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  • 1.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 20152018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

    Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

  • 2.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 19, p. 11093-11101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data presenting the environmental occurrence of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are scarce and little is known about the potential sources. In this study, ultra-short-chain PFAAs were analyzed in water connected to potential point sources using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples (n = 34) were collected in connection with firefighting training sites, landfills, and a hazardous waste management facility. Ultra-short-chain PFAAs were detected in all samples at concentrations up to 84 000 ng/L (∑C1-C3), representing up to 69% of the concentration of 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA), trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (TFMS), perfluoroethane sulfonic acid (PFEtS), and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid (PFPrS) were detected at concentrations up to 14 000, 53 000, 940, 1700, and 15 000 ng/L, respectively. Principal component analysis suggests that TFA is associated with landfills. PFPrS was associated with samples collected close to the source at all types of sites included in this study. These findings reveal the presence of high concentrations of ultra-short-chain PFAAs released into the environment from various sources and emphasize the large fraction of ultra-short-chain PFAAs to the total concentration of PFASs in water.

  • 3. Domingo, JL.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Perelló, G.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds through drinking water, and fish and seafood by the population of Catalonia (Spain)2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 969-972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Domingo, Jose L.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Martorell, Isabel
    Perello, Gemma
    Nadal, Marti
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Human dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend2012In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 1575-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assessed the levels of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the most widely consumed foodstuffs in Catalonia, Spain, as well as the total dietary intake of these compounds. Forty food items were analysed. Only perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctanoicdecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were not detected in any sample. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the compound found in the highest number of samples (33 out of 80), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS). Fish and shellfish was the food group in which more PFASs were detected and where the highest PFAS concentrations were found. The highest dietary intakes corresponded to children, followed by male seniors, with values of 1787 and 1466 ng/day, respectively. For any of the age/gender groups of the population, the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDIs) recommended by the EFSA were not exceeded. In general terms, PFAS levels found in the current study are lower than the concentrations recently reported in other countries.

  • 5. Domingo, Jose L.
    et al.
    Ericson-Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perello, Gemma
    Nadal, Marti
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: contribution of drinking water and fish and shellfish2012In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 60, no 17, p. 4408-4415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in 30 water samples collected in Catalonia (Spain) at three stages of the drinking water treatment process in several water purification plants. In addition, the concentrations of 13 PFCs were determined in samples of fish and shellfish collected from coastal areas of Catalonia. The intake of PFCs through both pathways, drinking water intake and fish and shellfish consumption, was also estimated. In water samples, the highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (1.81 and 2.40 ng/L, respectively), whereas perfluorodecanosulfonate (PFDS) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTDA) were under their respective limits of detection in all analyzed samples. The results show that although the current treatment processes caused slight reductions in PFC concentrations, these processes did not mean significant changes in the amounts of PFCs already contained in the raw water. Among the analyzed PFCs in fish and shellfish, only seven compounds could be detected in at least one composite sample. PFOS showed the highest mean concentration (2.70 ng/g fw), being detected in all species with the exception of mussels. With regard to PFOA (mean, 0.074 ng/g fw), the highest concentrations were detected in prawn and hake (0.098 and 0.091 ng/g fw, respectively). The current exposure to PFCs through consumption of fish and shellfish indicates that it should not be of concern for the consumers. The amounts ingested are well below the recommended tolerable daily intakes, at least for those PFCs for which information is available.

  • 6.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs): exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of human exposure have not been fully characterized. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the contributions from food, water, air and dust as sources for human PFC exposure in the general population.

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of Up to 27 PFCs were determined at trace levels in blood (ng/mL), water (ng/L), foods (ng/g), dust (ng/g) and air (pg/m3) in a selected Catalan population and PFC intake was estimated from the measured PFC concentrations of the different sources of exposure.

    The major compounds detected in human blood of the studied population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS; 3.6 ng/mL) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 1.8 ng/mL). In general, PFOS was also the major compound detected in most sources of exposure.

    Food was found to be the dominant pathway for human PFC exposure accounting for more than 70 % of the total intake of both PFOS and PFOA. In the most populated area (the Barcelona Province) where the highest levels were measured, tap water can contribute to the total exposure substantially with more than 50 % for adults. Indoor sources were negligible in the selected area for most PFCs when compared to food and water intake, except for toddlers under a worst case scenario where contribution from dust and food intake were equal (19 %).

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling resulted in exposure of 103 ng PFOS/day and 33 ng PFOA/day of adults from the internal PFC blood concentrations. This agrees well with the intake estimated from external exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air of 80 ng PFOS/day and 32 ng PFOA/day and evidently all major exposure sources for the general population were included (in this study).

    List of papers
    1. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study
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    2007 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5307 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2007.01.003 (DOI)17289145 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ
    2010 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    PBDD, PBDF, TEQ, Human samples, PBDE, PFC
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13048 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.012 (DOI)000272888200006 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
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    2008 (English)In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1787-1794Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5299 (URN)10.1021/jf0732408 (DOI)18251500 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food
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    2009 (English)In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1577-1583Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Perfluorinated chemicals, Food, Cooking, Packaging, Dietary intake
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17166 (URN)10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.004 (DOI)000267739300027 ()2-s2.0-67349118177 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2017-10-02Bibliographically approved
    5. Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
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    2008 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5294 (URN)10.1007/s11356-008-0040-1 (DOI)18763004 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-03 Created: 2009-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    6. Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications
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    2009 (English)In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (PFBuS, PFHxS, PFOS, THPFOS, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTDA, and PFOSA) were analyzed in municipal drinking water samples collected at 40 different locations from 5 different zones of Catalonia, Spain. Detection limits ranged between 0.02 (PFHxS) and 0.85 ng/L (PFOA). The most frequent compounds were PFOS and PFHxS, which were detected in 35 and 31 samples, with maximum concentrations of 58.1 and 5.30 ng/L, respectively. PFBuS, PFHxA, and PFOA were also frequently detected (29, 27, and 26 samples, respectively), with maximum levels of 69.4, 8.55, and 57.4 ng/L. In contrast, PFDoDA and PFTDA could not be detected in any sample. The most contaminated water samples were found in the Barcelona Province, whereas none of the analyzed PFCs could be detected in two samples (Banyoles and Lleida), and only one PFC could be detected in four of the samples. Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L/day, the maximum daily intake of PFOS and PFOA from municipal drinking water would be, for a subject of 70 kg of body weight, 1.7 and 1.6 ng/kg/day. This is clearly lower than the respective Tolerable Daily Intake set by the European Food Safety Authority. In all samples, PFOS and PFOA also showed lower levels than the short-term provisional health advisory limit for drinking water (200 ng PFOS/L and 400 ng PFOA/L) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in drinking water in Catalonia are not expected to pose human health risks, safety limits for exposure to the remaining PFCs are clearly necessary, as health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure is set to 40 ng/L for PFOA.

    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13202 (URN)10.1007/s00244-009-9375-y (DOI)000270983600001 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-17 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    7. Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure
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    2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds; Indoor environment; Exposure pathways; Intakes; House dust; Indoor air
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17167 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2011.09.004 (DOI)000300129100022 ()2-s2.0-84555217906 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2008-865
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Public Health Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya

    Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, Jose L.
    Nadal, Marti
    Bigas, Esther
    Llebaria, Xavier
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications2009In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (PFBuS, PFHxS, PFOS, THPFOS, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTDA, and PFOSA) were analyzed in municipal drinking water samples collected at 40 different locations from 5 different zones of Catalonia, Spain. Detection limits ranged between 0.02 (PFHxS) and 0.85 ng/L (PFOA). The most frequent compounds were PFOS and PFHxS, which were detected in 35 and 31 samples, with maximum concentrations of 58.1 and 5.30 ng/L, respectively. PFBuS, PFHxA, and PFOA were also frequently detected (29, 27, and 26 samples, respectively), with maximum levels of 69.4, 8.55, and 57.4 ng/L. In contrast, PFDoDA and PFTDA could not be detected in any sample. The most contaminated water samples were found in the Barcelona Province, whereas none of the analyzed PFCs could be detected in two samples (Banyoles and Lleida), and only one PFC could be detected in four of the samples. Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L/day, the maximum daily intake of PFOS and PFOA from municipal drinking water would be, for a subject of 70 kg of body weight, 1.7 and 1.6 ng/kg/day. This is clearly lower than the respective Tolerable Daily Intake set by the European Food Safety Authority. In all samples, PFOS and PFOA also showed lower levels than the short-term provisional health advisory limit for drinking water (200 ng PFOS/L and 400 ng PFOA/L) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in drinking water in Catalonia are not expected to pose human health risks, safety limits for exposure to the remaining PFCs are clearly necessary, as health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure is set to 40 ng/L for PFOA.

  • 8.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gómez, Mercedes
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Domingo, José L.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

  • 9.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed in both human adipose tissue and plasma from nine individuals, from the Swedish general population, using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In addition, several other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in the same samples, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Polybrominated dibenzofurans were detected in all of the human adipose tissue samples confirming their presence in the Swedish population. The highest concentration was found for 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, ranging from 0.27 to 2.4 pg g(-1) lipid. followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF, 0.23-0.89 pg g(-1) lipid, 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF, 0.44-0.54 pg g(-1) lipid, and 2,7/2,8-DiBDF, 0.19-0.30 pg g(-1) lipid. No PBDDs could be detected above the limit of detection (<0.02-<0.21 pg g(-1) lipid) in any of the samples. The levels of PCDD/Fs were in the range 1.79-31.5 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) lipid, and PBDEs were found in the 1.16-7.46 ng g(-1) lipid range. The measured chlorinated dioxins indicate decreasing human concentrations in Sweden. The toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for PBDD/Fs (0.2-0.8 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) were found to contribute 1-15% of the total dioxin TEQ of the chlorinated dioxins and furans (5-18 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid) depending on the individual. Also PBDEs concentrations are decreasing compared to 1997-2000, but most noteworthy a shift in BDE pattern where BDE#47 is surpassed by BDE#153. The levels of PFCs are in the same range as the highest levels of the traditional POPs (sum of 60 PCBs) based on volume. These findings illustrate the importance of continuous monitoring of brominated compounds in both human and the environment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Detection of polybrominated dibenzo-p dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in human tissue from Sweden2008In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 70, p. 220-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet: intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1787-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.

  • 12.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dillon, L.
    Burgess, J.
    McCullagh, M.
    The implementation of a screening workflow for the ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of PFOS isomers2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Marti
    Rovira il Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jose Luis, Domingo
    Rovira il virgili university, Reus, Spain.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aim, and scope: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain).

    Materials and methods: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%.

    Results: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively.

    Discussion: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78–1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants.

    Conclusions: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries.

    Recommendations and perspectives: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 14.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain: is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?2008In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.

  • 15.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, Martí
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain.
    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.

  • 16.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, JL.
    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in indoor sources: Levels in house dust and indoor air from Catalonia, Spain2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perelló, Gemma
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food2009In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1577-1583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  • 18.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rasmussen, A.
    Eriksson, U.
    Influence of cooking methods on levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Lake Char (Salvelinus umbla) from Lake Vättern, Sweden2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCullagh, M.
    Burgess, J.
    Dillon, L.
    Hodgkinson, M.
    Determination and characterisation of PFOS in the environment using high definition mass spectrometry2012In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 74, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, A.
    Temporal trends of persistent organochlorine and bromine compounds in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Phoca hispida baltica) from year 1974 to 20152016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

  • 22.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dunstan, Jody
    Waters Corporation, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ruzzin, Jerome
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada; Montreal Diabetes Research Centre at the Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM) Montréal QC, Canada; Nutrition Department of Université de Montréal, Montréal QC, Canada; Endocrinology Division, Montreal University Hospital, Montréal QC, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1453, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300 pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r2) &gt;0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4 pg/μL) and CS 3 (4 pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS.

  • 23.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. RECETOX Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grahn, Hans
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department for Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department for Environmental Research and Monitoring , Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden .
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparison on atmospheric pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1593-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dunstan, J.
    Ruzzin, J.
    Rémi, RL.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography (APGC) coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the quantitative analysis of pesticides and PCBs regulated by the Stockholm Convention2013In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. RECETOX Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of brominated flame retardants and their derivatives by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization using gas chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry2017In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 162, p. 618-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A validated method using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC-APCI) to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is presented. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) and other emerging BFRs were included in this study. The method showed good linearity and repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) of all compounds was less than 16%. Repeatability for BFRs was tested on one or two concentration levels of calibration standardswith RSDs for RRFs below 16%. The lowest calibration standards (0.075 –0.1 pg/μL for emerging BFRs, BDE 209 and MeO-PBDEs mixtures, 0.625 –6.25 pg/μL for Br1-9 PBDEs mixtures) were used as instrument detection limits (IDL). The method was applied on biotic samples, including fish, osprey, and seal. In general, BDE209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were detected in 50% of the seal samples. A 100% detection rate was achieved for 6-MeO-BDE47 in all the samples (72 –580 pg/g ww in osprey samples, 24 000 –96 000 pg/g ww in seal samples and 78–99 pg/g ww in fish samples). AllBr3-6PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) were detected in all the samples (ranging from 12 to 20 000 pg/g ww), while BDE183 was detected in 60% of the osprey eggs, 20% of the seal samples and below MDL in all fish samples. The results presented indicate the capability of the GC-APCI-MS/MS system for the detection and quantification of BFRs.

  • 27.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. RECETOX Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of Novel and Legacy Brominated Flame Retardants Including Their Derivates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Using Gas Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass SpectrometryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, A.
    Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 20132016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hardell, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Carlberg, Micael
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Concentrations of organohalogen compounds and titres of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus antigens and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma2009In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1567-1576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to some pesticides and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been indicated to be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with some subgroups of NHL. In a previous study we found an interaction between high concentrations of some POPs and titres of antibodies to EBV early antigen (EA IgG) in relation to NHL. In the present study we measured lipid adjusted plasma concentrations of 35 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), p,p'- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethyelene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), seven subgroups of chlordanes (cisheptachlorepoxide, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, oxychlordane, MC6, trans-nonachlordane, cis-nonachlordane) and one polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) congener (no. 47) in 99 cases with NHL and 99 population based controls. Odds ratios (OR) for NHL were estimated. Sum of PCBs > median in the controls gave odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-3.9. High sum of chlordanes yielded OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5. An interaction with EBV EA IgG was found. High sum of PCB gave OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.9-14 in the group with EA IgG > 40. Similarly HCB yielded OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.9-15, pp'-DDE gave OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.7 and sum of chlordanes yielded OR 6.8, 95% CI 2.3-20, whereas no association was found with PBDE. In summary, thisstudy confirmed an association between certain POPs andNHL with an interaction with titre of IgG antibody to EBV EA.

  • 30.
    Haug, Line Smastuen
    et al.
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Becher, Georg
    Div Environm Med, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway; Dept Chem, Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Levels in food and beverages and daily intake of perfluorinated compounds in Norway2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1137-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been determined in 21 samples of selected food and beverages such as meat, fish, bread, vegetables, milk, drinking water and tea from the Norwegian marked. Up to 12 different PFCs were detected in the samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were found in concentrations similar to or lower than what has been observed in other studies world-wide. Differences in the relative proportion of PFOA and PFOS between samples of animal origin and samples of non-animal origin were observed and support findings that PFOS has a higher bio-accumulation potential in animals than PFOA. Based on these 21 measurements and consumption data for the general Norwegian population, a rough estimate of the total dietary intake of PFCs was found to be around 100 ng d(-1). PFOA and PFOS contributed to about 50% of the total intake. When dividing the population in gender and age groups, estimated intakes were decreasing with increasing age and were higher in males than females. The estimated intakes of PFOS and PFOA in the present study are lower than what has been reported in studies from Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada and Japan. This study illustrates that by improving the analytical methods for determination of PFC in food samples, a broad range of compounds can be detected, which is important when assessing dietary exposure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Kvist, Malin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Detection of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been documented worldwide in different environmental samples including humans. In Sweden, severe PFAS contamination in drinking water has resulted in elevated blood PFAS concentrations in residents living in contaminated areas. In many cases, the use of aqueous film forming-foams (AFFFs) at both civil and military airports has resulted in this contamination, as PFASs are one of the active ingredients in AFFFs. According to a nationwide survey, it was estimated that 30 % of the Swedish population has their closest drinking water source contaminated with these substances. A guideline value for safe use of drinking water set by the Swedish Food Agencyis the sum of eleven PFASs including perfluoroalkylated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8), perfluoroalkylated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C10) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate.This is set to 90 ng/L, while the health based limit, based on the tolerable daily intake,is set to 900 ng/L. In the US, Barzen-Hansen et al.showed the presence of ultra-short chain PFASs, perfluoropropanesulfonate (PFPrS) and perfluoroethanesulfonate (PFEtS), in five AFFFs. In ground water samples from eleven US military bases, PFEtS was detected in eight out of eleven samples ranging from 11-7500 ng/L, while PFPrS was detected in all samples, ranging from 19-63000 ng/L). Conventional reversed-phase LC using C18 column is not suitable to chromatograph these ultra-short chain PFAS, because they are highly polar; ion-exchange column has been demonstrated useful for separating these ultra-short chain PFAS. In this study a new analytical approach employing supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was developed for chromatographic separation of these ultra-short chain PFASs. Environmental water samples (surface water, ground water, rain water, snow and sediment) from various locations with suspected PFAS contamination were analyzed to investigate the potential occurrence of these ultra-short chain compounds in the Swedish environment. Solid phase extraction according to ISO method was used to concentrate water samples prior to instrumental analyses using both UPLC-MS/MS and UPC2-MS/MS.

    Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples from Sweden using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed,the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 390 μg/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in 24 out of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07-5 680 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport.

  • 32.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Davies, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Holsen, A H.
    Laugesen, J.
    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in effluents from hazardous waste treatment facilities2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Aune, Marie
    Glynn, Anders
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden2007In: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 226-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Only limited data exist on lactation as an exposure source of persistent perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) for children.Objectives We studied occurrence and levels of PFCs in human milk in relation to maternal serum together with the temporal trend in milk levels between 1996 and 2004 in Sweden. Matched, individual human milk and serum samples from 12 primiparous women in Sweden were analyzed together with composite milk samples (25–90 women/year) from 1996 to 2004.Results Eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples, and five of them were also above the detection limits in the milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all milk samples at mean concentrations of 0.201 ng/mL and 0.085 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected less frequently.Discussion The total PFC concentration in maternal serum was 32 ng/mL, and the corresponding milk concentration was 0.34 ng/mL. The PFOS milk level was on average 1% of the corresponding serum level. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS (r2 = 0.7) and PFHxS (r2 = 0.8). PFOS and PFHxS levels in composite milk samples were relatively unchanged between 1996 and 2004, with a total variation of 20 and 32% coefficient of variation, respectively.Conclusion The calculated total amount of PFCs transferred by lactation to a breast-fed infant in this study was approximately 200 ng/day. Lactation is a considerable source of exposure for infants, and reference concentrations for hazard assessments are needed.

  • 34.
    Mullin, Lauren
    et al.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Burgess, Jennifer A.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Aubin, Andy
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rapid separation of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers using a novel method combining convergence chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry2015In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 2950-2958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is characterized by the separation of its three predominant diastereomers. This analysis is typically performed using reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) detection with analysis times in the order of 10 minutes or greater. Here we describe a rapid method using supercritical CO2 and methanol to baseline separate the three most abundant HBCDD diastereomers within a three minute run time using a High Strength Silica (HSS) C18 1.8 mu m particle size column. A unique elution order of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCDD diastereomers using supercritical CO2 was observed, and can be used as an orthogonal separation for further confidence in diastereomer identification when used in conjuction with RPLC. A tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer with negative mode electrospray ionization was used for detection, operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ionization was enhanced by the addition of a make-up flow, which was introduced to the post-column effluent. Method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCDD were based on peak-to-peak signal to noise ratios of greater than 3 or 10, respectively. The LOD for all HBCDD diastereomers as solvent standards was 100 fg on-column, and LOQs 500 fg on-column for alpha- and gamma-HBCDD and 250 fg on-column for beta-HBCDD. In order to test the efficiency of this method, small subsets of complex human serum and whale blubber extracts were analyzed using this method, resulting in positive detections in samples of alpha-HBCDD.

  • 35.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    DiLorenzo, Robert A.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Mouse Imaging Centre, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Jobst, Karl
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s NL, Canada.
    Ladak, Adam
    Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham MA, USA.
    Plumb, Robert
    Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Reiner, Eric J.
    Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, Laboratory Services Branch, Etobicoke ON, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Liquid Chromatography-Ion Mobility-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Pollutants in Indoor Dust: Identification and Predictive CapabilitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Katz, David R.
    Atlantic Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett RI, USA.
    Riddell, Nicole
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Plumb, Robert
    Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Burgess, Jennifer A.
    Scientialis Consulting LLC, Hopkinton MA, USA.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of current approaches and environmental levels2019In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 118, p. 828-839Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental monitoring, one being hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA), commonly referred to as GenX. The following review describes existing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods used to analyse HFPO-DA, including sample preparation and method sensitivity relative to other PFAS. Analytical challenges are also described, in particular the significant formation of in-source fragmentation, dimer and dimer adducts which detract from [M-H](-) signal. Lastly, detected levels of HFPO-DA in environmental and biological samples are compared across the limited number of available field exposure studies, which found several mu g/L concentrations in water samples taken near fluorochemical plant discharges.

  • 37.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Ladak, A.
    Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Cleland, G.
    Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Biomonitoring of GC and LC amenable environmental contaminants using a single MS platform2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring of environmental contaminants in biological samples is typically performed by targeted analysis using a tandem quadrupole system on separate GC and LC platforms in order to cover the expansive range of compounds. Use of multiple systems can add complexity to the analysis and increase turnaround times for samples to be reported. The work that will be presented will show the analysis of common environmental contaminants in a biomonitoring context on a single high resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) platform. The compounds of interest include:

    • GC amenable compounds: Halogenated pesticides, BFRs, PCBs and PCDD/Fs
    • LC amenable compounds: Perfluoroalkyl substances, HBCDD/TBBP-A and phosphorus-based flame retardants
  • 38.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ladak, A.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stevens, D.
    Graham, K.
    Burgess, J.
    McCall, E.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Detection of persistent organic pollutants using atmospheric pressure gas chromatography and a novel acquisition mode for quadrupole time-of-flight MS2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Riddell, Nicole
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Plumb, Robert S.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Burgess, Jennifer A.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ionization Enhancement of Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) Through Mobile Phase Additive SelectionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Burgess, J.
    Aubin, A.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rapid separation of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers and tetrabromobisphenol-A using a novel method combining convergence chromatography and MS/MS detection2013In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Brazeau, Allison
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Synnott, Scott
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Lough, Alan
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada; Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography2016In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 21, no 11, article id 1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant which has been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention for elimination of production and use. It has been reported to persist in the environment and has the potential for enantiomer-specific degradation, accumulation, or both, making enantioselective analyses increasingly important. The six main stereoisomers of technical HBCDD (i.e., the (+) and (-) enantiomers of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD) were separated and isolated for the first time using enantioselective packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) separation methods on a preparative scale. Characterization was completed using published chiral liquid chromatography (LC) methods and elution profiles, as well as X-ray crystallography, and the isolated fractions were definitively identified. Additionally, the resolution of the enantiomers, along with two minor components of the technical product (δ- and ε-HBCDD), was investigated on an analytical scale using both LC and pSFC separation techniques, and changes in elution order were highlighted. Baseline separation of all HBCDD enantiomers was achieved by pSFC on an analytical scale using a cellulose-based column. The described method emphasizes the potential associated with pSFC as a green method of isolating and analyzing environmental contaminants of concern.

  • 42.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, R.
    McAlees, A.
    Chittim, B.
    Negative Ion APCI Mechanisms Associated with the Coupling of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Halogenated Environmental Contaminants2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph Ontario, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph Ontario, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph Ontario, Canada.
    Coupling of supercritical fluid chromatography to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of relevant negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mechanisms2017In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 171, p. 68-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During an investigation of the potential associated with coupling packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds, it was found that negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was a promising ionization technique. In the course of maximizing the responses associated with the target analytes, it proved useful to examine some aspects of the complex nature and reactivity of the corona discharge plasma generated to explain the observed ionization products. Various dopants/reagents were screened for both APCI and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in negative ion mode and mechanisms of ionization involving superoxide were elucidated based on the results obtained. Superoxide formation was found to be temperature dependent and directly related to the intensity of the ion cluster [M-Cl+O](-) obtained for the target DP analytes. Furthermore, triethylamine was identified as a reagent capable of suppressing unwanted side reactions during the ionization process and maximizing response associated with the analytes of interest. The applicability of pSFC-APCI/MS for the separation and detection of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds was demonstrated by analyzing Lake Ontario sediment and comparing the results with values reported in the scientific literature.

  • 44.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Coupling of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of Relevant Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization MechanismsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Coupling Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Positive Ion Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Ionization Optimization of Halogenated Environmental ContaminantsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada; Man-Technology-Environment (MTM) Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Coupling supercritical fluid chromatography to positive ion atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry: Ionization optimization of halogenated environmental contaminants2017In: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1387-3806, E-ISSN 1873-2798, Vol. 421, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently used analytical techniques for halogenated aromatic environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs), also known as legacy persistent organic pollutants, are based on gas chromatographic separation of target analytes and detection by mass spectrometry. The coupling of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API/MS) could allow for the concurrent analysis of thermally labile and legacy halogenated environmental contaminants if ionization can be sufficiently optimized. The evaluation of positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as well as possible charge transfer dopants for the generation of molecular ion isotopomeric clusters of halogenated environmental contaminants with minimal fragmentation has been completed. Using the investigated parameters, positive ion APPI was found to be the more sensitive technique. Of the aromatic and cycloalkane dopants investigated, only fluorobenzene and trifluorotoluene were found to be effective dopants for the halogenated aromatic target analytes (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs). Experiments involving deuterated dopants confirmed that reactive species generated by cycloalkanes were quenched by the SFC eluent rendering them unusable in conjunction with the investigated separation technique. Alternatively, aromatic dopants were found to be less susceptible to quenching by the SFC eluent and fluorobenzene was determined to be the most effective charge transfer dopant for PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs. To demonstrate the applicability of the optimized ionization conditions, SFC-API/MS has been used for the concurrent analysis of legacy halogenated aromatic environmental contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) and thermally labile analytes (alpha, beta, and gamma isomers of hexabromocyclododecane).

  • 47.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada; Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, no June 2017, p. 333-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of phosphorus based flame retardants as replacements for commonly used halogenated flame retardants has been gaining interest due to the possibility that these compounds may have a less significant impact on human and environmental health. Unfortunately, little is known about the chemical compositions of many of the technical products (which often are mixtures) and a single separation technique for concurrent analysis of these types of compounds has not been identified. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the constituents of three halogen free organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDBPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The major components of commercial samples of RDBPP and BPA-BDPP were isolated by preparative TLC and characterized by NMR. A commercial sample of DOPO was found to be essentially pure, but its analysis is complicated by the fact that it can exist in ring-open and ring-closed forms. With the structures of the components confirmed by NMR, multiple analytical separation techniques (gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC)) were investigated for the analysis of these three technical products. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography allows the separation of the components of all three OPFRs, including the two forms of DOPO, in a single run.

  • 48.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Potter, Dave
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Tashiro, Colleen
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Canada.
    Comparative assessment of the chromatographic separation of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans using supercritical fluid chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography2015In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 7, no 21, p. 9245-9253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of legacy environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) is well established and universally accepted. The use of an alternative separation technique, such as packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC), may be of interest as a fast, green, and cost effective method of analyzing environmental samples. The technique is amenable to a broad range of chemical compounds and could facilitate the simultaneous analysis of multiple compound classes as well as the inclusion of thermally labile compounds in a single targeted analysis. The recent re-emergence of this technology due to the introduction of more robust and efficient instrumentation may result in an increased acceptance of pSFC analytical techniques in this area. Herein, the first reported analytical separation of PCDDs and PCDFs by pSFC is described and its separation capabilities are compared with established HRGC protocols. Elution profiles of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were examined and the separation of PCDD/PCDF homologue groups was found to be comparable to those accomplished using HRGC. Similarly, the resolution of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) congeners, as required by current regulatory methods utilizing HRGC, was demonstrated and the separation of possible co-eluting PCDD/PCDF congeners was examined and compared to that achieved using popular HRGC capillary columns. The possibility of concurrent analysis of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with PCDDs and PCDFs using the developed pSFC method was also investigated. The effective separation of these environmental contaminants obtained using pSFC and subsequent detection utilizing atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry at environmentally relevant levels demonstrates the promise associated with this technique for the analysis of environmental extracts.

  • 49.
    Stylianou, Marios
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Distinct transcriptional response of Caenorhabditis elegans to different exposure routes of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 168, p. 406-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although people are exposed daily to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), the biological consequences are poorly explored. The health risks associated with PFAS exposure are currently based on chemical analysis with a weak correlation to potential harmful effects in man and animals. In this study, we show that perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), often the most enriched PFAS in the environment, can be transferred via bacteria to higher organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans nematodes were exposed to PFOS directly in buffer or by feeding on bacteria pretreated with PFOS, and this led to distinct gene expression profiles. Specifically, heavy metal and heat shock associated genes were significantly, although inversely, expressed following the different PFOS exposures. The innate immunity receptor for microbial pathogens, clec-60, was shown for the first time to be down-regulated by PFOS. This is in line with a previous study indicating that PFOS is associated with children's susceptibility to certain infectious diseases. Furthermore, bar-1, a gene associated with various cancers was highly up-regulated only when C. elegans were exposed to PFOS pretreated live bacteria. Furthermore, dead bacterial biomass had higher binding capacity for linear and isomeric PFOS than live bacteria, which correlated to the higher levels of PFOS detected in C. elegans when fed the treated E. toll, respectively. These results reveal new aspects concerning trophic chain transport of PFOS.

  • 50.
    van Bavel, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cherta, Laura
    Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.
    Nacher-Mestre, Jaime
    Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.
    Portoles, Tania
    Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.
    Abalos, Manuela
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Saulo, Jordi
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abad, Esteban
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Dunstan, Jody
    Waters Corporation, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Rhys
    Waters Corporation, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Kotz, Alexander
    EU Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg, Germany.
    Winterhalter, Helmut
    EU Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg, Germany.
    Malisch, Rainer
    EU Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg, Germany.
    Traag, Wim
    RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Beltran, Joaquim
    Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.
    Hernandez, Felix
    Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.
    Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (APGC/MS/MS) an Alternative to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the Determination of Dioxins2015In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 17, p. 9047-9053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of a new atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization source for gas chromatography (APGC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system, as an alternative to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), for the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs is described. The potential of using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a tandem quadrupole analyzer has been validated for the identification and quantification of dioxins and furans in different complex matrices. The main advantage of using the APCI source is the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure, which results in very limited fragmentation. APCI mass spectra are dominated by the molecular ion cluster, in contrast with the high energy ionization process under electron ionization (El). The use of the molecular ion as the precursor ion in MS/MS enhances selectivity and, consequently, sensitivity by increasing the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For standard solutions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, injections of 10 fg in the splitless mode on 30- or 60-m-length, 0.25 mm inner diameter (id), and 25 mu m film thickness low-polarity capillary columns (DB5MS type), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of >10:1 were routinely obtained. Linearity was achieved in the region (correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.998) for calibration curves ranging from 100 fg/mu L, to 1000 pg/mu L. The results from a wide variety of complex samples, including certified and standard reference materials and samples from several QA/QC studies, which were previously analyzed by EI HRGC/HRMS, were compared with the results from the APGC/MS/MS system. Results between instruments showed good agreement both in individual congeners and toxic equivalence factors (TEQs). The data show that the use of APGC in combination with MS/MS for the analysis of dioxins has the same potential, in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, as the traditional HEMS instrumentation used for this analysis. However, the APCI/MS/MS system, as a benchtop system, is much easier to use.

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