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  • 1.
    Abuabaid, Hanan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus alters inflammatory responses of bladder epithelial and macrophage-like cells in co-cultureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    El Marghani, Ahmed M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Immune cell activation by sewage treatment plant effluents and inland waters in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Elmarghani, Ahmed
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Seyoum, Asmerom
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ros, Torbjön
    Pelagia Miljokonsult AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Lars-Håkan
    Mälarenergi AB, Vasterås, Sweden.
    Nermark, Tomas
    Karlskoga Energi MO AB, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Osterman, Lisa
    Skebäcks Reningsverk, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Ulf
    Tyrens AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Scandinavia AB, Täby, Sweden.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Contribution of pharmaceuticals, fecal bacteria and endotoxin to the inflammatory responses to inland waters2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488-489, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing contamination of freshwater with pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides and other organic compounds are of major concern. As these contaminants are detected at trace levels in the environment it is important to determine if they elicit biological responses at the observed levels. In addition to chemical pollutants, there is also a concern for increasing levels of bacteria and other microorganisms in freshwater systems. In an earlier study, we observed the activation of inflammatory systems downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southern Sweden. We also observed that the water contained unidentified components that were pro-inflammatory and potentiated the immune response in human urinary bladder epithelial cells. In order to determine if these effects were unique for the studied site or represent a common response in Swedish water, we have now performed a study on three WWTPs and their recipient waters in central Sweden. Analysis of immune responses in urinary bladder epithelial cells, monocyte-like cells and blood mononuclear cells confirm that these waters activate the immune system as well as induce pro-inflammatory responses. The results indicate that the cytokine profiles correlate to the endotoxin load of the waters rather than to the levels of pharmaceuticals or culturable bacteria load, suggesting that measurements of endotoxin levels and immune responses would be a valuable addition to the analysis of inland waters.

  • 4.
    Elmarghani, Ebraheem [Ibrahim] Daabag
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Poonlapthawee, Sirirat
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Antibiotic resistance in fecal indicator bacteria in Hjälmaren lake systemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing levels of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria are ound in the environment, causing serious concerns for treatment of infectious diseases. his increase is believed to be due to release of antibiotic resistant bacteria and election pressure resulting from pharmaceuticals in the environment.

    Objectives: We evaluated the presence of multi-antibiotic resistant fecal ndicator bacteria from the surface waters of a recipient river and lake downstream of he wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Sweden.

    Methods: Surface waters from Svartån river and Hjälmaren lake in Sweden were ampled in 2010 and 2011. The waters were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli, enterococci) by membrane filtration and selective agar plating. E. coli nd enterococci were evaluated by Etest for resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, alidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, eropenem, imipenem, ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamycin and streptomycin.

    Results: The highest concentration of E. coli and enterococci were found in vartån river at Naturens Hus closest site downstream of the WWTP. Tetracycline resistance as the most prominent in both fecal indicator bacteria. Over the two years, there was 42% (13/31) and 24% (7/29) multi-antibiotic resistant (≥2 antibiotics) E. coli and nterococci, respectively. Furthermore, we identified one ESBL and one AmpC hyperproducing . coli in 2010 and vancomycin (vanA) resistant E. faecium in 2011.

    Conclusions: The presence, of multi-antibiotic resistant strains of fecal ndicator organisms in regions considered predominantly clean, is of great concern. While t currently may not be a major threat in the region, it is demonstrating the accelerating incidence and spread of antibiotic resistance worldwide.

  • 5.
    Elmarghani, Ibrahim [Ebraheem]
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Elmarghani, Ahmed
    Biotechnology research center Tripoli, Libya PO Box 3310.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    The impact of environmental waters on cellular response in human and bacterial cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The escalating frequency of pharmaceutical and antibiotic use contributes to the increasing amounts of these substances being released into the environment. While wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effectively remove substantial amounts of contaminating substances, some are persistent and are released into the environment. It is not possible to identify all of the potentially bioactive substances released into the environment, therefore it is more rational to explore the biological effects of the waters to determine prospective health hazards. The present study evaluates the cellular response of human and bacterial cells (Enterococcus faecalis) to environmental waters upstream anddownstream of the WWTP near the  city of Örebro, Sweden. Water samples werecollected from 4 sites during May 2011. These included a site upstream in Svartån at Tekniska Kvarn, downstream at Naturens Hus near the WWTP, in the recipient Hjälmaren lake and in Ånnaboda lake (control site). THP-1 monocytes exhibited a significant increase in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-β when treated with waters from Svartån at Naturens Hus, justdownstream of the WWTP outlet. Water from this site was thereafter tested using an environmental E. faecalis isolate and the stress response, virulence and antibiotic gene expression was evaluated by qPCR. There was no statistically significant effect observed on the selected genes in E. faecalis when treated with the environmental waters compared to MQ water. Thus the waters contained substances that influence inflammatory response in human cells in vitro but did not affect fecal indicator enterococci.

  • 6. Elwood, Chelsea N.
    et al.
    Chew, Ben H.
    Seney, Shannon
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Denstedt, John D.
    Cadieux, Peter A.
    Triclosan Inhibits Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Stimulated Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Secretion in T24 Bladder Cells in Vitro2007In: Journal of endourology, ISSN 0892-7790, E-ISSN 1557-900X, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1217-1222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent commonly used in consumer and medical products that inhibits bacterial fatty acid synthesis. In addition to its bactericidal effects, sublethal concentrations of triclosan reduce local inflammation, inhibit the growth of bacterial uropathogens, induce membrane stress, and inhibit P-fimbrial expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). We tested whether sublethal concentrations of triclosan could reduce the adherence of UPEC to bladder and kidney cells and reduce the amount of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced by these cells during bacterial challenge in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Assays of bacterial growth, adhesion, and intracellularization were performed using UPEC GR12 incubated for 4 hours on monolayers of human T24 bladder cells or A498 kidney cells with various sublethal concentrations of triclosan. The expression profile of TNF-alpha from bladder cells was evaluated using ELISA. RESULTS: No significant decreases were observed in the adherence or invasion percentages of UPEC GR12 with either cell line when treated with sublethal amounts of triclosan. However, treatment with triclosan 0.5 microg/mL led to a significant decrease in the total number of UPEC GR12 recovered from T24 monolayers (P < 0.05). Importantly, a reduction in the expression of TNF-alpha by T24 cells was shown when UPEC GR12 was treated with triclosan (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sublethal concentrations of triclosan did not inhibit the adhesion or intracellularization of UPEC into kidney or bladder cell lines but did significantly reduce the amount of TNF-alpha secreted by bladder cells. Therefore, the use of triclosan on ureteral stents may prove clinically beneficial, not only by inhibiting bacterial survival and growth within the urinary tract, but by reducing local inflammation as well.

  • 7.
    Goswami, Manish
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Molecular Biology Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, 400094, Mumbai, India.
    Khan, Faisal Ahmad
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ibrisevic, Admir
    Eskilstuna Strängnäs Energi & Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Development of Escherichia coli based gene expression profiling of sewage sludge leachates2018In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The impact of municipal waste on pathogenic microorganisms released into the environment is a public health concern. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge and antibiotic contaminants on stress response, virulence and antibiotic resistance in a pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of sewage sludge leachates on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 were determined by monitoring the expression of 45 genes associated with antibiotic/metal resistance, stress response and virulence using RT-qPCR. The E. coli gene expression was validated using sub-inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. E. coli exposed to sewage sludge or sewage sludge-fly ash leachates altered the expression of 5 antibiotic and metal resistance, 3 stress response and 2 virulence associated genes. When antibiotics were combined with sludge or sludge-fly ash the antibiotic-associated gene expression was altered.

    CONCLUSIONS: E. coli treated with two sludge leachates had distinct gene expression patterns that were altered when the sludge leachates were combined with tetracycline, although to a lesser extent with ciprofloxacin.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: The E. coli multigene expression analysis is a potential new tool for assessing the effects of pollutants on pathogenic microbes in environmental waters for improved risk assessment. This article is protected by copyright.

  • 8.
    Goswami, Manish
    et al.
    Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Subramanian, Mahesh
    Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
    Kumar, Ranjeet
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. The Life Science Center.
    Jawali, Narendra
    Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
    Involvement of Antibiotic Efflux Machinery in Glutathione-Mediated Decreased Ciprofloxacin Activity in Escherichia coli2016In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 4369-4374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have analyzed the contribution of different efflux components to glutathione-mediated abrogation of ciprofloxacin's activity in Escherichia coli and the underlying potential mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon. The results indicated that glutathione increased the total active efflux, thereby partially contributing to glutathione-mediated neutralization of ciprofloxacin's antibacterial action in E. coli However, the role of glutathione-mediated increased efflux becomes evident in the absence of a functional TolC-AcrAB efflux pump.

  • 9.
    Jacobsen, Annette
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.
    Yemaneab, Bisrat
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Reference gene selection for qPCR Is dependent on cell type rather than treatment in colonic and vaginal human epithelial cell lines2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 12, p. e115592-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of commensal bacteria to influence gene expression in host cells under the influence of pathogenic bacteria has previously been demonstrated, however the extent of this interaction is important for understanding how bacteria can be used as probiotics. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive tool for evaluating relative changes to gene expression levels. However as a result of its sensitivity an appropriate method of normalisation should be used to account for any variation incurred in preparatory experimental procedures. These variations may result from differences in the amount of starting material, quality of extracted RNA, or in the efficiency of the reverse transcriptase or polymerase enzymes. Selection of an endogenous control gene is the preferred method of normalisation, and ideally a proper validation of the gene's appropriateness for the study in question should be performed. In this study we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction data and applied four different algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and comparative ΔCq) to evaluate eleven different genes as to their suitability as endogenous controls for use in studies involving colonic (HT-29) and vaginal (VK2/E6E7) human mucosal epithelial cells treated with probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. We found phosphoglycerate kinase 1 to be most appropriate for HT-29 cells, and ribosomal protein large P0 to be the best choice for VK2/E6E7 cells. We also showed that use of less stable reference genes can lead to less accurate quantification of expression levels of gene of interest (GOI) and also can result in decreased statistical significance for GOI expression levels when compared to control. Additionally, we found the cell type being analysed had greater influence on reference gene selection than the treatment performed. This study provides recommendations for stable endogenous control genes for use in further studies involving colonic and vaginal cell lines after bacterial challenge.

  • 10.
    Jass, Jana
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Reid, Gregor
    Effect of cranberry drink on bacterial adhesion in vitro and vaginal microbiota in healthy females2009In: Canadian journal of urology, ISSN 1195-9479, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 4901-4907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction/objective: Cranberries have been shown to produce urinary metabolites that influence uropathogen adhesion and prevent urinary tract infections. This study was designed to determine if consuming reconstituted, unsweetened cranberry drink from extract retained its bioactive properties by reducing uropathogen adhesion without adversely affecting urinary calcium, magnesium and the vaginal microflora. Materials and methods: A randomized crossover study Was undertaken in 12 healthy Women consuming reconstituted unsweetened cranberry drink, CranActin or Water. The urine was collected at 4 hours and 1 week of consumption and evaluated for antiadhesive properties and urinary pH, calcium and magnesium. Vaginal swabs Were collected after 1 Week of treatment to assess the vaginal microbiota by DGGE. Results: The resultant urine produced by subjects who consumed 500 ml reconstituted cranberry extract twice per day, significantly reduced the adherence to epithelial cells of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli and showed a tendency towards significance for two E. coli strains expressing fimbriae and an Enterococcus faecalis isolate. The cranberry drink treatment did not alter urinary pH, but reduced calcium and magnesium concentrations compared to Water, although not to statistical significance. The reconstituted cranberry drink may retain the ability to effect on the vaginal microbiota. However, consuming twice daily resulted in an apparent loss of a potential pathogen from the vagina in 42% subjects. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that reconstituted cranberry drink may retain the ability to reduce the risk of UTI by inhibiting pathogen adhesion While not detrimentally affecting urinary pH or vaginal microbiota, or the risk of calculi.

  • 11.
    Jass, Jana
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schedin, Staffan
    Fällman, Erik
    Ohlsson, Jörgen
    Nilsson, Ulf J.
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Axner, Ove
    Physical properties of Escherichia coli P pili measured by optical tweezers2004In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 4271-4283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of approximately 10(3) PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. They are particularly important in the pathogenesis of E. coli colonizing the upper urinary tract and kidneys. A biological model system has been established for in situ measurements of the forces that occur during mechanical stretching of pili. A mathematical model of the force-versus-elongation behavior of an individual pilus has been developed. Three elongation regions of pili were identified. In region I, P pili stretch elastically, up to a relative elongation of 16 +/- 3%. The product of elasticity modulus and area of a P pilus, EA, was assessed to 154 +/- 20 pN (n=6). In region II, the quaternary structure of the PapA rod unfolds under a constant force of 27 +/- 2 pN (n approximately 100) by a sequential breaking of the interactions between adjacent layers of PapA subunits. This unfolding can elongate the pilus up to 7 +/- 2 times. In region III, pili elongate in a nonlinear manner as a result of stretching until the bond ruptures.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    CXCL8 regulation of urothelial cells by lactobacilli2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    CXLC8 is an important cytokine that attracts immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages during infections. This cytokine is released from many cell types including epithelial cells such as the urothelial cells found in the urinary tract. CXCL8 release is dramatically increased when urothelial cells meet bacteria such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which are the main cause of urinary tract infections. CXCL8 is needed during the course of the infection; nevertheless, high levels have been associated with chronic inflammation and cancer, and are in those cases considered detrimental to health. Lactobacillus is a diverse group of lactic acid bacteria and a major component of our microbiota. Many are also commercially available as probiotics, and even if they have shown effectiveness as preventative supplements for both infections and supporting bowel regularity, much is left to learn about their mode of action. We know that many probiotics are immunomodulators and affect immune cell function, especially in immune cells. However, less is known about their effect on epithelial cell immune function and the possible variation immunomodulation between different Lactobacillus species.   

     

    Results

    To test the CXCL8 modulating abilities of Lactobacillus, numerous species were used for screening urothelial cell CXCL8 release. We wanted to assess the role of lactobacilli on resting cells, but also how they affect CXCL8 in cells that are already stimulated with E. coli similar to the case of a urinary tract infection. We found that most lactobacilli had a marginal effect on cytokine release in resting cells not challenged with E. coli. However, E. coli-challenged cells subsequently exposed to lactobacilli showed a significant increase or decrease of CXCL8 levels. Many of the tested species changed cytokine levels severalfold in both directions. Comparing the effects between species using evolutionary trees based on 16S rRNA did not reveal any grouping of effects based on the genetic similarity between the different taxa.

     

    Conclusion

    Many lactobacilli have the ability to alter the levels of secreted CXCL8, especially in E. coli-challenged cells. Interestingly, we could not group the effect on CXCL8 based on their evolutionary relationship suggesting that the effects on CXCL8 is analogous in its nature and have evolved independently in many of the tested species. However, as for probiotic activity which is often strain specific, CXCL8 modulating features are also likely to be associated with individual strains. Although we cannot explain the big differences between bacteria, both up- and downregulation of CXCL8 is interesting from a therapeutical perspective. Many pathogens, including uropathogenic E. coli actively inhibit signals that lead to cytokine release and immune migration, and it can in those cases be beneficial to increase CXCL8, whereas decreased cytokine levels might be advantageous in other conditions such as chronic inflammation.  

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lactobacilli differently regulate expression and secretion of CXCL8 in urothelial cells2012In: Beneficial Microbes, ISSN 1876-2883, E-ISSN 1876-2891, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modulation of the immune response is an established feature of certain lactobacilli. CXCL8 is an inflammatory chemokine released by the urinary tract mucosa after contact with uropathogenic Escherichia coli during urinary tract infection and is crucial for proper infiltration of immune cells. Nevertheless, persistently high levels of CXCL8 are associated with pathogenicity and malignancy. In this study, we tested twelve Lactobacillus strains for their ability to influence CXCL8 release from urothelial cells. We evaluated how strains from different Lactobacillus species could regulate CXCL8 in human 5637 urothelial cells, either resting cells or cells concomitantly challenged with heat-killed E. coli. A majority of the tested species altered CXCL8 release from the urothelial cells after 24 hours of stimulation. Most species increased CXCL8 release, whereas a few lactobacilli efficiently suppressed CXCL8 secretion from E. coli-challenged cells. While strong CXCL8 modulators such as Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were unable to degrade CXCL8 in the extracellular environment, effects on IL8 transcription were evident for selected lactobacilli. Although IL8 transcription was affected by lactobacilli, the influence on mRNA transcript did not correlate to the impact on CXCL8 release. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 16S rRNA dendrogram of the tested lactobacilli and their effect on CXCL8 revealed some linkage to specific Lactobacillus groups. Testing the immunomodulatory nature of lactobacilli can prove important when selecting new probiotic microbes. Moreover, we believe that phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities could be used to analyse the traits governing such modulation.

  • 14.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lam, Simon
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, and The Lawson Health Research Institute, St Josephs Hospital, London Canada.
    Reid, Gregor
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, and The Lawson Health Research Institute, St Josephs Hospital, London Canada.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 augments NF-κB and TNF in Escherichia coli-challenged human epithelium2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Epithelial cells are often first responders to microbial invasion, resulting in release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines and subsequent recruitment of immune cells. Several strains from the genus Lactobacillus have been attributed probiotic properties and some of them have been shown to be able to modulate the immune response in vitro and in vivo. L. rhamnosus GR-1, a known probiotic strain was allowed to co-culture with an uroepithelial cell line challenged with heat-killed pathogenic E. coli, resulting in a synergistic up-regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB and increased release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF. Although this L. rhamnosus strain was a poor inducer of uroepithelial NF-κB alone compared to heat-killed E. coli, together with this pathogenic stimulus, it efficiently elicited an epithelial immune response. This effect was greatly reduced if using non-viable lactobacilli suggesting secretion of the active substance. Secreted proteins were isolated and partially mimicked the effect found with viable lactobacilli. Potentiation of the host immune response towards pathogenic E. coli at an early stage using lactobacilli products could facilitate the removal of undesired microbes by activation of the NFκB transcription factor and consequently, epithelial immunity.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lam, Simon
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario and The Lawson Health Research Institute, London ON, Canada.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Released substances from lactobacilli influence immune responses in human epithelial cells2010In: Abstracts of the 3rd Swedish-Hellenic Life Sciences Research Conference, Athens, March 25-27, 2010 / [ed] Fragiskos Kolisis, Nikolaos Venizelos, 2010, p. 367-368Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Substances released from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 potentiate NF-κB activity in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells2012In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic bacterium used to maintain urogenital health. The putative mechanism for its probiotic effect is by modulating the host immunity. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli that frequently evade or suppress immune responses in the bladder and can target pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). We evaluated the role of L. rhamnosus GR-1 on NF-κB activation in E. coli-stimulated bladder cells. Viable L. rhamnosus GR-1 was found to potentiate NF-κB activity in E. coli-stimulated T24 bladder cells, whereas heat-killed lactobacilli demonstrated a marginal increase in NF-κB activity. Surface components released by trypsin- or LiCl treatment, or the resultant heat-killed shaved lactobacilli, had no effect on NF-κB activity. Isolation of released products from L. rhamnosus GR-1 demonstrated that the induction of NF-κB activity was owing to released product(s) with a relatively large native size. Several putative immunomodulatory proteins were identified, namely GroEL, elongation factor Tu and NLP/P60. GroEL and elongation factor Tu have previously been shown to elicit immune responses from human cells. Isolating and using immune-augmenting substances produced by lactobacilli is a novel strategy for the prevention or treatment of UTI caused by immune-evading E. coli.

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Reid, Gregor
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London ON, Canada.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 enhances NF-kappaB activation in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells through TLR42012In: BMC Microbiology, ISSN 1471-2180, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 12, p. 15-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epithelial cells of the urinary tract recognize pathogenic bacteria through pattern recognition receptors on their surface, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), and mount an immune response through the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Some uropathogenic bacteria can subvert these cellular responses, creating problems with how the host eliminates pathogens. Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that are part of the microbiota and consist of many probiotic strains, some specifically for urogenital infections. Immunomodulation has emerged as an important mode of action of probiotic and commensal lactobacilli and given the importance of epithelial cells, we evaluated the effect of the urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on epithelial immune activation.

    Results: Immune activation through the NF-kappaB pathway was initiated by stimulation of T24 urothelial cells with heat-killed Escherichia coli and this was further potentiated when cells were co-cultured with live L. rhamnosus GR-1. Heat-killed lactobacilli were poor activators of NF-kappaB. Concomitant stimulation of bladder cells with E. coli and L. rhamnosus GR 1 increased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF, whereas IL-6 and CXCL8 levels were reduced. Another probiotic, L. rhamnosus GG, was also able to potentiate NF-kappaB in these cells although at a significantly reduced level compared to the GR 1 strain. The transcript numbers and protein levels of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4 were significantly increased after co-stimulation with E. coli and lactobacilli compared to controls. Furthermore, inhibition of TLR4 activation by polymixin B completely blocked the lactobacilli potentiation of NF-kappaB.

    Conclusions: The immunological outcome of E. coli challenge of bladder cells was influenced by probiotic L. rhamnosus GR 1, by enhancing the activation of NF-kappaB and TNF release. Thus the urogenital probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 modulated the activation of the NF-kappaB through increased levels of TLR4 on the bladder cells and altered subsequent release of cytokines from urothelial cells. By influencing immunological factors such as TLR4, important in the process of fighting pathogens, lactobacilli could facilitate pathogen recognition and infection clearance.

  • 18.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Lawson Hlth Res Inst, Univ Western Ontario, London ON, Canada; Univ Western Ontario, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, London ON, Canada.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Differential cytokine regulation by NF-κB and AP-1 in Jurkat T-cells2010In: BMC Immunology, ISSN 1471-2172, E-ISSN 1471-2172, Vol. 11, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB largely control T-cell activation, following binding offoreign antigens to the T-cell receptor leading to cytokine secretion. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines andchemokines such as TNF, IL-6 and CXCL8 are associated with several human diseases including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis and AIDS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB, in IL-6 and CXCL8 regulation in Jurkat T-cells.

    Results: Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) exposure resulted in an up-regulation of AP-1 and down-regulation of NF-κBactivity, however, exposure to heat killed (HK) Escherichia. coli MG1655 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NF-κBactivity without affecting AP-1. The cytokine profile revealed an up-regulation of the chemokine CXCL8 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-2 and IL-6 following treatment with both PMA and HK E. coli, while the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were not affected by PMA but were significantly down-regulated by HK E. coli. AP-1activation was significantly increased 2 h after PMA exposure and continued to increase thereafter. In contrast, NF-κBresponded to PMA exposure by a rapid up-regulation followed by a subsequent down-regulation. Increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations countered the down-regulation of NF-κB by PMA, while similar treatment with calcium ionophore resulted in a reduced NF-κB activity following induction with HK E. coli. In order to further study NF-κB activation, we considered two up-stream signalling proteins, PKC and Bcl10. Phosphorylated-PKC levels increased inresponse to PMA and HK E. coli, while Bcl10 levels significantly decreased following PMA treatment. Using an NF-κBactivation inhibitor, we observed complete inhibition of IL-6 expression while CXCL8 levels only decreased by 40% atthe highest concentration. Treatment of Jurkat T-cells with PMA in the presence of JNK-inhibitor suppressed both CXCL8 and IL-6 while PKC-inhibitor primarily decreased CXCL8 expression.

    Conclusion: The present study shows that NF-κB regulated IL-6 but not CXCL8. This complex regulation of CXCL8suggests that there is a need to further evaluate the signalling pathways in order to develop new treatment fordiseases with elevated CXCL8 levels, such as AIDS and autoimmune diseases.

  • 19.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Influence of growth conditions on in vitro regulation of NF-κB activity in Jurkat T-cells2010Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    The role of calcium, NF-κB and NFAT in the regulation of CXCL8 and IL-6 expression in Jurkat T-cells2013In: International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ISSN 2152-4114, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 150-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    T-cells play an important role in host immunity against invading pathogens. Determining the underlying regulatory mechanisms will provide a better understanding of T-cell-derived immune responses. In this study, we have shown the differential regulation of IL-6 and CXCL8 by NF-κB and NFAT in Jurkat T-cells, in response to PMA, heat killed Escherichia coli and calcium. CXCL8 was closely associated with the activation pattern of NFAT, while IL-6 expression was associated with NF-κB. Furthermore, increasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by calcium ionophore treatment of the cells resulted in NFAT induction without affecting the NF-κB activity. Interestingly, NF-κB activation by heat killed E. coli, as well as CXCL8 and IL-6 expression was significantly suppressed following addition of the calcium ionophore. This indicates that calcium plays an important role in regulating protein trafficking and T-cell signalling, and the subsequent inflammatory gene expression infers an involvement of NFAT in CXCL8 regulation.Understanding these regulatory patterns provide clarification of conditions that involve altered intracellular signalling leading to T-cell-derived cytokine expression.

  • 21.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Salste, Lotta
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Ivarsson, Per
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    In vitro analysis of inflammatory responses following environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals and inland waters2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 4, p. 1452-1460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are regularly released into the environment; in particular non-steroidalanti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics. Erythromycin, naproxen, furosemideand atenolol are reported to be stable for up to 1 year in the environment, which increasesthe risk for accumulation. In the present study we have measured the occurrence andconcentration of pharmaceuticals in river Viskan (Jössabron) downstream of a sewagetreatment plant in Borås, Sweden. Pharmaceuticals and water samples were tested forpotential human risk by evaluating inflammatory responses (NF-κB and AP-1) using humanT24 bladder epithelial cells and Jurkat T-cells. NF-κB activity in T24 cells was significantlyreduced by all NSAIDs analysed (diclofenac, ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprophen anddextropropoxyphene), but also by trimethoprim, using environmentally relevantconcentrations. NF-κB and AP-1 activation was further analysed in response to watersamples collected from different locations in Sweden. Dose-dependent down-regulation ofAP-1 activity in Jurkat cells was observed at all locations. At two locations (Jössabron andAlmenäs) down-regulation of NF-κB was observed. In contrast, the NF-κB response waspotentiated by exposure to water from both locations following activation of NF-κB bytreatment with heat-killed Escherichia coli. To determine the involvement ofpharmaceuticals in the responses, T24 cells were exposed to the pharmaceutical mixture,based on the determined levels at Jössabron. This resulted in reduction of the NF-κBresponse following exposure to the pharmaceutical mixture alone while no potentiationwas observed when cells were co-exposed to heat killed E. coli and pharmaceuticals. Theobtained results demonstrate that the identified pharmaceuticals affect the inflammatoryresponses and furthermore indicate the presence of unknown substance(s) with the abilityto potentiate inflammatory responses

  • 22.
    Kumar, Ranjeet
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, The Life Science Center-Biology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    School of Science and Technology, The Life Science Center-Biology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Khan, Faisal Ahmad
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Pia
    Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden, Sweden.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Envix Nord AB, Umeå , Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Scandinavia AB, Täby, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparative analysis of stress induced gene expression in caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to environmental and lab reconstituted complex metal mixture2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0132896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention.

  • 23.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    CXCL8 regulation and function in HIV infections and potential treatment strategies2011In: HIV and AIDS: updates on biology, immunology, epidemiology and treatment strategies / [ed] Nancy Dumais, InTech, 2011, p. 327-344Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Poonlapthawee, Sirirat
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kahn, Faisal Ahmad
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gene expression in Escherichia coli CFT073 grown in sub-MIC tetracycline and environmental watersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the prevalence of fecal indicator bacteria (coliform E. coli and enterococci) for water quality (World Health Organization, 2011, European Enviroment Agency, 2012) and antibiotic resistant E. coli in lake Mälaren from surface water in Björnö Island at Vinterviken bay and in untreated incoming water to Mälarenergi, drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Västerås, Sweden. Our studies have demonstrated that the water quality of environmental water was ‘excellent‘ in both surface water at Bjornö in Vinterviken bay and in the untreated incoming water to the DWTP. However, one multi-antibiotic resistant and one antibiotic resistant strain were isolated from the surface waters. Hence antibiotic resistant strains can persist even in low population of fecal bacterial contamination in the waters. Pharmaceutical compounds in the environment are believed to provide a selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria (Tenover, 2006, Alekshun and Levy, 2007, Mazumdar et al., 2006). Our study demonstrated that pharmaceutical compounds persisted in lake waters with detectable concentrations as others have shown (Godfrey et al., 2007, Loos et al., 2009). Caffeine, naproxen, hydrochlorothiazide, metoprolol and tramadol were present at detectable levels. To study the effect of contaminants on microorganisms, qPCR method was chosen due to its rapid, sensitive and quantitative analyses of gene expression. Thus a qPCR array was designed, to determine the effect of environmental waters on E. coli isolates. Specific genes that were responsible for antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and stress responses were selected. E. coli CFT073 was treated with either sub-MIC levels (0.1 μg/ml) of tetracycline in LB medium or incoming untreated waters to DWTP in LB medium and compared to controls. Gene expression was determined using qPCR. No significant difference in gene response was observed after treatment with sub-MIC of tetracycline or environmental waters. Pharmaceutical compounds which contaminated the water did not appear to exert a significant gene response in the pathogenic E. coli. Pharmaceutical contamination in the water can promote human and animal health risks however the effect of long-term exposure is yet unknown (European Environment Agency, 2011, Wennmalm and Gunnarsson, 2005, Triebskorn et al., 2007). The antibiotic resistant strains likely originated from the WWTP rather than the selective pressure due to pharmaceutical pollutants in the water. 

  • 25.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. BioImpakt AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Envix Nord AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Transcriptional responses of zebrafish to complex metal mixtures in laboratory studies overestimates the responses observed with environmental water2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584-585, p. 1138-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals released into the environment continue to be of concern for human health. However, risk assessment of metal exposure is often based on total metal levels and usually does not take bioavailability data, metal speciation or matrix effects into consideration. The continued development of biological endpoint analyses are therefore of high importance for improved eco-toxicological risk analyses. While there is an on-going debate concerning synergistic or additive effects of low-level mixed exposures there is little environmental data confirming the observations obtained from laboratory experiments. In the present study we utilized qRT-PCR analysis to identify key metal response genes to develop a method for biomonitoring and risk-assessment of metal pollution. The gene expression patterns were determined for juvenile zebrafish exposed to waters from sites down-stream of a closed mining operation. Genes representing different physiological processes including stress response, inflammation, apoptosis, drug metabolism, ion channels and receptors, and genotoxicity were analyzed. The gene expression patterns of zebrafish exposed to laboratory prepared metal mixes were compared to the patterns obtained with fish exposed to the environmental samples with the same metal composition and concentrations. Exposure to environmental samples resulted in fewer alterations in gene expression compared to laboratory mixes. A biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to approximate the bioavailability of the metals in the environmental setting. However, the BLM results were not in agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the BLM may be overestimating the risk in the environment. The present study therefore supports the inclusion of site-specific biological analyses to complement the present chemical based assays used for environmental risk-assessment.

  • 26.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Biology, the Life Science Center.
    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate disrupt lipid metabolism, reduce fecundity and shortens lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 190, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of phthalates is of major concern as they have adverse effects on many different physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism and cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of the widely-used di (2-ethydlhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with its substitute, diethyl phthalate (DEP). We analyzed the toxicity of these two phthalates using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Gene expression analysis following exposure during the L1 to young adult stage showed that DEHP and DEP alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and stress response. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, including fasn-1, pod-2, fat-5, acs-6 and sbp-1, and vitellogenin were upregulated. Among the stress response genes, ced-1 wah-1, daf-21 and gst-4 were upregulated, while cd-1, cdf-2 and the heat shock proteins (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.48 and sip-1) were down regulated. Lipid staining revealed that DEHP significantly increased lipid content following 1 mu M exposure, however, DEP required 10 mu M exposure to elicit an effect. Both DEHP and DEP reduced the fecundity at 1 mu M concentration. Lifespan analysis indicated that DEHP and DEP reduced the average lifespan from 14 days in unexposed worms to 13 and 12 days, respectively. Expression of lifespan associated genes showed a correlation to shortened lifespan in the exposed groups. As reported previously, our data also indicates that the banned DEHP is toxic to C. elegans, however its substitute DEP has not been previously tested in this model organism and our data revealed that DEP is equally potent as DEHP in regulating C. elegans physiological functions.

  • 27.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate disrupt lipid metabolism, reduce fecundity and shortens lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 190, p. 375-382, article id S0045-6535(17)31550-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of phthalates is of major concern as they have adverse effects on many different physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism and cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of the widely-used di (2-ethydlhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with its substitute, diethyl phthalate (DEP). We analyzed the toxicity of these two phthalates using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Gene expression analysis following exposure during the L1 to young adult stage showed that DEHP and DEP alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and stress response. Genes associated with lipid metabolism, including fasn-1, pod-2, fat-5, acs-6 and sbp-1, and vitellogenin were upregulated. Among the stress response genes, ced-1 wah-1, daf-21 and gst-4 were upregulated, while ctl-1, cdf-2 and the heat shock proteins (hsp-16.1, hsp-16.48 and sip-1) were downregulated. Lipid staining revealed that DEHP significantly increased lipid content following 1 μM exposure, however, DEP required 10 μM exposure to elicit an effect. Both DEHP and DEP reduced the fecundity at 1 μM concentration. Lifespan analysis indicated that DEHP and DEP reduced the average lifespan from 14 days in unexposed worms to 13 and 12 days, respectively. Expression of lifespan associated genes showed a correlation to shortened lifespan in the exposed groups. As reported previously, our data also indicates that the banned DEHP is toxic to C. elegans, however its substitute DEP has not been previously tested in this model organism and our data revealed that DEP is equally potent as DEHP in regulating C. elegans physiological functions.

  • 28.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Desale, Prithviraj
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Kapadnis, Balu P.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, India.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Isolation and characterization of a Lysinibacillus strain B1-CDA showing potential for bioremediation of arsenics from contaminated water2014In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to identify and isolate arsenic resistant bacteria that can be used for removing arsenic from the contaminated environment. Here we report a soil borne bacterium, B1-CDA that can serve this purpose. B1-CDA was isolated from the soil of a cultivated land in Chuadanga district located in the southwest region of Bangladesh. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA analysis suggested that the isolate belongs to Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the isolate is 500mM (As) as arsenate. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analysis confirmed intracellular accumulation and removal of arsenics. Arsenic accumulation in cells amounted to 5.0mg g(-1) of the cells dry biomass and thus reduced the arsenic concentration in the contaminated liquid medium by as much as 50%. These results indicate that B1-CDA has the potential for remediation of arsenic from the contaminated water. We believe the benefits of implementing this bacterium to efficiently reduce arsenic exposure will not only help to remove one aspect of human arsenic poisoning but will also benefit livestock and native animal species. Therefore, the outcome of this research will be highly significant for people in the affected area and also for human populations in other countries that have credible health concerns as a consequence of arsenic-contaminated water.

  • 29.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle NY, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2015In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, isolated from an arsenic contaminated lands. Here, we have investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Lysinibacillus genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of similar to 4.5 Mb in size encompassing similar to 80% of the chromosomal DNA. We found that the set of ordered contigs contains abundant regions of similarity with other Lysinibacillus genomes and clearly identifiable genome rearrangements. Furthermore, all genes of B1-CDA that were predicted be involved in its resistance to arsenic and/or other heavy metals were annotated. The presence of arsenic responsive genes was verified by PCR in vitro conditions. The findings of this study highlight the significance of this bacterium in removing arsenics and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of the isolate could be used to cope with arsenic toxicity.

  • 30.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saud, Zahangir Alam
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium (VI) by a soil-borne bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA2015In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium and chromium containing compounds are discharged into the nature as waste from anthropogenic activities, such as industries, agriculture, forest farming, mining and metallurgy. Continued disposal of these compounds to the environment leads to development of various lethal diseases in both humans and animals. In this paper, we report a soil borne bacterium, B2-DHA that can be used as a vehicle to effectively remove chromium from the contaminated sources. B2-DHA is resistant to chromium with a MIC value of 1000 mu g mL(-1) potassium chromate. The bacterium has been identified as a Gram negative, Enterobacter cloacae based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analyses confirmed intracellular accumulation of chromium and thus its removal from the contaminated liquid medium. Chromium accumulation in cells was 320 mu g/g of cells dry biomass after 120-h exposure, and thus it reduced the chromium concentration in the liquid medium by as much as 81%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph revealed the effect of metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that B2-DHA has the potential to reduce chromium significantly to safe levels from the contaminated environments and suggest the potential use of this bacterium in reducing human exposure to chromium, hence avoiding poisoning.

  • 31.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Skövde.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune-411033, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Khaled
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde.
    Genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA – A bacterium resistant to chromium and/or other heavy metalsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Westling, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsen, Asgeir
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Öström, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Contribution of Enterobacteriaceae to Sensory Characteristics in Soft Cheeses Made from Raw Milk2016In: Procedia Food Science, ISSN 2211-601X, E-ISSN 2211-601X, Vol. 7, p. 17-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbiological and sensory methods were used to analyze 22 soft cheeses, of which 19 were made from raw milk, one was made from both raw and pasteurized milk and two were made from pasteurized milk. Moderate correlations (r-value 0.5–0.6 and p-value <0.01–0.05) were found between the levels of Enterobacteriaceae 37°C and the intensity of the sensory characteristics “bitter”, “metallic”, “pungent”, “manure” and “ammonia”. The present study indicates that it is possible to predict high levels of Enterobacteriaceae in soft cheeses made from raw milk using only the human senses (odor and taste).

  • 33.
    Zhao, Xiaocui
    et al.
    Dept Chem, Univ Western Ontario, London ON, Canada.
    Lam, Simon
    Univ Western Ontario, London ON, Canada.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Univ Western Ontario, London ON, Canada.
    Ding, Zhifeng
    Dept Chem, Univ Western Ontario, London ON, Canada.
    Scanning electrochemical microscopy of single human urinary bladder cells using reactive oxygen species as probe of inflammatory response2010In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 773-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy of single human bladder (T24) and kidney (A498) epithelial cells after stimulation with heat-killed uropathogenic Escherichia coli GR-12 was investigated for the first time. 124 cells treated with the hk-UPEC in time-lapsed images showed prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to toll-like receptors (TLR4), while A498 cells without TLR4 did not show the ROS increase after the dosage of the same stimulant. This indicates discrete pathways of triggering the inflammatory. It also reveals that ROS can be used as a probe to detect inflammatory response to gram-negative bacteria. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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