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  • 1. Domingo, Jose L.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Martorell, Isabel
    Perello, Gemma
    Nadal, Marti
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Human dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend2012Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 135, nr 3, s. 1575-1582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assessed the levels of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the most widely consumed foodstuffs in Catalonia, Spain, as well as the total dietary intake of these compounds. Forty food items were analysed. Only perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctanoicdecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were not detected in any sample. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the compound found in the highest number of samples (33 out of 80), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS). Fish and shellfish was the food group in which more PFASs were detected and where the highest PFAS concentrations were found. The highest dietary intakes corresponded to children, followed by male seniors, with values of 1787 and 1466 ng/day, respectively. For any of the age/gender groups of the population, the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDIs) recommended by the EFSA were not exceeded. In general terms, PFAS levels found in the current study are lower than the concentrations recently reported in other countries.

  • 2.
    Ekblad, Alf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mikusinska, Anna
    School of Science & Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ågren, Göran I.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Menichetti, Lorenzo
    Agroscope, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Wallander, Håkan
    Department of Biology, Microbial Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Vilgalys, Rytas
    Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, USA.
    Bahr, Adam
    Department of Biology, Microbial Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Production and turnover of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelial biomass and necromass under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization2016Inngår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 211, nr 3, s. 874-885Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extramatrical mycelia (EMM) of ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, but poor knowledge about EMM biomass and necromass turnovers makes the quantification of their role problematic. We studied the impacts of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on EMM production and turnover in a Pinus taeda forest. EMM C was determined by the analysis of ergosterol (biomass), chitin (total bio- and necromass) and total organic C (TOC) of sand-filled mycelium in-growth bags. The production and turnover of EMM bio- and necromass and total C were estimated by modelling. N fertilization reduced the standing EMM biomass C to 57% and its production to 51% of the control (from 238 to 122 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), whereas elevated CO2 had no detectable effects. Biomass turnover was high (˜13 yr(-1) ) and unchanged by the treatments. Necromass turnover was slow and was reduced from 1.5 yr(-1) in the control to 0.65 yr(-1) in the N-fertilized treatment. However, TOC data did not support an N effect on necromass turnover. An estimated EMM production ranging from 2.5 to 6% of net primary production stresses the importance of its inclusion in C models. A slow EMM necromass turnover indicates an importance in building up forest humus.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Contribution of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) and other precursor compounds to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in humans and the environment2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic compounds that have been spread all over the world. The use of fluorotelomer compounds, short-chained homologues, and other PFASs with perfluorinated moieties has emerged recent years. One of these emerging compound classes is polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs), which have the ability to degrade into persistent PFCAs.

    The aim of this thesis was to assess the contribution of PAPs and other precursors to the exposure of PFCAs to humans and the environment. The main objective was to analyze a wide range of PFAS in human serum, wild bird eggs, indoor dust, waste water, and sludge. There was a significant contribution from selected precursors to the total amount of PFASs in the abiotic compartments indoor dust, waste water, and sludge. Levels of PAPs found in house dust exceeded those of PFCAs and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), revealing PAPs as a world-wide important exposure source.

    A net increase was during waste water treatment was observed for several PFASs in Swedish waste water treatment plants. Together with presence of precursor compounds and intermediates in the influent water and the sludge, this suggest that degradation of PFCA precursors contributed to the increase of PFCAs. Detection of precursors in human serum, together with slow declining trends of PFCAs, revealed an ongoing exposure of PFCAs to the general population of Australia. The diPAPs and the FTSAs were also detected in raptor bird eggs from Sweden from both the terrestrial and the freshwater environment. The precursors concentrations and patterns observed reveal that current regulatory measures are insufficient for the purpose of protecting humans and the environment from PFASs exposure.

    Delarbeid
    1. World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 24, s. 14503-14511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Washington, USA: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46467 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00679 (DOI)000366872300072 ()26000882 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84934903181 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-12 Laget: 2015-11-12 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52953 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-14 Laget: 2016-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52964 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-14 Laget: 2016-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, s. 40-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 2016
    Emneord
    diPAPs, PFAS, Bird of prey, Freshwater, Terrestrial
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50315 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2016.04.038 (DOI)000378366000006 ()27174782 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84965046283 (Scopus ID)
    Merknad

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA)  2220-14-004

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-27 Laget: 2016-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Contribution of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs)
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  • 4.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Haglund, Peter
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 61, s. 80-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Screening of PFASs in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution from precursor compounds to the total amount of selected PFASs in water and sludge from Swedish waste water treatment plants, as a supplemental to previous studies of two persistent PFAS-classes; perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Compound classes added in this study were fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs), perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs, PFPiAs), perfluoralkane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs), and also the intermediates fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) and the stable transformation products fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCAs). Three waste water treatment plants were included; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Umeå. PFAS levels in sludge from 2012. 2014, and 2015, and in filtered effluent and influent water from 2015 are reported. Precursor compounds were detected in sludge and influent water from all three WWTPs. Levels of precursor compounds in sludge samples exceeded those of persistent PFASs. Increasing PFCA levels in the effluent water compared to the influent water was observed, especially for the short-chained PFCAs. Occurrence of precursor compounds in influent water and sludge indicate degradation of precursor compounds to persistent PFASs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Screening of PFASs in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 24, s. 14503-14511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mikkelsen, Bjorg
    Faroese Food & Vet Agcy, Torshavn, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Dam, Maria
    Environm Agcy, Argir, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands2013Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 11, s. 7940-7948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crSme fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia .
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan and Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Entox, Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia.
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan and Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 20132017Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, nr Pt A, s. 168-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of compounds that includes numerous compound classes. To date, only a subset of these PFASs have been studied thoroughly in the general population. In this study, pooled serum samples from Australia collected in 2002-2013 were analyzed for PFASs according to gender and age (age categories of 0-4 years, 5-15 years, 16-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 years, and >60 years), in total 54 pooled samples and 4920 individuals. Compound classes included were perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), and two groups of PFCA precursor compounds; polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), and fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs). Several PFASs that were not reported in previous studies of Australian serum samples were found in this sample set including; diPAPs, FTSAs, perfluoropentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluoroheptane carboxylic acid (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA). Various temporal trends were observed with a significant reduction (p < 0.05) between 2002 and 2013 for 8:2 FTSA, perflurohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), PFHpS, PFOS, and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of longer-chained PFDA and PFUnDA started to decrease more recently, between 2006 and 2013, while PFDoDA increased during the same time period. Higher levels in younger age groups (0-4 and 5-15 years) compared to adults (>15 years) were found for 8:2 FTSA and PFHpA, while levels of PFHpS, PFOS, PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA were higher in adult age groups compared to younger age groups. Gender-specific patterns were seen for PFOA, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS, where levels were lower in women. Changes in manufacturing processes were reflected in the temporal time trends, and differences in bioaccumulation potential between homologues could be associated with age trends. Our results emphasize the importance of including emerging classes of PFASs in biomonitoring studies.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lind, Ylva
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hope, Kjell
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)2016Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, s. 40-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.

  • 12.
    Fredriksson, Felicia
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    A Pilot Study of the Fluorinated Ingredient of Scotchgard Products and Their Levels in WWTP Sludge and Landfill Leachate from Sweden2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study performed by Örebro University on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Agency aims at assessing the occurrence and levels of the newly identified side-chain fluorinated polymers from an environmental perspective. The aims of present study are 1) to develop instrumental and extraction methods to measure the active ingredient of two Scotchgard products (two side-chain fluorinated polymers, hereafter referred to as Pre-2002 and Post-2002) in sludge and leachate samples from Swedish wastewater treatment plants and landfills; 2) to evaluate if Pre-2002 and Post-2002 may be responsible for the unidentified organofluorine in the sludge samples from our previous screening study reporting extractable organofluorine (EOF); and 3) to conduct a mass balance analysis on EOF and sum of 93 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in the sludge and landfill leachate samples to assess the levels of unidentified EOF that potentially are other polymeric or non-polymeric PFAS.

    Levels of Pre-2002 and Post-2002 and EOF are reported for sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants (Bergkvara in Torsås, Gässlösa in Borås, Henriksdal in Stockholm, and Öhn in Umeå) collected in 2015, and leachate samples from three different landfills (Atleverket in Örebro, Hässleholm Kretsloppscenter in Hässleholm, and Flishult in Vetlanda). Sludge samples from Gässlösa wastewater treatment plant collected between 2004 and 2016 (excluding 2005 and 2006) were analyzed to assess any temporal trends of the two side-chain fluorinated polymers (Pre-2002 and Post-2002). The present investigation reported levels of both Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in all sludge samples (158-2618 ng/g d.w.). Levels of Pre-2002 were always higher than those of Post-2002 in the same samples. A declining trend was observed for Pre-2002 in sludge samples from Gässlösa but no clear trend was noted for Post-2002. The concentrations of the Pre-2002 and Post-2002 in sludge were higher than the sum of 83 PFAS analyzed in the previous screening study. No relationship between number of people that the wastewater treatment plants served and the concentrations of EOF and Pre-2002 and Post-2002 could be observed. The concentrations of both EOF and Pre-2002 and Post-2002 seem to be more related to the types of industry located in that area. Only three of the five leachate samples showed detectable levels of Pre-2002. Post-2002 was not detected in any of the landfill leachates. The low levels could be due to that both compounds are strongly sorbed to particles, which indicates the fate and distribution of these compounds. For both the sludge and leachate samples, the quantified levels of Pre-2002 and Post-2002 only contributed to a minor part of the EOF. A high proportion of unknown EOF still remains and may be related to other polymeric or non-polar PFAS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    A Pilot Study of the Fluorinated Ingredient of Scotchgard Products and Their Levels in WWTP Sludge and Landfill Leachate from Sweden
  • 13.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. RECETOX Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Grahn, Hans
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Roos, Anna
    Department for Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Langseter, Anne Marie
    Grønhovd, Siri Merete
    Ræder, Erik Magnus
    Lyche, Jan Ludvig
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Chen, Fangfang
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Aro, Rudolf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Fredriksson, Felicia
    PFASs in the Nordic environment: Screening of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Extractable Organic Fluorine (EOF) in the Nordic Environment2019Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a screening study of in all ninety-nine conventional and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Nordic environment. In addition, extractable organic fluorine (EOF) was analysed. The latter can provide the amount, but not identity, of organofluorine in the samples, which in turn can be used to assess the mass balance between known and unknown PFASs. The study was initiated by the Nordic Screening Group and funded by these and the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Chemicals Group. A total of 102 samples were analyzed in this study, including bird eggs, fish, marine mammals, terrestrial mammals, surface water, WWTP effluents and sludge, and air. Samples were collected by institutes from the participating countries and self-governing areas; Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    PFASs in the Nordic environment
  • 15.
    Titaley, Ivan A.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rapid extraction method of polycyclic aromatic compounds in soil using basic silica selective pressurized liquid extraction2020Inngår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1618, artikkel-id 460896Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex chemical mixtures found in soils at contaminated sites typically includes polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), thus posing potential environmental and human health risks. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by silica clean-up is one of the most often used extraction methods for PACs in soil. While silica clean-up provide satisfactory recovery of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs), this technique provides limited recovery of azaarenes. In this work, we used PLE and in-cell clean up with basic silica to increase the recovery of OPAHs and azaarenes. The optimized selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method used 4 g basic silica, dichloromethane, 100% flush volume, 100 and 120 °C extraction temperatures, with two static cycles for each temperature, no rinse in between the two extractions, and 20 and 120 s purge for the first and second extraction temperature, respectively. The method was validated for a wide range of PAC groups, including OPAHs, azaarenes, alkylated PAHs, and sulfur heterocycles (SPACs), in total 87 PACs, using certified reference material and in comparison to the results from previous inter-laboratory data. Our SPLE method yielded results that are in agreement with certified values and inter-laboratory data from prior analysis. The SPLE method also yielded lower variation than the results from the inter-laboratory data for analysis of OPAH and azaarenes, suggesting better precision than previous methods. More importantly, the SPLE method increases sample analysis throughput as extra clean-up step is not necessary anymore. The SPLE method was then successfully applied to rapidly screen PACs in three soil samples.

  • 16.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Tidstrend av oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam från reningsverk i Sverige2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this investigation are 1) to study spatial variation in PFAS discharge by measuring PFAS in sludge samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs: Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm, and Gässlösa - Borås); 2) to evaluate the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, in the sludge samples by measuring total organofluorine (TOF) in the samples; 3) to study the temporal discharge and pattern of PFASs by measuring different PFASs in archived sludge samples from two WWTPs (Henriksdal and Gässlösa); and 4) to evaluate temporal changes of the amount of unidentified PFAS, if any, by measuring the amount of TOF in the archived samples from these two WWTPs. Levels of TOF and PFAS are reported for sludge samples from the four WWTPs collected in 2015; temporal analyses of TOF and PFASs were conducted on sludge samples from two WWTPs collected between 2004 and 2015.

    Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in the sludge samples. The levels of TOF and unidentified PFAS were shown to more related to types of industries connected to the WWTPs, not necessarily related to number of people served in that area and the scale of WWTP. Quantifiable PFAS only accounted for 5 to 11% of the TOF in samples collected in 2015 indicating that 89-95% of the measured organofluorine in the samples was unidentified. TOF levels from Gässlösa were approximately 1.6 – 17.7 times higher than those of Henriksdal in corresponding year. The proportion of quantifiable PFAS to TOF decreased from 21% in 2004 to 11% in 2015 in samples from Henriksdal; at the same time increasing levels of unidentified PFAS was also observed between 2012 and 2015

    Syftet med denna studie var 1) att studera geografiska variationer i utsläpp av PFASs genom att mäta PFAS i slamprover från fyra olika reningsverk (Öhn - Umeå, Bergkvara - Torsås, Henriksdal – Stockholm och Gässlösa - Borås); 2) att utvärdera om slammet innehåller oidientifierade PFASs och i sådana fall kvantifiera mängden av dessa; 3) att studera hur profilen av PFAS-ämnen förändras över tid genom att mäta olika PFAS-ämnen i arkiverade slamprover från två reningsverk (Henriksdal och Gässlösa); och 4) att bestämma andelen oidentifierade PFAS genom att mäta totalhalten organiskt fluor (TOF) i de arkiverade proverna från Henriksdal och Gässlösa.

    I denna studie rapporteras halterna av TOF och PFAS i slamprover från de fyra ovan nämnda reningsverken insamlade under 2015; vidare rapporteras en tidstrendsstudie utförd för TOF och PFAS i slamprover från Henriksdal mellan 2004 och 2015. Ett flertal PFAS-klasser detekterades i proverna; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FOSAs/FOSEs, diSAmPAP, FOSAAs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. Halterna av oidentifierade PFASs visade sig vara relaterade främst till typ av industriell verksamhet i anslutning till reningsverket, snarare än antalet personer anslutna till och storlek på reningsverken. Identifierade PFAS-halter utgjorde endast 5 - 11% av TOF i proverna insamlade under 2015, vilket indikerade att 89 - 95% av TOF var oidentifierade ämnen. Halten TOF i slamproverna från Gässlösa var uppskattningsvis 1.6 – 17.7 gånger högre än TOF i slamprover från Henriksdal motsvarande år. Andelen identifierade PFAS-halter i förhållande till TOF minskade från 21% under 2004 till 11% under 2015 i slamprover från Henriksdal, ökade halter av oidentiferade PFASs observerades också mellan 2012 och 2015.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Pilotstudie avseende oidentifierade poly- och perfluorerade alkylämnen i slam och avloppsvatten från reningsverk i Sverige2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att studera totalhalten av PFASs samt andelen okända, hittills ännu ej identifierade PFAS-ämnen i vatten och slam från svenska reningsverk genom att analysera totalt organiskt fluor (TOF) och kvantifierbara PFAS-ämnen. Studien syftar till att kartlägga omfattningen av kända och okända PFAS-ämnen, både dem som är i omlopp och används i produkter i samhället, och dem som släpps ut i miljön. Avloppsvatten (ingående och utgående) och slam provtogs under 2015 och 2016 vid tre olika reningsverk; Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) och Öhn (Umeå). I denna rapport redovisas halter av TOF och PFAS-ämnen i slam från 2016 och ingående och utgående avloppsvatten från 2015 och 2016. Flera olika PFAS-klasser detekterades i slam och avloppsvatten; PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, diPAPs, PFPAs och PFPiAs. De neutrala och/eller katjoniska PFAS-ämnena i ingående och utgående vatten var ej identiferbara, medan 79-95% av de anjoniska PFAS-ämnen var okända, ej identiferbara ämnen. I slamproverna ´var en betydande del (42-82%) okända ämnen.

    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this investigation are 1) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs had been used in daily life by analyzing total organofluorine (TOF) and quantifiable PFASs in influent samples; and 2) to measure the amount and proportion of unidentified PFASs released into the environment by analyzing TOF and quantifiable PFASs in effluent samples and sludge samples from municipal waste water treatment plants. Sewage (influent and effluent) and sludge were collected in 2015 and 2016 from three wastewater treatment plants (Gässlösa (Borås), Henriksdal (Stockholm) and Öhn (Umeå)). Levels of TOF and PFAS in sludge from 2016 and filtered effluent and influent samples from 2015 and 2016 are reported. Different classes of PFASs including PFCAs, PFSAs, FTSAs, FTCAs, diPAPs, FTUCAs, FOSAs, FOSAAs, PFPAs and PFPiAs were detected in sewage and sludge samples. For influent and effluent samples, all detectable neutral and/or cationic PFASs remained unidentified; for the anionic fraction, 79-94% of the TOF were unidentified. For sludge samples, a significant proportion (42-82%) of total anionic organofluorine remained unidentified

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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