gender has much to benefit from engaging more in issues concerning sustainability and mobility. Both car travelling and the ideas of freedom and movement associated with the car are persistently linked to a masculine domain and masculine identity. Hence, a shift from cars to more sustainable mobility also encompasses related shifts in masculinities and men’s practices. Theoretically, the project links masculinity theory with the sociology of sensory mobilities, including theories on gendered risk-taking and gendered mobility more generally.

    The study analyzes cyclists and motorist’s narratives and embodied experiences of issues related to shared traffic space. The informants are (foremost) men of different age groups and family situations who commute by bike and car, or work as professional drivers. The material is generated by using ethnographic methods in two Swedish cities, Stockholm and Linköping. The questions asked relate to issues around entitlement to space, disciplinary practices, embodiment, cooperation and conflicts in traffic. In conclusion, the project presents an analysis of intersectional power orders with respect to gender, age, place and mobility, thus focusing on what happens when protected and unprotected road users are assumed to share and negotiate public space.

  • 20.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    On the road to sustainable mobility: shared space, gendered conflicts and micro-politics in everyday traffic interaction2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When cyclists begin to take up more space in traffic than before, conflicts appear. In ‘cycling friendly’ Sweden, there have been media reports about hatred against cyclists when describing the antagonism between (male) cyclists and (male) car drivers, as well as between cyclists and pedestrians, in traffic-dense environments. Despite the current political renaissance of cycling in Sweden, the proportion of personal trips in which the bike is the main mode of transport has remained largely unchanged over the past fifteen years. This has in part been linked to cyclists’ experiences of insecurity in traffic space. Therefore, conflicts between more or less vulnerable road users are becoming increasingly important to investigate in a society where car normativity needs to be challenged in favor of more sustainable travel.

    The aim of this presentation is to, based on Swedish media material, interviews and cyclists online discussion-forums, present the risk-negotiations that cyclists perform and to discuss their situation in a car-normative environment from a gender and violence perspective. What forms of risk negotiations do cyclists perform in their everyday traffic environment? How can this be understood in relation to gender and violence? The presentation argues that cyclists are being positioned in contradictory ways: both as vulnerable and exposed, as well as particularly dangerous road users in need of disciplining and interventions. The results suggest that not only do cyclists negotiate their situation by viewing themselves as drivers would, namely as more or less invisible. They are also subjected to what has been called ‘cycling hate’: discursive and even physical violence directed towards cyclists for taking up ‘too much’ traffic space from motorists. Hence, the act of swapping our everyday modes of transport for more environmentally sustainable alternatives implies a challenge to normative assumptions in a car-normative environment, including shifts in, masculinities and men’s road practices.

  • 21.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Online risk-management: Cyclists negotiations of risk and safety in urban traffic space2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this presentation is to, based on ongoing research of Swedish media material and cyclists online discussion-forums, present the risk-management that cyclists perform and discuss the importance of online communities for shaping bicycle related communities, identities and activism promoting more cycling friendly cities. Apart from the different strategies used to cope with the vulnerabilities associated with being a cyclist, the analysis indicates an obvious ‘need’ to talk about what being a cyclist entails, as evident in the number of threads and blogs on everyday cycling experiences. Online ethnography makes possible to study how cyclists use new media to discuss their situation and claim their right to the road. It is argued that also in ‘cycling friendly’ Sweden, conflicts between more or less vulnerable road users are becoming increasingly important to investigate, including to analytically discuss intersecting power relations and inequalities related to gender, ethnicity, class and mobility at play in car normative spaces.

  • 22.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Genus.
    Online/Offline with Virtual Garages2009In: GEXcel work in progress report. Vol. 6, Proceedings from GEXcel theme 2: Deconstructing the hegemony of men and masculinities : conference 27-29 April 2009 / [ed] Alp Biricik and Jeff Hearn, Linköping: Linköping University , 2009, , p. 6p. 91-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Otrygg mobilitet: cyklisters förhandling av utsatthet och konflikter i trafiken2021In: (O)tryggt? Texter om makt, plats och motstånd / [ed] Malin Rönnblom, Ida Linander och Linda Sandberg, Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2021, p. 259-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Riskfyllda relationer mellan män, maskulinitet och bilar2015In: Reflexen. En tidskrift om trafik, utveckling, människor och kunskap från Trafiktekniska Föreningen, ISSN 0284-0707, no 3, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    För de som är intresserade av samspelet mellan riskbenägenhet och kön/genus finns särskilt en relation som framstår som mer riskfylld än andra: män och bilar. Under senare år har mäns risktagande i trafiken uttryckligen formulerats som ett problem för en bristande trafiksäkerhet som får förödande konsekvenser för andra. Nationalföreningen för trafiksäkerhetens främjande (NTF) beskrev 2007 läget på följande vis: ”I den mån kvinnor förolyckas är det ofta män som kör ihjäl dem”. Vägverket (2003) uppskattade några år tidigare att grovt sett 90 procent av dödsolyckor med vägfordon orsakades av män. Mot denna bakgrund är det av vikt att förstå hur genus uttrycks genom bilar och hur bilar uttrycker genus. Det tycks föreligga ett flertal riskfyllda relationer att beakta som relaterar till bilkörning, bildesign och kön/genus. Här tas avstamp i mäns överrepresentation i olycksstatiken för att diskutera hur bilars design och kraft relaterar till kön, emotioner och makt.

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  • 25.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping.
    Se upp - allt fler kvinnor kör som män!: Nollvisionen som diskurs och problemet män i trafiken2009In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, no 2-3, p. 97-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is the first country in the world to have introduced the so-called Vision Zero (Nollvisionen). This is an ethical approach suggesting that road safety cannot be traded for mobility. Since the beginning of mass-motoring, men have been over-represented in traffic safety statistics, in terms of both ‘causing’ accidents and casualties. Against the background of the Swedish Vision Zero, it is quite extraordinary how little attention work on traffic safety has paid to men’s over-representation in Swedish fatal road accidents (90%), and (auto)mobility as a way of doing gender. The present article discusses how men and women driver subjects are produced through the Vision Zero discourse, with a particular focus on how men in traffic are constructed. This is important since such constructions and modes of address affect possible interventions and ‘solutions’ regarding road safety issues. Here I focus on three contemporary documents of policy making character or with general impact: first, the Governmental Act 2003 on road safety intervention; second, a report from the Swedish Road Administration which is applying a gender equality discourse on transport; and third a brochure issued by the Road Administration addressed to the everyday road user. These documents constitute case material that is illustrative of the Vision Zero as a generative apparatus of gender discourse. The article brings attention to the ambiguous ways in which the Vision Zero may, on the one hand, explicitly address men as problematic driver subjects, as an explicitly gendered high risk category; and, on the other, make men and masculine norms implicit through the rendering of young(er) driver subjects as problematic. This also involves pointing out women as an up and coming high risk category. To improve road safety, the discursive effects of this configuration suggest allocating responsibility partly to the ‘system’, partly to women driver subjects – in effect, to women who drive like men – rather than the men driver subjects.

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  • 26.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Spinning around the ”lycra-lout”2009In: Centrum med många riktningar: en vänbok till Gunilla Bjerén, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet , 2009, p. 11-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is politically and emotionally written in the vein of cycling, deeply intertwined with my own experiences of such a mundane, nevertheless risky, activity. Of late, cyclists have been regarded as disruptive and dangerous, and for at least a decade the cycling ”Lycra lout” has figured in Anglo-Saxon demonology. Simply put, ‘lycra lout’ is derogatory British slang for an arrogant, road-hogging cyclist supposedly sporty dressed up wearing lycra. In a Swedish context, we may talk of a similar figure, namely “cykelmarodören”, stylishly forcing his way through the busy streets of Stockholm city. Refusing wearing lycra, simply because it would make me look ridiculous, the joys I experience from scooting up the outer lane onto the oncoming traffic would nevertheless make me into a ‘lout’ - at least from the perspective of car drivers. Traffic, the scene of encounters through which I pedal my speedy bike affords not only excitements, it also brings relaxations. I write this text with a feeling of rest throughout my body –a welcomed reward the activity of cycling brings to wind up bodies located within academia. However, writing from the perspective of a male cyclist, this essay aims at bringing attention to risks and risk taking as a traditional aspect of performing masculine behaviour - to prove skill and potency - for example through sorting out a difficult and risky traffic situation.

  • 27.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Too many women?: Women and gender (in)equality in Swedish media2017In: Gender Equality and the Media: A Challenge for Europe / [ed] Karen Ross and Claudia Padovani, Abingdon Oxon/New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 208-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Centre for Feminist Social Studies.
    Towards an Intersectional Approach to Men, Masculinities and (Un)sustainable Mobility: The Case of Cycling and Modal Conflicts2019In: Integrating Gender into Transport Planning : From One to Many Tracks / [ed] Christina Lindkvist Scholten and Tanja Joelsson, Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, p. 199-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses cycling promotion and modal conflicts in public space with a particular focus on men, masculinities and transport planning. It draws on three inter-related examples: interviews with cyclists about cycling; media reports on cycling; and cyclists’ online discussions on vulnerability. The first two examples illustrate how men and masculinities can be framed as both solutions and obstacles to achieving more sustainable mobilities through more cycling. The third example demonstrates how cycling implies a particularly vulnerable and conflicting position in the traffic hierarchy with implications for men and masculinities. The conflicts over urban space exemplified here illustrate how traditional transport planning has prioritized automobility and, by doing so, reproduced male norms in the transport sector. It is argued that using an intersectional analytical lens can be a fruitful way to challenge existing norms.

  • 29.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.
    VINNOVAs FoU-verksamhet ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv. Yrkesverksamma disputerade kvinnor och män i VINNOVAs verksamhetsområde2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnor är fortfarande i minoritet bland disputerade och inom det tekniska området finns särskilt få disputerade yrkesverksamma kvinnor. Kvantitativ översyn ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv av regioner, samhällsområden och branscher där disputerade kvinnor förvärvsarbetar och jämför med de regioner, samhällsområden och branscher som VINNOVA tilldelar forskningsmedel.

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  • 30.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Violent Mobilities: Men, Masculinities and Intermodal Conflicts in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on violence(s) in traffic space as a gendered problem. It draws on qualitative online studies and interviews with cyclists about their experiences of motorists’ violent practices, including cyclists’ negotiations of anti-cyclist discourses and their coping strategies. It is argued that automobility makes it possible for certain men to perform their ‘right to the road’, including gender-identity-shaping practices, and that this has the negative effect of violating cyclists’ bodily integrity. It follows that a shift from cars to more sustainable mobilities also demands related shifts in masculinities and men’s practices in the context of transport and traffic.

  • 31.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Centre for Feminist Social Studies.
    Violent mobilities: men, masculinities and road conflicts in Sweden2018In: Mobilities, ISSN 1745-0101, E-ISSN 1745-011X, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 717-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on violence(s) in traffic space as a gendered problem. It draws upon qualitative online studies and interviews with cyclists about their experiences of motorists’ violent practices, including cyclists’ negotiations of anti-cyclist discourses and their coping strategies. It is argued that automobility makes it possible for certain men to perform their ‘right to the road,’ including gender-identity-shaping practices, and that this has the negative effect of violating cyclists’ bodily integrity. It follows that a shift from cars to more sustainable mobilities also demands related shifts in masculinities and men’s practices in the context of transport and traffic.

  • 32.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Violent traffic: Men, Masculinities and road conflicts in ’cycling friendly’ Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When cyclists begin to take up more space in traffic than before, conflicts appear. The number of cyclists in Stockholm city has increased with more than 70 % in a decade (150 000 cyclists/day). In Sweden, a country where cycling is considered ‘normal’ and relatively ‘safe’, there have been media reports about “hatred” against cyclists when describing the antagonism between (male) cyclists and (male) car drivers, as well as between cyclists and pedestrians, in traffic-dense environments. A male cyclists comments to the Swedish Television about the Stockholm traffic situation: ”There is a general hatred towards cyclists. Things are thrown at me, I got spayed with windscreen washer fluid etc. It’s way too much of that” (van Luik 2013). Given the current political renaissance of cycling in Sweden, conflicts between more or less vulnerable road users are becoming increasingly important to investigate in a society where the hegemony of the car needs to be challenged in favor of more sustainable travel.

    The aim of this presentation is to, based on media material, interviews and cyclists online discussion-forums, discuss cyclist’s situation in traffic-dense environments from an intersectional gender and violence perspective. Violence, with its multiple and varied forms and expressions, takes many forms. In this presentation, I address violent traffic, hence bringing discussions about violence in traffic to the analytical core. Following this, the presentation addresses not only the conditions for achieving sustainable mobility in a culture where the hegemony of the car is being challenged, but the need to problematize men and masculinities in relation to sustainable mobilities and urgent shifts in mobility patterns.

     

  • 33.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Våld i trafiken: om cyklisters utsatthet för kränkningar, hot och våld i massbilismens tidevarv2014In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 35, no 2-3, p. 31-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When cyclists begin to take up more traffic space than before, conflicts appear. In Sweden, the media has reported on hatred against cyclists when describing the antagonism between (male) cyclists and (male) car drivers, as well as between cyclists and pedestrians, in traffic-dense environments. Despite the current political renaissance of cycling in Sweden, the proportion of personal trips in which the bike is the main mode of transport has remained largely unchanged over the past fifteen years. This has in part been linked to cyclists’ experiences of insecurity in traffic space. Therefore, conflicts between more or less vulnerable road users are becoming increasingly important to investigate in a society where car normativity needs to be challenged in favour of more sustainable travel. The aim of this article is to, based on media material, policy reports, interviews and cyclists’ online discussion-forums, study the situation of cyclists to discuss their situation in a car-normative environment from a gender and violence perspective. What forms of conflicts do cyclists negotiate in their everyday traffic environment? How can this be understood in relation to gender and violence? It is argued that cyclists are being positioned in contradictory ways: as vulnerable and exposed on the one hand, and as particularly dangerous road users in need of disciplining and interventions on the other. Not only do cyclists negotiate their situation by viewing themselves as drivers would, namely as more or less invisible. They are also subjected to what has been called ‘hatred’: discursive and even physical violence directed towards cyclists for taking up too much traffic space from motorists. Examples of (violent) resistance against and negotiation with the self-evident nature of (male) motorists’ entitlement to traffic space are given. In the final part of the paper I suggest that the violence needs to be understood as deeply embedded within larger gendered structural formations of mass motorism and traffic space.

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  • 34.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Våld i trafiken: om cyklisters utsatthet för kränkningar, hot och våld i omställning mot hållbart resande2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att fler ska välja cykeln som huvudsakligt vardagstransportmedel är en stor transportpolitisk utmaning. I den mediala rapporteringen om trafiken i storstäderna har det dock under senare år talats om hot, våld och aggressivitet mellan bilister och cyklister. Samtidigt som undersökningar visar att upplevd osäkerhet minskar andelen cyklister så har transportforskningen sällan intresserat sig för hot och våld i trafiken. Fokus har i transportsammanhang snarare riktats mot säkerhet och att undvika olyckor, skador och dödsfall orsakade av kollisioner mellan människor och fordon. Mot bakgrund av den numera utbredda ambitionen att öka cyklingen och minska bilismen är det relevant att ställa frågor om cyklisters situation i bilsamhället och hur kränkningar av cyklisters säkerhet kan förstås.

    Med utgångspunkt i medie- och policymaterial, intervjuer med cyklister samt cyklisters diskussioner i nätbaserade cykelgemenskaper presenteras här resultat av en studie om cyklisters riskförhandlingar och upplevelser av kränkningar, hot och våld i trafiken ur ett könsperspektiv. Våld i trafiken diskuterats dels i termer av latenta hot mot cyklisters säkerhet (upplevd osynlighet i trafiken, tutningar och hat riktat mot cyklister), dels som kränkningar riktade specifikt mot cyklister som trafikantkategori (täta omkörningar, riskfyllda maktdemonstrationer och prejningar). Trots skillnader inom cyklistkategorin – vilken kan diversifieras utifrån många fler intersektioner än kön – så framstår dock våld i trafiken som en viktig fråga i det fortsatta arbetet för jämställda och hållbara transporter.

     

  • 35.
    Balkmar, Dag
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Våldsam mobilitet - ett könat problem: Om män, våld och cyklisters utsatthet i trafikrummet2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Department of Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Women truck drivers and (future) mobile work: Towards gender equal transport futures?2021In: Gender and Equality in Transport: Proceedings of the 2021 Travel Demand Management Symposium / [ed] Maria Chiara Leva; Augustus Ababio-Donkor; Ajeni Thimnu; Wafaa Saleh, Dublin: TU Dublin , 2021, p. 161-165Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses gender and gender equality in contemporary and future haulage business, arguing for a need for norm-critical approaches to build more gender equal transport futures. Currently, there is a general demand for more drivers internationally and in Sweden. Following the current driver shortage in occupational road freight, transport companies in Europe and Sweden recognise the need to recruit more women chauffeurs. Part of the problem is how transport is gendered, strongly intertwined with masculine norms that prevents nonnormative bodies to identify themselves as drivers. In Sweden, a country with a world reputation as champions in gender equality, men still make up more than 90 % of the work force in the Swedish transport business. While recruiting more women would contribute to solve the urgent problem of driver shortage, women drivers typically face gendered problems, concerning their personal safety, harassments, hygiene, and work/life (im)balance. From the perspective of the haulage business, addressing these gendered problems can increase the ability hire more women drivers, but would also need to develop transport innovations that suit not only today’s male users but also those of tomorrow.

    Future road freight and transport innovations such as more autonomous vehicles are often imagined to ‘solve’ some of the current problems that transport companies struggle with, including driver shortage. With the advent of autonomous, electrified and connected mobilities, we may anticipate both a gendered re-segregation and that fewer drivers would be needed (Balkmar and Mellström 2018). Nevertheless, problems of road transportation and the lack of gender equality in the haulage business can’t be solved following the “old logics of a technological fix”, gendered social and cultural issues need to be part of the solution (Kröger and Weber, 2018). Against this background, the aim of this paper is to explore how normcritical perspectives can offer ways forward with regards to gender and (lack of) gender equality in the haulage business. This includes to consider how technological innovations may change what it entails to be a truck driver and open new opportunities for the profession with regards to gender equality.

  • 37.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Varför kliver kvinnliga lastbilsförare ur lastbilen på passagerarsidan när det är dags för rast? Om kön och normer i transportsektorn2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Alsos, Gry, Agnete
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Bedenik, Tina
    Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Breivik-Meyer, Marit
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Heilbrunn, Sibylle
    Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee, Israel.
    Lindvert, Marta
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet Carine
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    McAdam, Maura
    Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Weinberg, Caren
    Ruppin Academic Center, Israel.
    My Better Entrepreneneurial Ecosystem: A Workshop on How to Promote an Inclusive Entrepreneurship Ecosystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    My Better Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: A Workshop on How to Promote an Inclusive Entrepreneurship Ecosystem (Tool 3). A workshop instruction (part of a three-part tool-kit developed). The main aim of the workshop is threefold; to spur collaboration and exchange among ecosystem actors; to enhance knowledge and learning, and finally; to co-create solutions to inspire change in individual actors as well as joint efforts to promote an inclusive entrepreneurial ecosystem. Target audience: main facilitator and organizer of workshop.

  • 39.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Alsos, Gry, Agnete
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Bedenik, Tina
    Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Breivik-Meyer, Marit
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Heilbrunn, Sibylle
    Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee, Israel.
    Lindvert, Marta
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet Carine
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    McAdam, Maura
    Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Weinberg, Caren
    Ruppin Academic Center, Israel.
    The Gendered Nature of Tech Entrepreneurship: Understanding the Gender-Divide in Tech Entrepreneurship2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gendered Nature of Tech Entrepreneurship: Understanding the Gender-Divide in Tech Entrepreneurship. (Tool 2) This publication provides insights - some basic facts and findings - on the complex ways that tech entrepreneurship is gendered (part of a three-part tool-kit developed) Target audience: equality strategists, other actors with the ambition, mandate and responsibility to promote inclusion in their organisation or towards ecosystem actors.

  • 40.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Alsos, Gry, Agnete
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Bedenik, Tina
    Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Breivik-Meyer, Marit
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Heilbrunn, Sibylle
    Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee, Israel.
    Lindvert, Marta
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    McAdam, Maura
    Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Weinberg, Caren
    Ruppin Academic Center.
    Levelling the field: A Guide to an Inclusive Entrepreneurship Ecosystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Levelling the field: A guide to an inclusive entrepreneurship ecosystem. (Tool 1) A practical guidebook on how to promote inclusive entrepreneurship (part of a three-part tool-kit developed) Intended target audience: equality strategists, other actors with the ambition, mandate and responsibility to promote inclusion in their organisation or towards ecosystem actors. It includes basic facts, findings, challenges’ and suggestion for strategies and approaches, hands-on sections are followed by short summaries and key points.

  • 41.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Callerstig, Anne-Charlott
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Eva, Lövstål
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Hur kan elvägar bli socialt hållbara? Ett ramverk för social hållbarhet vid teknik- och miljöomställningar2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att utveckla och presentera ett ramverk för hur sociala hållbarhetsfrågor kan integreras inom ett framtida genomförande av elväg. Målet är att tillhandahålla ett ramverk med förhållningssätt, utgångspunkter och en modell för hur sociala perspektiv kan integreras av infrastrukturägare och andra aktörer i transportsystemet. Ramverket visar på vad som behöver fokuseras när elvägar införs, och i viss mån hur, men själva analysen (och därmed svaren) ges av infrastrukturägare och relevanta aktörer som implementerar elvägar. Ramverket visar således vad som kan vara relevant att belysa, hur det kan till samt av vilka. Ramverket ger därmed förutsättningar för att definiera konkreta målsättningar och indikatorer för social hållbarhet i ett (framtida) genomförande av elvägar. Den tilltänkta läsaren är exempelvis projektdeltagare i ett elvägsprojekt, intressenter inom systemet, eller infrastrukturägare. Ramverket kan även användas av andra aktörer som arbetar med sociala hållbarhetsfrågor i utvecklingsprojekt. 

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    Hur kan elvägar bli socialt hållbara? Ett ramverk för social hållbarhet vid teknik- och miljöomställningar
  • 42.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Men, Automobility, Movements, and the Environment: Imagining (un)sustainable, automated transport futures2019In: Unsustainable Institutions of Men: Transnational Dispersed Centres, Gender Power, Contradictions / [ed] Jeff Hearn, Ernesto Vasquez del Aguila, and Marina Hughson, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 227-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The place of ecological and environmental concerns have not usually been at the centre of debates and analyses of men, masculinities, and global and transnational processes of power, even though men and masculinities have played a key role in environmental damage. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for more research, analysis and action on ecological and environmental questions, ‘green’ issues, sustainability, and climate change, and how these link to men and masculinities. Against this background, this chapter addresses sustainability in relation to intersections of men and the environment, and with emphasis on movements and transport futures. The current transport system not only supports and enacts the predominant global form of ‘quasi-private’ mobility that subordinates other less resource intense means of movement, it also causes damaging effects on the environment locally and globally. Central actors are to an overwhelmingly degree men of power, and men that dominate andcontrol its interlinked centres, such as the auto-, oil-and road industry. However, while the automobile and automobility have changed the world, self-driving cars and related automations are imagined as the next major transportation technology revolution. In the context of automated transport futures, the balance of power between state bodies, the auto-industry and power enactments by individual men, are likely to change.

  • 43.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mobilitet på lika villkor? Om jämlikhet och makt i transportpolitiken2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste årens jämställdhetspolitiska målsättningar inom transportområdet har väckt frågor om mobilitet och makt. Utgångspunkten är att alla människor, oavsett kön, ska ha samma möjlighet att påverka sin egen mobilitet. Frågan är dock vilka maktdimensioner som inte ryms inom ramen för dessa jämställdhetspolitiska målsättningar. På vilka sätt möjliggör och begränsar jämställdhetspolitiken att tillvarata olika resenärers intressen och erfarenheter? På vilka sätt rymmer olika mobilitetsformer också maktdimensioner kopplat till klass, ålder och/eller etnicitet? Vilka implikationer får det för vad som satsas på politiskt och i samhällsplaneringen? Under presentation diskuterar vi dessa frågor i relation till exempel från pågående forskning om cykling, mobilitet, planering och makt.

  • 44.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Filosofiska fakulteten, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Iovanni, LeeAnn
    Department of sociology, Social Work and Organization, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Pringle, Keith
    Mälardalen University College, Sweden.
    A Reconsideration of Two "Welfare Paradises": Research and Policy Responses to Men's Violence in Denmark and Sweden2009In: Men and Masculinities, ISSN 1097-184X, E-ISSN 1552-6828, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 155-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the situation in Denmark and Sweden regarding research and policy making around the issue of men-s violence to women and children. It does so by drawing on two comprehensive reviews of academic and policy data in those countries that were part of a broader European Union-funded project. Although the picture emerging from this comparison is complex, the overall conclusion is that in Sweden over recent years many more examples can be found of a critical, power-oriented approach than is the case in Denmark.    

  • 45.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Joelsson, Tanja
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Burning rubber, marking territory: technology, auto-erotic desires and violating mobility2009In: Gender delight: science, knowledge, culture and writing … / [ed] Åsberg, Cecilia; Harrison, Katherine; Pernud, Björn; Gustavsson, Malena, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009, p. 117-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Joelsson, Tanja
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Den bioniske mannen på autoerotiska äventyr: mäns risktagande i trafikrummet2010In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 27-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “The bionic man goes autoerotic – theoretic keys towards a refined understanding of men’s risk taking in public space”

    Gender construction in relation to mobility and movement gives rise to intriguing questions regarding the interfaces between men, masculinity, technology, “danger” and risk-taking, especially when discussing issues of traffic safety. How can we conceptualize men’s risk taking practices within the traffic realm? By drawing on research from feminist science and technology studies, the authors suggest and develop the figuration the bionic man for how to understand cars and other mobile vehicles such as mopeds as extensions of the (male) body. The construction of masculinity is seen to be interlinked with the use and mastering of motor vehicles. This theoretical frame work is further analysed by introducing the concept of autoeroticism as a meaningful way for understanding the profound embodied and emotional relation between men, technologies of movement and risk taking. The authors argue that the emotional aspects of driving cars and riding mopeds need to be regarded as both vital and crucial aspects when studying men’s risk taking in traffic space.

  • 47.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Joelsson, Tanja
    Tema Genus, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Feeling the speed: the social and emotional investments in dangerous road practices2012In: Gender and change: power, politics and everyday practices / [ed] Maria Jansdotter Samuelsson, Clary Krekula, Magnus Åberg, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2012, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gender aims to contribute towards a better society with the help of scientific tools. Change is therefore a key concept in gender studies. With a wide range of theoretical frameworks, methodological approaches and empirical materials from Sweden, Norway and Iceland, this book investigates how gender relations are shaped, reproduced, and challenged. Collectively, the papers in this volume point to where we are heading in terms of gender relations. Where are the seeds to change, and how does power make possible or impede on change?

  • 48.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Joelsson, Tanja
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The dangerous other?: Towards a contextual approach of men’s risk-taking with motor vehicles2014In: Masculinities in the criminological field: control, vulnerability and risk-taking / [ed] Ingrid Lander, Signe Ravn and Nina Jon, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, 1, p. 187-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades criminological research has changed from a gender-blind discipline which equated crime with men and thus ignored questions about gender, to an approach that studied gender by showing statistical differences between men and women, and then finally to a more inclusive and elaborate gender-theoretical approach to crime and crime control. However, despite this development, research on gender - and in particular research on gendered norms and the construction and enactment of masculinities - within the criminological field has been unable to keep up with developments in gender research. Since 1990, only a few anthologies with a gender-theoretical orientation focusing on masculinities within the criminological research field have been published. Many of the theoretical developments in gender research still have difficulties in reaching into mainstream criminology, partly because such developments are often published in feminist and/or gender theoretical journals. This volume both problematizes and renders visible conceptions and norms regarding male behaviour and masculinities and shows how these affect the criminological field through providing a theoretically sound and clear gender perspective to this field of research. With sections based around the following three themes: negotiations of masculinity in institutional settings, vulnerable masculinities and risk-taking and masculinities, this volume will be of interest to scholars of criminology, sociology, social work and gender studies, as well as policy-makers, and law enforcement professionals.

  • 49.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lykke, Nina
    Tema Genus, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Developing disruptive norm-critical innovation at Volvo: FINAL REPORT2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Group Trucks Technology and Tema Genus, Linköping University, have initiated a collaborative project to foster disruptive norm-critical innovation at Volvo. The aim is to 1) further develop existing methods for initiating innovation by bringing disruptive norm-critical innovation methods into already existing “tool boxes for innovation” at Volvo, 2) develop a particular tool box to enhance disruptive norm-critical innovation across existing “tool boxes”, and 3) develop a disruptive norm-critical innovation tool box targeting the leadership programme at Volvo Trucks to enable better management and integration of norm-critical innovation processes at Volvo. The first step was a pilot project, outlined below, the overall aim of which was to develop a detailed application (VINNOVA) which can achieve the above aims.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Developing disruptive norm critical innovation at Volvo
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  • 50.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Mellström, Ulf
    Gender Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Cyborgs and entanglements of technology, masculinity, and (automated) vehicles2019In: Feministische Studien, ISSN 0723-5186, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 320-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we will discuss different entanglements of technology and masculinity with a special focus on (automated) vehicles. Starting from a cyborg- epistemology formulated as 'thesis, anti-thesis, synthesis, prosthesis' (Gray 2001: 189), we will, in three sections, entangle and disentangle different discourses and practices around how masculinity has been constructed around intimacy, technology, and cyborgisation. Historically, this points in both destructive directions and emancipatory hopes of transcendence through cyborgisation. Cyborgs are thus political technologies, and we argue that a history of masculinity as well as the future of masculinity, in a western context and beyond, can be understood in relation to cyborgisation and intimacy with technological artefacts. It is argued that cyborgs are possibly the tricksters of the future posthuman masculinity but they are also a tool to understand the 'leitmotif' of male transcendence in the history of masculinity. To illustrate our point, we will use different forms of technologies of movement and other man-machine relations as our "objects-to-think-with", considering gendered power relations and emancipatory potentials (Haraway 2004: 321).

    In the first section we will discuss cyborgs and masculine entanglements in a historical perspective to suggest a cyborg-epistemology. Such approach is apt for understanding masculine desires of transcendence invested in and nurtured through automatons, golems, robots, etcetera. A characteristic feature of these ‘Man plus’ (Gray 2001) artefacts and creatures have been their prosthetic capacity with an inherent destructive/emancipatory Janus face. In the second section, we will apply the cyborg-epistemology to contemporary imaginaries and driving practices of cars. Cars and car driving is one of the arenas where masculinity is clearly constructed around intimacy, technology and cyborgisation, as exemplified in numerous cases of popular culture, and daily practices in and around cars. This section exemplifies emancipatory and destructive aspects of cars and car driving in dominant automobility systems. In the third section we will be more future oriented and speculative, looking at autonomous transport futures. While the interpellative experience of cars and its emotional and gendered dimensions have been discussed in the second section, the third section turns to the question how autonomous vehicles can be imagined and ‘felt’, and perhaps also changing gendered relations with, in and around cars (Berscheid 2016).

     

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