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  • 1.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hollert, Henner
    Aachen University, Achen, Germany.
    Study of environmental and human health impacts of firefighting agents: A technical report2016Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to the increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years2017In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 263, p. E18-E18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: It has previously been reported that the environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are linked to atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies. Since cross-sectional studies could be subject to reverse causation, we here analyzed if the longitudinal changes in PFASs during a 10 years follow-up were related to the change in intima-media thickness (IMT) during the same period.

    Methods: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study,1,016 individuals were investigated at age 70. 826 of those were reinvestigated at age 75 and 606 at age 80 years. Eight different PFASs and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, ultrasound) were measured at the three time-points.

    Results: IMT increased 0.058 mm during the 10-year period (p<0.0001). Following adjustment for baseline values of PFASs (age 70) and sex, the changes in plasma levels of 6 of the 8 measured PFASs were significantly related to the change in IMT over the 10-year follow-up period (p<0.0062 using Bonferroni correction for 8 tests). Further adjustment for traditional CV risk factors (HDL and LDL-cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, statin use, fasting glucose and serum triglycerides) did only affect these relationships marginally.

    Conclusions: The change in plasma levels of several PFASs during 10 years was related the increase in IMT seen during the same period, giving further evidence that PFASs might interfere with the atherosclerotic process.

  • 3.
    Lind, P. Monica
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years - a longitudinal study2018In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 17, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has previously been reported that the environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are linked to atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies. Since cross-sectional studies could be subject to reverse causation, the purpose of this study was to analyze if the longitudinal changes in PFASs during a 10-year follow-up were related to the change in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, ultrasound) during the same period.

    Methods: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, 1016 individuals were investigated at age 70; 826 of them were reinvestigated at age 75 and 602 at age 80 years. Eight different PFASs were measured in plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and IMT was measured at all three time points. Random-effects mixed regression models were used to examine the associations over time.

    Results: IMT increased 0.058 mm during the 10-year period (p <0.0001). Following adjustment for baseline values of PFASs (age 70) and sex, the changes in plasma levels of 6 of the 8 measured PFASs were significantly related to the change in IMT over the 10-year follow-up period in a positive fashion (p <0.0062 using Bonferroni correction for 8 tests). Further adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (HDL and LDL cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, statin use, fasting glucose and serum triglycerides) affected these relationships only marginally.

    Conclusion: The change in plasma levels of several PFASs during 10 years was positively related to increase in IMT seen during the same period, giving prospective evidence that PFASs might interfere with the atherosclerotic process.

  • 4.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Changes in markers of liver function in relation to changes in perfluoroalkyl substances: A longitudinal study2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 117, p. 196-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While it is known that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) induce liver toxicity in experimental studies, the evidence of an association in humans is inconsistent.

    Objective: The main aim of the present study was to examine the association of PFAS concentrations and markers of liver function using panel data.

    Methods: We investigated 1002 individuals from Sweden (50% women) at ages 70, 75 and 80 in 2001-2014. Eight PFASs were measured in plasma using isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Bilirubin and hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were determined in serum using an immunoassay methodology. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the changes in markers of liver function and changes in PFAS levels.

    Results: The changes in majority of PFAS concentrations were positively associated with the changes in activity of ALT, ALP, and GGT and inversely associated with the changes in circulating bilirubin after adjustment for gender and the time-updated covariates LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides, BMI, statin use, smoking, fasting glucose levels and correction for multiple testing. For example, changes in perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were associated with the changes liver function markers beta(BILIRUBIN) = -1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.93 to -1.19, beta(ALT)= 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.06, and beta(ALP)= 0.11, 95% CI 0.06-0.15.

    Conclusion: Our longitudinal assessment established associations between changes in markers of liver function and changes in plasma PFAS concentrations. These findings suggest a relationship between low-dose background PFAS exposure and altered liver function in the general population.

  • 5.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessing the longitudinal trend of POP concentrations in humans using high-throughput sample preparation methods developed for low-volume samples2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their related effects on human health widely vary from person to person, making population-based risk assessment difficult.

    This thesis aimed to evaluate how individual changes and implemented re-strictions in POP production influenced human exposure. High-throughput sample preparation methods were developed and applied to plasma samples col-lected for an epidemiological study so that the longitudinal change in concen-trations of a broad range of chlorinated (Cl), brominated (Br) and fluorinated POPs in humans could be efficiently evaluated.

    Two 96-well plate extraction methods were used to determine the concentra-tions of Cl/Br POPs and fluorinated POPs in 150μL of plasma samples collected for the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Plasma samples from 1,016 men and women were collected three times between 2001 and 2014, after participants turned 70, 75 and 80 years old. Dif-ferences in longitudinal trends were observed between Cl/Br POPs and fluori-nated POPs as a result of their differences in time of production and imple-mented restrictions in use. The five year trend in 17 Cl POPs (14 polychlorinated biphenyls and 3 organochlorine pesticides), detected in the majority of the co-hort, and a tetra-brominated diphenyl ether detected in 34% of the follow-up samples showed a significant decrease in plasma concentrations. However, the change in Cl/Br POP concentrations was found to be slower in those who lost more weight and had greater increases in plasma lipids, and showed a faster decline in men versus women. The 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the majority of the cohort showed an overall increase in PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, while PFHpA, PFOA, FOSA, and L-PFOS showed a de-crease over ten years. One of the PFASs that showed an overall increasing trend was heavily influenced by the percentage of PFAS-contaminated drinking water distributed to the residential area.

    The developed and applied methods showed a high-throughput with precise and consistent results using small sample amounts and the longitudinal trend of POPs in a prospective cohort was efficiently produced. Important information was gained on how residential location, physiological differences and changes, and implemented restrictions in POP production has effected human trends.

    List of papers
    1. Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 95, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014.

    The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed.

    Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model.

    In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men.

    From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of production with the exception of PFHxS and C>8 PFASs. Contrary to other studies, PFHxS concentrations showed the greatest overall increase, which is likely attributed to a local drinking water contamination incident.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Perfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs, perfluoroalkyl acids, longitudinal trends, human serum, biomonitoring
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51743 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2016.08.002 (DOI)000384789500010 ()27542758 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992116107 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, K2009-64X-21031-01-3Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2007-2047
    Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
    2. The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort.

    METHODS: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model.

    RESULTS: PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received.

    CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Academic Press, 2017
    Keywords
    Perfluoroalkyl substances, Drinking water, Longitudinal trend, PIVUS cohort, Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61461 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.050 (DOI)000413280500011 ()28780137 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026781229 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR; K2009-64X-21031-01-3Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; 216-2007-2047
    Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
    3. A new method for analysis of marker POPs in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new method for analysis of marker POPs in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64493 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
    4. Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over 5 years in a sample of elderly men and women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over 5 years in a sample of elderly men and women
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64494 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A new method for analysis of marker POPs in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extractionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A method for analysis of marker persistent organic pollutants in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction2018In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1546, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 96-well plate solid phase extraction method for analysis of 23 lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-volume plasma and serum samples which is applicable for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies. The analysis of selected markers for internal exposure: 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and polybrominated diphenylether 47 (BDE 47) was evaluated by comparing two SPE sorbents and GC-HRMS or GC-MS/MS detection. The final method extracted 23 POPs from 150 μL of serum and plasma using a 96-well extraction plate containing 60 mg Oasis HLB sorbent per well prior to GC-HRMS magnetic sector analysis. The extraction method was applied to 40 plasma samples collected for an epidemiological study. The recovery of selected POPs ranged from 31% to 63% (n = 48), and detection limits ranged from 2.2 to 45 pg/mL for PCBs, 4.2 to 167 pg/mL for OCPs, 7.8 pg/mL for OCDD and 6.1 pg/mL for BDE 47. This method showed good precision with relative standard deviations of selected POP concentrations in quality control samples (n = 48) ranging from 11% to 25%. The trueness was determined with standard reference material serum (n = 48) and the deviation from certified values ranged from 1 to 27%. Of the 23 POPs analyzed, 18 were detected in 43% to 100% of plasma samples collected for the epidemiological study. The method showed good robustness with low inter-well plate variation (11-31%) determined by twelve 96-well plate extractions, and can extract 96 samples, including quality controls and procedural blanks in 2-3 days. Comparison with GC-MS/MS analysis showed that similar concentrations (within 0.5% to 30%) of most POPs could be obtained with GC-APCI-MS/MS. Larger deviations were observed for PCB 194 (60%) and trans-nonachlor (43%). The developed method produces accurate concentrations of low-level marker POPs in plasma and serum, providing a suitable high-throughput sample preparation procedure for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies involving large sample size and limited sample volume. GC-HRMS was chosen over GC-MS/MS, however the latter showed promising results, and could be used as an alternative to GC-HRMS analysis for most POPs.

  • 8.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Monica P.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over 5 years in a sample of elderly men and womenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from 2001 to 2009 in a sample of elderly Swedish men and women2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 165, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies evaluating the temporal trends of background-level persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their potential negative health effects in humans are needed.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to examine the five year longitudinal trend in chlorinated and brominated (Cl/Br) POP concentrations in a sample of elderly individuals and to investigate the relationship between gender, changes in body weight, plasma lipid levels and POP concentrations.

    METHODS: In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, plasma samples were collected from the same individuals over a 5 year period. Originally 992 subjects (all aged 70) were sampled between 2001 and 2004 and 814 returning subjects (all aged 75) were sampled again from 2006 to 2009. Plasma concentrations of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and one polybrominated diphenylether (BDE 47) were determined using high-throughput 96-well plate solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS).

    RESULTS: During the 5-year follow-up, plasma concentrations of all POPs significantly decreased (p < 0.00001). Median reductions ranged from 4% (PCB105) to 45% (PCB 99), with most reductions being in the 30-40% range. For most POPs, a larger decline was seen in men than in women. The relationship between the weight change and change in POP concentrations was generally negative, but a positive relationship between lipid levels and POP concentrations when expressed as wet-weight was observed. In general, similar changes in POP concentrations and their relationships to body weight were observed regardless of using either wet-weight (pg/mL) or lipid-normalized (ng/g lipid) concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal cohort study, gender and minor, but varying changes in body weight and lipid levels greatly influenced the individual-based changes in POP concentrations. In general, our findings suggest that men and women with larger decreases in body weight and greater increases in lipid levels have the slowest decline in body burden of POPs. Based on the results from this study, either wet-weight or lipid normalized concentrations can be used to determine the percent change in POP concentrations and their relationships to physiological changes and differences.

  • 10.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 95, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014.

    The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed.

    Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model.

    In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men.

    From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of production with the exception of PFHxS and C>8 PFASs. Contrary to other studies, PFHxS concentrations showed the greatest overall increase, which is likely attributed to a local drinking water contamination incident.

  • 11.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dunder, Linda
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    McCleaf, Philip
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eurén, Karin
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort.

    METHODS: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model.

    RESULTS: PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received.

    CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends.

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