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  • 1.
    Bao, Jia
    et al.
    Sch Sci, Shenyang Univ Technol, Shenyang, Peoples R China.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jin, Yihe
    Sch Environm Sci & Technol, Key Lab Ind Ecol & Environm Engn MOE, Dalian Univ Technol, Dalian, Peoples R China.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood samples from a male population of Sweden2014In: Chinese Science Bulletin, ISSN 1001-6538, E-ISSN 1861-9541, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 388-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been determined in the blood samples from several countries globally including a female population in Sweden recently, yet little is known about the time trends in the blood levels of these compounds in Swedish male populations over recent years. In this study, the fourteen target PFASs consisted of four perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and ten perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the whole blood samples, collected from 153 Swedish elderly men during the period between 2008 and 2010, were analyzed via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFASs contaminants in the blood samples, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed the highest geometric mean (GM) at 8.5 ng/mL, ranging from 1.7 to 29 ng/mL, while blood perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contained the GM of 1.8 ng/mL, ranging from 0.35 to 6.4 ng/mL. Both the levels of these two compounds were lower than those determined in the blood samples of Swedish elderly populations derived from the late 1990s. According to the temporal trend analysis, over the three years, the blood levels of PFOS in Swedish male populations declined 16 % per annum, while those of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) increased 6.1 % per annum, which were consistent with those reported previously for the populations from other countries.

  • 2. Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Kaiser, Mary A.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Barber, Jonathan L.
    van Leeuwen, Stefan P. J.
    Recent developments in trace analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances2011In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 400, no 6, p. 1625-1635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Recent developments, improvements, and trends in the ultra-trace determination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in environmental and human samples are highlighted and the remaining challenges and uncertainties are outlined and discussed. Understanding the analytical implications of such things as adsorption of PFASs to surfaces, effects of differing matrices, varying PFAS isomer response factors, potential bias effects of sampling, sample preparation, and analysis is critical to measuring highly fluorinated compounds at trace levels. These intricate analytical issues and the potential consequences of ignoring to deal with them correctly are discussed and documented with examples. Isomer-specific analysis and the development of robust multi-chemical methods are identified as topical trends in method development for an ever-increasing number of PFASs of environmental and human interest. Ultimately, the state-of-the-art of current analytical method accuracy is discussed on the basis of results from interlaboratory comparison studies.

  • 3.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1213-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

  • 4.
    Blanc, Mélanie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukučka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mixture-specific gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126)2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic pollutants of high concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. Besides, the amphiphilic properties of fluorinated compounds such as PFOS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) suggest a role in increasing cell membrane permeability and solubilizing chemicals. The present study aimed at investigating whether PFOS and PFHxA are capable of modifying the activation of PCB126 toxicity-related pathways. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos were exposed in semi-static conditions to 7.5 μg/L of PCB126 alone, in the presence of 25 mg/L of PFOS, 15.7 mg/L of PFHxA or in the presence of both PFOS and PFHxA. Quantitative PCR was performed on embryos aged from 24 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf to investigate expression changes of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics (ahr2, cyp1a), oxidative stress (gpx1a, tp53), lipids metabolism (acaa2, osbpl1a), and epigenetic mechanisms (dnmt1, dnmt3ba). Cyp1a and ahr2 expression were significantly induced by the presence of PCB126. However, after 72 and 78 h of exposure, induction of cyp1a expression was significantly lower when embryos were co-exposed to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA when compared to PCB126-exposed embryos. Significant upregulation of gpx1a occurred after exposure to PCB126 + PFHxA and to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 30 and 48 hpf. Besides, embryos appeared more sensitive to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 78 hpf: acaa2 and osbpl1a were significantly downregulated; dnmt1 was significantly upregulated. While presented as environmentally safe, PFHxA demonstrated that it could affect gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryos when combined to PFOS and PCB126, suggesting that such mixture may increase PCB126 toxicity. This is of particular relevance since PFHxA is persistent and still being ejected into the environment. Moreover, it provides additional information as to the importance to integrate mixture effects of chemicals in risk assessment and biomonitoring frameworks.

  • 5. Domingo, Jose L.
    et al.
    Ericson-Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perello, Gemma
    Nadal, Marti
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: contribution of drinking water and fish and shellfish2012In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 60, no 17, p. 4408-4415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concentrations of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in 30 water samples collected in Catalonia (Spain) at three stages of the drinking water treatment process in several water purification plants. In addition, the concentrations of 13 PFCs were determined in samples of fish and shellfish collected from coastal areas of Catalonia. The intake of PFCs through both pathways, drinking water intake and fish and shellfish consumption, was also estimated. In water samples, the highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (1.81 and 2.40 ng/L, respectively), whereas perfluorodecanosulfonate (PFDS) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTDA) were under their respective limits of detection in all analyzed samples. The results show that although the current treatment processes caused slight reductions in PFC concentrations, these processes did not mean significant changes in the amounts of PFCs already contained in the raw water. Among the analyzed PFCs in fish and shellfish, only seven compounds could be detected in at least one composite sample. PFOS showed the highest mean concentration (2.70 ng/g fw), being detected in all species with the exception of mussels. With regard to PFOA (mean, 0.074 ng/g fw), the highest concentrations were detected in prawn and hake (0.098 and 0.091 ng/g fw, respectively). The current exposure to PFCs through consumption of fish and shellfish indicates that it should not be of concern for the consumers. The amounts ingested are well below the recommended tolerable daily intakes, at least for those PFCs for which information is available.

  • 6.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perelló, Gemma
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Health Protection Agency, Department of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, Barcelona, Spain.
    Martí-Cid, Roser
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, José L.
    Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Sanitàries Pere Virgili, “Rovira i Virgili” University, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food2009In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1577-1583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Haglund, Peter
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)2017In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 61, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 24, p. 14503-14511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mikkelsen, Bjorg
    Faroese Food & Vet Agcy, Torshavn, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Dam, Maria
    Environm Agcy, Argir, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7940-7948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crSme fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia .
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan and Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Entox, Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia.
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan and Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 20132017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 220, no Pt A, p. 168-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of compounds that includes numerous compound classes. To date, only a subset of these PFASs have been studied thoroughly in the general population. In this study, pooled serum samples from Australia collected in 2002-2013 were analyzed for PFASs according to gender and age (age categories of 0-4 years, 5-15 years, 16-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 years, and >60 years), in total 54 pooled samples and 4920 individuals. Compound classes included were perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), and two groups of PFCA precursor compounds; polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), and fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs). Several PFASs that were not reported in previous studies of Australian serum samples were found in this sample set including; diPAPs, FTSAs, perfluoropentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluoroheptane carboxylic acid (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA). Various temporal trends were observed with a significant reduction (p < 0.05) between 2002 and 2013 for 8:2 FTSA, perflurohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), PFHpS, PFOS, and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of longer-chained PFDA and PFUnDA started to decrease more recently, between 2006 and 2013, while PFDoDA increased during the same time period. Higher levels in younger age groups (0-4 and 5-15 years) compared to adults (>15 years) were found for 8:2 FTSA and PFHpA, while levels of PFHpS, PFOS, PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA were higher in adult age groups compared to younger age groups. Gender-specific patterns were seen for PFOA, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS, where levels were lower in women. Changes in manufacturing processes were reflected in the temporal time trends, and differences in bioaccumulation potential between homologues could be associated with age trends. Our results emphasize the importance of including emerging classes of PFASs in biomonitoring studies.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lind, Ylva
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hope, Kjell
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.

  • 14.
    Hardell, Elin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bao, Jia
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Case-control study on perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and the risk of prostate cancer2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 63, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging environmental contaminants. Possible health effects for humans include increased risk for cancer but the knowledge is limited. In this study serum concentrations of certain perfluorinated sulfonates (PFHxS and PFOS) and carboxylates (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) were analyzed among 201 cases with prostate cancer and 186 population based control subjects. All blood samples were collected during 2007-2011 and no case had been treated with radio- or chemotherapy before enrolment in the study. The blood concentrations did not differ statistically significant between cases and controls except for PFDA with higher concentration among the cases (p = 0.03). Analyses based on Gleason score and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level did not change the results. Heredity was a risk factor for prostate cancer yielding odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.1. The analyzed PFAAs yielded statistically significant higher ORs in cases with a first degree relative reporting prostate cancer, e.g., PFOA gave OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-6.0 and PFOS gave OR = 2.7,95% CI = 1.04-6.8. The results showed a higher risk for prostate cancer in cases with heredity as a risk factor. In further studies interaction between gene and environment should be considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Analysis and human levels of persistent perfluorinated chemicals2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive use of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the last 50 years has resulted in a worldwide spread of these persistent chemicals. Human populations are subjected to a large number of PFCs in ways that are not yet fully explained. The aims of this thesis are to develop and assure the quality of analytical methods in order to collect information on human levels and to facilitate the assessment of human exposure of PFCs.

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods for human blood and milk using two sorbents, octadecyl (C18) and a weak anion exchange polymer (WAX), were developed. Perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated alkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with carbon chain lengths between four and fourteen together with perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) could be extracted from human matrices. These extraction procedures enable selective and sensitive analysis of PFCs in human matrices using single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SQMS). The accuracy and reliability of the methods are discussed in the context of intralaboratory as well as interlaboratory quality assurance. Further improvements of the analysis are discussed including the evaluation of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC).

    Human whole blood, plasma and serum from Sweden, Australia and the United Kingdom have been analysed. The blood matrix selection in the assessment and comparisons of human exposure to PFCs is crucial. Human plasma contains a high percentage of PFSAs and PFCAs. On the contrary, only about 20% of the total PFOSA content is present in plasma after removal of the red blood cells. Up to eleven persistent PFCs are detected in human blood, with detection levels between 0.1-0.5 ng/mL. A gender difference with higher serum levels for males is apparent. An age trend was observed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) levels in serum from Australia. The levels found in Australian serum indicate that emissions from the PFC production facilities are of less importance for human exposure.

    Matched human milk and serum samples from Sweden show that milk levels of PFCs are about 1% of the maternal serum level. Up to five persistent PFCs are found in human milk from Sweden, with detection limits between 0.005-0.1 ng/mL, and the levels in Swedish pooled milk samples have remained constant between 1996 and 2004. A linear relationship between the maternal serum level and milk level was seen for PFOS and its shorter homologue perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). The daily intake of PFOS for a nursing infant in Sweden is estimated to be 121 ng/day if the maternal serum level is 20 ng/mL. Lactation is therefore a major exposure source for breast-fed infants.

    Monomethyl- and dimethyl-branched isomers of PFOS could be separated in human blood using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Human plasma contains a smaller percentage of the linear PFOS compared to commercially available PFOS standard materials, which indicate isomer specific uptake and/or elimination. A difference in the isomer composition is also seen between the countries studied. Human blood from the UK and Australia have significantly lower amount of linear PFOS (59-60%) compared to Swedish blood (68%). This geographical variation suggests different human exposure sources and pathways.

    List of papers
    1. Development of a solid-phase extraction-HPLC/Single quadrupole MS method for quantification of perfluorochemicals in whole blood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a solid-phase extraction-HPLC/Single quadrupole MS method for quantification of perfluorochemicals in whole blood
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 864-870Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) simultaneously with 10 closely related perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in human whole blood was developed and validated. PFOS and PFOA are used in various applications, for example, as surfactants and plastic additives, and are subject to environmental and health research due to their persistence. The main part of the data on PFCs in human blood is from serum samples, analyzed mainly by ion pair extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and negative electrospray (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analytical method developed here is suitable for human whole blood and involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC negative electrospray single quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC/ES-MS). A whole blood aliquot was treated with formic acid and extracted on a octadecyl (C18) SPE column. The PFCs were isolated with methanol, and quantification was performed using single quadrupole mass spectrometry and perfluoroheptanoic acid as internal standard. Validation was performed in the range 0.3-194 ng/mL with recovery between 64 and 112% and limit of detection in the 0.1-0.5 ng/mL range for 11 of the 12 PFCs studied. We applied this method to 20 whole blood samples collected in 1997-2000 from the Swedish population in the ages 24-72. Eleven of the 12 PFCs were detected, and they were quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed using triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS analysis. PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorohexanesulfonate, PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid were quantified in all samples. In addition, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluorodecanesulfonate, perfluoroundecanoic acid, perfluorododecanoic acid, and perfluorotetradecanoic acid were detected in some samples. This study shows that SPE and single quadrupole MS can be applied for extraction and quantification of PFCs in human whole blood, resulting in selectivity and low detection limits.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3115 (URN)10.1021/ac049023c (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Struggle for quality in determination of perfluorinated contaminants in environmental and human samples
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Struggle for quality in determination of perfluorinated contaminants in environmental and human samples
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    2006 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 24, p. 7854-7860Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on the analyses of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in three environmental and two human samples indicates a varying degree of accuracy in relation to the matrix or analyte determined. The ability of 38 participating laboratories from 13 countries to determine the analytes in the various matrices was evaluated by calculation of z-scores according to the Cofino model. The PFCs which were reported most frequently by the laboratories, and assessed with the most satisfactory agreement, were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In general, the level of agreement between the participating laboratories decreased in the following order: PFC standard solution (76% satisfactory z-scores of <[2]1 for PFOS) < human blood (67%) < human plasma (63%) < fish liver extract (55%) < water (31%) < fish tissue (17%). This shows that relative good agreement between laboratories was obtained for the study of standard and human matrices. For the fish extract, most laboratories underestimated the actual PFOS concentration due to matrix effects. The results for the fish tissue and water are also poor, indicating that the extraction and cleanup steps require further improvement. It was concluded that the PFC determinations in various matrices are not yet fully mastered.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3116 (URN)10.1021/es061052c (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Perfluorinated chemicals in relation to other persistent organic pollutants in human blood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorinated chemicals in relation to other persistent organic pollutants in human blood
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    2006 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 9, p. 1582-1591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate blood levels of some perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and compare them to current levels of classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) whole blood samples from Sweden were analyzed with respect to 12 PFCs, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), six chlordanes and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The median concentration, on whole blood basis, of the sum of PFCs was 20-50 times higher compared to the sum of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, 300-450 times higher than HCB, sum of chlordanes and sum of PBDEs. Estimations of the total body amount of PFCs and lipophilic POPs point at similar body burdens. While levels of for example PCBs and PBDEs are normalized to the lipid content of blood, there is no such general procedure for PFCs in blood. The distributions of a number of perfluorinated compounds between whole blood and plasma were therefore studied. Plasma concentrations were higher than whole blood concentrations for four perfluoroalkylated acids with plasma/whole blood ratios between 1.1 and 1.4, whereas the ratio for perflurooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was considerably lower (0.2). This suggests that the comparison of levels of PFCs determined in plasma with levels determined in whole blood should be made with caution. We also conclude that Swedish residents are exposed to a large number of PFCs to the same extent as in USA, Japan, Colombia and the few other countries from which data is available today.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3117 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.040 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Levels of 12 perfluorinated chemicals in pooled Australian serum, collected 2002-2003, in relation to age, gender, and region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of 12 perfluorinated chemicals in pooled Australian serum, collected 2002-2003, in relation to age, gender, and region
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 3742-3748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Pooled serum samples from 3802 Australian residents were analyzed for four perfluoroalkylsulfonates, seven perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA). Serum was collected from men and women of five different age groups and from rural and urban regions in Australia. The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 20.8 ng/mL) followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 6.2 ng/mL), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 1.1 ng/mL), and PFOSA (0.71 ng/mL). Additional four PFCs were detected in 5-18% of the samples at concentrations near the detection limits (0.1-0.5 ng/mL). An increase in PFOS concentration with increasing age in both regions and genders was observed. The male pool levels of some of the age groups compared to females were higherfor PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS. In contrast, PFNA concentrations were higher in the female pools. No substantial difference was found in levels of PFCs between the urban and rural regions. The levels are equal or higher than previously reported serum levels in Europe and Asia but lower compared to the U.S.A. These results suggest that emissions from production in the Northern Hemisphere are of less importance for human exposure.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3118 (URN)10.1021/es060301u (DOI)16830536 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers: identification and pattern in human blood from Sweden, the United Kingdom and Australia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers: identification and pattern in human blood from Sweden, the United Kingdom and Australia
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3119 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    6. Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 226-230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Only limited data exist on lactation as an exposure source of persistent perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) for children.Objectives We studied occurrence and levels of PFCs in human milk in relation to maternal serum together with the temporal trend in milk levels between 1996 and 2004 in Sweden. Matched, individual human milk and serum samples from 12 primiparous women in Sweden were analyzed together with composite milk samples (25–90 women/year) from 1996 to 2004.Results Eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples, and five of them were also above the detection limits in the milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all milk samples at mean concentrations of 0.201 ng/mL and 0.085 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected less frequently.Discussion The total PFC concentration in maternal serum was 32 ng/mL, and the corresponding milk concentration was 0.34 ng/mL. The PFOS milk level was on average 1% of the corresponding serum level. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS (r2 = 0.7) and PFHxS (r2 = 0.8). PFOS and PFHxS levels in composite milk samples were relatively unchanged between 1996 and 2004, with a total variation of 20 and 32% coefficient of variation, respectively.Conclusion The calculated total amount of PFCs transferred by lactation to a breast-fed infant in this study was approximately 200 ng/day. Lactation is a considerable source of exposure for infants, and reference concentrations for hazard assessments are needed.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3120 (URN)10.1289/ehp.9491 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hollert, Henner
    Aachen University, Achen, Germany.
    Study of environmental and human health impacts of firefighting agents: A technical report2016Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, Jose L.
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Llebaria, Xavier
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    Nadal, Marti
    Lab Toxicol & Environm Hlth, Univ Rovira & Virgili, Reus Catalonia, Spain.
    Bigas, Esther
    Dept Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Barcelona Catalonia, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Biomonitoring perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: concentrations and trends in human liver and milk samples2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 750-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are global environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. Laboratory experiments have revealed toxic effects such as delayed development, humoral suppression, and hepatotoxicity. Although numerous human blood levels have been reported, little is known about distribution in the human body. Knowledge about PFC distribution and accumulation in the human body is crucial to understanding uptake and subsequent effects as well as to conduct risk assessments. The present study reports PFC levels in human liver and breast milk from a general population living in Catalonia, Spain. Liver and milk levels are compared to previously reported levels in blood from the same geographic area as well as to other existing reports on human liver and milk levels in other countries. Human liver (n = 12) and milk (n = 10) samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 in Catalonia, Spain. Liver samples were taken postmortem from six males and six females aged 27-79 years. Milk samples were from healthy primipara women (30-39 years old). Both liver and milk were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six PFCs were detected in liver, with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, 26.6 ng/g wet weight) being the chemical with the highest mean concentration. Other PFCs such as perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and acids with chain lengths up to C11 were also detected, with mean levels ranging between 0.50 and 1.45 ng/g wet weight. On the other hand, PFOS and PFHxS were the only PFCs detected in human milk, with mean concentrations of 0.12 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively. While milk concentrations were similar to reported levels from other countries, liver samples contained more PFCs above quantification limits and higher PFOS concentrations compared to the only two other reports found in the literature. Differences between the results of the present study and those concerning previous investigations can be due to declining levels of some PFCs, which have been reported for the USA. The relationship between PFC concentrations in human liver, milk, and blood was assessed using blood concentrations previously determined in Catalonia. Those levels resulted in liver/serum ratios of 1.7:1, 1.4:1, and 2.1:1 for PFOS, perfluorodecanoic acid, and perfluoroundecanoic acid, respectively. Accumulation in liver is suggested for PFOS and the perfluorocarboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths C9, C10, and C11. For PFOA and PFHxS, fivefold and 14-fold higher concentrations, respectively, were seen in serum as compared to liver. The mean concentration of PFOS and PFHxS in milk was only 0.8% and 0.6% of the reported mean serum level, respectively. The results of the present study show that several PFCs could be detected in human liver samples of subjects living in Tarragona. Concerning human milk, the mechanism by which PFCs are transferred from mother's blood to breast milk is still unclear. Considering that PFCs are strongly bound to the protein fraction in blood, the possibility of PFCs entering the milk and accumulating to levels observed in maternal plasma is limited. Interestingly, the potential accumulation difference for PFCs with different chain lengths might be of great importance for risk assessment. Continuing studies on the distribution of different PFCs in human tissue are therefore justified.

  • 18.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lafossas, C.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Moskeland, T.
    Environmental levels and distribution of structural isomers of perfluoroalkyl acids after aqueous fire-fighting foam (AFFF) contamination2011In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 372-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment (soil, water, sediment, fish, crab and mussel) around a training facility using aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) was studied with respect to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and 6 : 2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTS) and their structural isomers. High levels of many PFAAs and 6 : 2 FTS were detected in soil, seepage water, sediment and fish liver. Structural isomers were found for sulfonates, except PFBuS, and for PFOA. Quantification using authentic standards revealed an isomer pattern of 63% linear PFOS (L-PFOS) and 80% linear PFOA (L-PFOA) in the soil at the contamination site, which indicated a source produced by electrochemical fluorination (ECF). The 6 : 2 FTS was 100% linear in all compartments thus coming from a telomerisation product. Enrichment of the linear structure of PFOS and PFOA in soil was seen with increasing distance from the training centre, and an enrichment of branched isomers for both compounds could be found in the seepage water. Sorption to sediment and accumulation in fish liver led to an enrichment of L-PFOS whereas all PFOA remained in the water body.

  • 19.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Davies, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Holsen, A H.
    Laugesen, J.
    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in effluents from hazardous waste treatment facilities2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Aune, Marie
    Glynn, Anders
    Lignell, Sanna
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden2007In: Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 226-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Only limited data exist on lactation as an exposure source of persistent perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) for children.Objectives We studied occurrence and levels of PFCs in human milk in relation to maternal serum together with the temporal trend in milk levels between 1996 and 2004 in Sweden. Matched, individual human milk and serum samples from 12 primiparous women in Sweden were analyzed together with composite milk samples (25–90 women/year) from 1996 to 2004.Results Eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples, and five of them were also above the detection limits in the milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all milk samples at mean concentrations of 0.201 ng/mL and 0.085 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected less frequently.Discussion The total PFC concentration in maternal serum was 32 ng/mL, and the corresponding milk concentration was 0.34 ng/mL. The PFOS milk level was on average 1% of the corresponding serum level. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS (r2 = 0.7) and PFHxS (r2 = 0.8). PFOS and PFHxS levels in composite milk samples were relatively unchanged between 1996 and 2004, with a total variation of 20 and 32% coefficient of variation, respectively.Conclusion The calculated total amount of PFCs transferred by lactation to a breast-fed infant in this study was approximately 200 ng/day. Lactation is a considerable source of exposure for infants, and reference concentrations for hazard assessments are needed.

  • 21.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Harada, Kouji H.
    Inoue, Kayoko
    Takasuga, Takumi
    Ohi, Etsumasa
    Koizumi, Akio
    Relationship between dietary exposure and serum perfluorochemical (PFC) levels-A case study2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 712-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in relation to serum levels was assessed by determination of nine PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in matched daily diet duplicates and serum samples. Diet and serum were collected in year 2004 from 20 women in Osaka and Miyagi, Japan. Only PFOS and PFOA were detected in the diet samples and no significant difference between cities was seen. After adjusted by water content, diet concentration of PFOA was significantly higher in Osaka. The median daily intake calculated using the measured diet concentrations was 1.47 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 1.28 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Osaka, and 1.08 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 0.72 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Miyagi. A significant difference between cities was seen for the serum concentrations with median of 31 ng/mL PFOS and PFOA in Osaka, compared to 14 ng/mL PFOS and 4.6 ng/mL PFOA in Miyagi. Carboxylates such as perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were also detected in serum at median levels 6.9 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL (Osaka), and 2.8 ng/mL and 5.1 ng/mL (Miyagi). Based on one-compartment model under steady state, dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA accounted for only 22.4% and 23.7% of serum levels in Osaka females, and in contrast 92.5% and 110.6% in Miyagi females, respectively. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Langlois, Ingrid
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Oehme, Michael
    Analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers: identification and pattern in human blood from Sweden, the United Kingdom and AustraliaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Langlois, Ingrid
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Oehme, Michael
    Identification and pattern of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in human serum and plasma2007In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 782-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human serum and plasma from Sweden (n=17), the United Kingdom (the UK) (n=13) and Australia (n=40) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective was to identify different perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers. Similar isomer patterns typical for the electrochemical fluorination (ECF) process were found for all samples. The linear PFOS (L-PFOS) was the major isomer found (58-70%) followed by the monosubstituted PFOS isomers 1/6-CF(3)-PFOS (18-22%) and 3/4/5-CF(3)-PFOS (13-18%). Disubstituted isomers were also detected. The percentage of L-PFOS found in the serum and plasma samples was lower compared to a standard PFOS product (76-79%). The pattern of PFOS isomers in human serum and plasma may be suggestive concerning potential isomeric discrimination since PFOS is only produced by ECF. Possibilities for such isomer discrimination are discussed. Significant higher content of L-PFOS (68%) in Swedish samples compared to Australia and the UK (59%) was also found, which may suggest differences in exposure sources for humans.

  • 24.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Trends, analytical methods and precision in the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in human milk2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The review describes trends and precision in analytical methods measuring perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in human milk [e.g., perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)]. A worldwide interlaboratory proficiency test with two human milk samples is reported showing a large inter-laboratory variation. High relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the 20 laboratories for PFOS (38, 49%) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 53, 71%) indicates that there is a performance variation in the current data.

    Assessing the worldwide effectiveness of declining levels as a result of regulations and bans demands analytical precision and accuracy. The Stockholm Convention aims to reduce human levels by 20%. Assessing such a reduction of PFOS levels in human milk is currently impossible due to analytical difficulties. Crucial for improving precision and accuracy is better control of contamination and achieving higher sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analysis.

  • 25.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Harden, Fiona
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Levels of 12 perfluorinated chemicals in pooled Australian serum, collected 2002-2003, in relation to age, gender, and region2006In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 3742-3748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pooled serum samples from 3802 Australian residents were analyzed for four perfluoroalkylsulfonates, seven perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA). Serum was collected from men and women of five different age groups and from rural and urban regions in Australia. The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 20.8 ng/mL) followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 6.2 ng/mL), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 1.1 ng/mL), and PFOSA (0.71 ng/mL). Additional four PFCs were detected in 5-18% of the samples at concentrations near the detection limits (0.1-0.5 ng/mL). An increase in PFOS concentration with increasing age in both regions and genders was observed. The male pool levels of some of the age groups compared to females were higherfor PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS. In contrast, PFNA concentrations were higher in the female pools. No substantial difference was found in levels of PFCs between the urban and rural regions. The levels are equal or higher than previously reported serum levels in Europe and Asia but lower compared to the U.S.A. These results suggest that emissions from production in the Northern Hemisphere are of less importance for human exposure.

  • 26.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Parera, J
    Abalos, M
    Van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Abad, E
    Assessing and controlling sample contamination: analytical techniques for scientists2012In: Comprehensive sampling and sample preparation / [ed] Janusz Pawliszyn, Oxford UK: Elsevier, 2012, 1, p. 51-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Schönlau, Christine
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Exposure and effects of microplastics on wildlife: A review of existing data2016Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Hardell, Lennart
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Development of a solid-phase extraction-HPLC/Single quadrupole MS method for quantification of perfluorochemicals in whole blood2005In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 864-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) simultaneously with 10 closely related perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in human whole blood was developed and validated. PFOS and PFOA are used in various applications, for example, as surfactants and plastic additives, and are subject to environmental and health research due to their persistence. The main part of the data on PFCs in human blood is from serum samples, analyzed mainly by ion pair extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and negative electrospray (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analytical method developed here is suitable for human whole blood and involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC negative electrospray single quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC/ES-MS). A whole blood aliquot was treated with formic acid and extracted on a octadecyl (C18) SPE column. The PFCs were isolated with methanol, and quantification was performed using single quadrupole mass spectrometry and perfluoroheptanoic acid as internal standard. Validation was performed in the range 0.3-194 ng/mL with recovery between 64 and 112% and limit of detection in the 0.1-0.5 ng/mL range for 11 of the 12 PFCs studied. We applied this method to 20 whole blood samples collected in 1997-2000 from the Swedish population in the ages 24-72. Eleven of the 12 PFCs were detected, and they were quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed using triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS analysis. PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorohexanesulfonate, PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid were quantified in all samples. In addition, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluorodecanesulfonate, perfluoroundecanoic acid, perfluorododecanoic acid, and perfluorotetradecanoic acid were detected in some samples. This study shows that SPE and single quadrupole MS can be applied for extraction and quantification of PFCs in human whole blood, resulting in selectivity and low detection limits.

  • 29.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Hardell, Lennart
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Perfluorinated chemicals in relation to other persistent organic pollutants in human blood2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 9, p. 1582-1591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate blood levels of some perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and compare them to current levels of classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) whole blood samples from Sweden were analyzed with respect to 12 PFCs, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), six chlordanes and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The median concentration, on whole blood basis, of the sum of PFCs was 20-50 times higher compared to the sum of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, 300-450 times higher than HCB, sum of chlordanes and sum of PBDEs. Estimations of the total body amount of PFCs and lipophilic POPs point at similar body burdens. While levels of for example PCBs and PBDEs are normalized to the lipid content of blood, there is no such general procedure for PFCs in blood. The distributions of a number of perfluorinated compounds between whole blood and plasma were therefore studied. Plasma concentrations were higher than whole blood concentrations for four perfluoroalkylated acids with plasma/whole blood ratios between 1.1 and 1.4, whereas the ratio for perflurooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was considerably lower (0.2). This suggests that the comparison of levels of PFCs determined in plasma with levels determined in whole blood should be made with caution. We also conclude that Swedish residents are exposed to a large number of PFCs to the same extent as in USA, Japan, Colombia and the few other countries from which data is available today.

  • 30.
    Li, Yingming
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bao, Jia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Zhang, QH
    Jiang, GB
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Occurence of perfluorinated compounds in marine fish, Antarctica2012In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2012, Vol. 74, p. 228-230Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to the increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years2017In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 263, p. E18-E18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: It has previously been reported that the environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are linked to atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies. Since cross-sectional studies could be subject to reverse causation, we here analyzed if the longitudinal changes in PFASs during a 10 years follow-up were related to the change in intima-media thickness (IMT) during the same period.

    Methods: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study,1,016 individuals were investigated at age 70. 826 of those were reinvestigated at age 75 and 606 at age 80 years. Eight different PFASs and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, ultrasound) were measured at the three time-points.

    Results: IMT increased 0.058 mm during the 10-year period (p<0.0001). Following adjustment for baseline values of PFASs (age 70) and sex, the changes in plasma levels of 6 of the 8 measured PFASs were significantly related to the change in IMT over the 10-year follow-up period (p<0.0062 using Bonferroni correction for 8 tests). Further adjustment for traditional CV risk factors (HDL and LDL-cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, statin use, fasting glucose and serum triglycerides) did only affect these relationships marginally.

    Conclusions: The change in plasma levels of several PFASs during 10 years was related the increase in IMT seen during the same period, giving further evidence that PFASs might interfere with the atherosclerotic process.

  • 32.
    Lind, P. Monica
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Changes in plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are related to increase in carotid intima-media thickness over 10 years - a longitudinal study2018In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 17, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has previously been reported that the environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are linked to atherosclerosis in cross-sectional studies. Since cross-sectional studies could be subject to reverse causation, the purpose of this study was to analyze if the longitudinal changes in PFASs during a 10-year follow-up were related to the change in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, ultrasound) during the same period.

    Methods: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, 1016 individuals were investigated at age 70; 826 of them were reinvestigated at age 75 and 602 at age 80 years. Eight different PFASs were measured in plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and IMT was measured at all three time points. Random-effects mixed regression models were used to examine the associations over time.

    Results: IMT increased 0.058 mm during the 10-year period (p <0.0001). Following adjustment for baseline values of PFASs (age 70) and sex, the changes in plasma levels of 6 of the 8 measured PFASs were significantly related to the change in IMT over the 10-year follow-up period in a positive fashion (p <0.0062 using Bonferroni correction for 8 tests). Further adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (HDL and LDL cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, statin use, fasting glucose and serum triglycerides) affected these relationships only marginally.

    Conclusion: The change in plasma levels of several PFASs during 10 years was positively related to increase in IMT seen during the same period, giving prospective evidence that PFASs might interfere with the atherosclerotic process.

  • 33.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Accuracy and precision in the determination of perfluorinated chemicals in human blood verified by interlaboratory comparisons2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 394-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated chemicals, PFCs, are analyzed in laboratories worldwide to determine human blood levels and exposure pathways. The development of the  nalytical echnique has been rapid in the last ten years, and prerequisites for accurate and precise determination of PFCs in human blood at low ng/g concentrations are today readily available. The main contributing factors are the improved LC-MS instrumentations, the increased availability of native and mass labeled PFC standards, and new column materials available for chromatographic separations. The results of the first international interlaboratory study (ILS) in 2005 on PFCs revealed relatively better analytical results for human blood analyses when compared to analyses of a number of environmental matrices. The representative accuracy for the analyses of PFCs in human matrixes reported in recent years was established in the second human serum ILS in 2006. Interlaboratory standard deviations for the two human serum samples one low level concentration and one medium level concentration were found to be 12% and 16% for PFOS, respectively, and 47% and 21% for PFOA, respectively. Reported detections for all PFCs followed a frequency of PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA>PFDA>>PFDoA>> PFDS>>PFHxA. Due to the small number of reported values for the other perfluorosulfonates and perfluorocarboxylates, standard deviations were not established.

     

  • 34.
    Mahmoud, Manal A. M.
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Oono, Sayoko
    Kyoto University.
    Harada, Kouji H.
    Kyoto University.
    Koizumi, Akio
    Kyoto University.
    Polyfluorinated telomers in precipitation and surface water in an urban area of Japan2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 467-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) have been detected in various environmental matrices worldwide, no studies have been conducted to evaluate their concentrations in surface water or precipitation. Therefore, we developed a sensitive and reliable method to analyze various environmental aqueous samples for the presence of trace levels of 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOAcr and 8:2 FTOMethacr FTOlefin using gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. The recoveries obtained using this method ranged from 57.8% to 78.2% and the detection limits were 0.5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.05 and 0.1 ng L−1 for 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOAcr and 8:2 FTOMethacr, respectively. Liquid and suspended phases of the examined samples were analyzed. The analysis revealed presence of telomer alcohols from the liquid phase only. Of the FTOHs evaluated, 6:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOMethacr FTOlefin were not found in any of the environmental samples. The average concentrations of 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOAcr of the precipitation samples were 1.97, 0.82 and 0.21 ng L−1, respectively. In surface water samples, the highest concentrations of 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH and 8:2 FTOAcr were 3.38, 4.06 and 0.16 ng L−1, which were observed in samples from the Daini-Neyagawa, Yamato and Kanzaki rivers, respectively. The total concentration of FTOHs in wastewater treatment plant effluents (23.2 ng L−1) was much higher than that of surface water (10.8 ng L−1). Taken together, the results of this study indicate that FTOHs released into the air contaminate rain and that those released from water disposal sites contaminate surface water.

  • 35.
    Martin, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Toronto.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    State university of New York at Albany.
    Berger, Urs
    NILU.
    de Voogt, Pim
    University of Amsterdam.
    Field, Jennifer
    Oregon State University.
    Franklin, James
    Solvay.
    Giesy, John
    Michigan State University.
    Harner, Tom
    Environment Canada.
    Muir, Derek
    Environment Canada.
    Scott, Brian
    Environment Canada.
    Kaiser, Mary
    DuPont.
    Järnberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet.
    Jones, Kevin
    Lancaster University.
    Mabury, Scott
    University of Toronto.
    Schroeder, Horst
    RWTH Aachen.
    Simcik, Matt
    University of Minnesota.
    Sottani, Christina
    Salvatore Maugeri Foundation.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    van Leeuwen, Stefan
    Netherlands Institute for Fisheries research.
    Analytical challenges hamper perfluoroalkyl research2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 248A-255AArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pinto, Rui
    Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Chemistry department (KBC), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (BILS), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brunström, Björn
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid ( PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0143780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor a (PPAR alpha) and PPAR gamma, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPAR alpha. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting from chemical exposure during embryonic development.

  • 37.
    Minata, Mutsuko
    et al.
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Harada, Kouji H.
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hitomi, Toshiaki
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Hirosawa, Michi
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Murata, Mariko
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Environm & Mol Med, Tsu, Mie Univ, Mie, Japan.
    Gonzalez, Frank J.
    Lab Metab, NIH, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda MD, USA.
    Koizumi, Akio
    Grad Sch Med, Dept Hlth & Environm Sci, Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-alpha in Hepatobiliary Injury Induced by Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate in Mouse Liver2010In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 96-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha) has been suggested to protect against chemically induced hepatobiliary injuries in rodents. This function could mask the potential toxicities of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) that is an emerging environmental contaminant and a weak ligand of PPAR alpha. However its function has not been clarified. In this study, PFOA was found to elicit hepatocyte and bile duct injuries in Ppar alpha-null mice after 4 wk treatment with PFOA ammonium salt (0, 12.5, 25, 50 mu mol/kg/d, gavage). In wild-type mice, PFOA caused major hepatocellular damage dose-dependently and minor cholangiopathy observed only at 25 and 50 mu mol/kg. In treated Ppar alpha-null mice, PFOA produced marked fat accumulation, severe cholangiopathy, hepatocellular damage and apoptotic cells especially in bile ducts. Oxidative stress was also increased 4-fold at 50 mu mol/kg and TNF-alpha mRNA was upregulated more than 3-fold at 25 mu mol/kg in Ppar alpha-null mice. Biliary bile acid/phospholipid ratios were higher in Ppar alpha-null mice than in wild-type mice. Results from these studies suggest that PPAR alpha is protective against PFOA and have a critical role in drug induced hepatobiliary injury.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro University Hospital.
    Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 51, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in biological compartments have been known for some time but their transport routes and distribution patterns are not properly elucidated. The opinions diverge whether the exposure of the general population occurs indirect through precursors or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed that ski wax technicians are exposed to levels up to 92 000 ng/m(3) of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) via air and have elevated blood levels of PFCAs. Blood samples were collected in 2007-2011 and analyzed for C(4)-C(18) PFCAs, 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs) and 3:3, 5:3 and 7:3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) using UPLC-MS/MS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in levels ranging from 1.90 to 628 ng/mL whole blood (wb). Metabolic intermediates 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTUCAs showed maximum levels of 0.07, 0.64 and 0.11 ng/mL wb. Also, for the first time levels of PFHxDA and PFOcDA were detected in the human blood at mean concentrations up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb respectively. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs and FTOH metabolites in blood from ski wax technicians.

  • 40.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compund to perfluorocarboxylates in humansManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 19, p. 7717-7722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in mu g/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

  • 42.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions2013In: Environmental science. Processes & impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 814-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous reports show that professional ski waxers have elevated blood levels of perfluorinated substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and are exposed to very high concentrations of PFAS in air during ski waxing. Aerosol exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and PFOA is a potential hormonal disruptor and carcinogen, and can affect the fatty acid metabolism. Animal studies have shown that 8: 2 FTOH can undergo biotransformation to PFOA. For the first time, this study presents an occupational scenario of professional ski waxers who are exposed to extremely high dust levels as well as per-and polyfluorinated compounds. Personal and fixed measurements of total aerosol, inhalable and respirable fractions were performed during World Cup events 2007-2010. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) is exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with concentrations up to 15 mu g m(-3) in air. There are differences between personal and area total aerosol concentrations with levels from personal measurements twice as high as those from the area measurements. The personal levels for FTOH ranged up to 996 mg m(-3) (mean = 114 mu g m(-3)) and for PFOA up to 4.89 mu g m(-3) (mean = 0.53 mu g m(-3)) in ENV+ sorbent samples as compared to the general exposure levels from air reaching only low ng m(-3) (<30 ng m(-3)) levels. FTOHs were not detected in aerosols but PFOA showed an average level of 12 mu g m(-3) (range = 1.2-47 mu g m(-3)). The ski waxers' exposure to paraffin fumes and PFAS is not in compliance with the occupational exposure standards and by far exceed the general populations' exposure. Preventive measures must be taken to minimize the exposure in this occupational group.

  • 43.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 2150-2155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians, Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four AS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (< 10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (> 100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure.

  • 44.
    Persson, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 425-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C-8-C-13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n = 101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250 ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800 ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6 ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p < 0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken" in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    School of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane QLD, Australia.
    Kay, Margaret
    Discipline of General Practice, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital Complex, University of Queensland, Herston QLD, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Gómez Ramos, María José
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Novel fluorinated surfactants tentatively identified in firefighters using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and a case-control approach2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 2434-2442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated surfactant-based aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are made up of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids. The use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in some AFFF formulations has been linked to substantial environmental contamination. Recent studies have identified a large number of novel and infrequently reported fluorinated surfactants in different AFFF formulations. In this study, a strategy based on a case-control approach using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and advanced statistical methods has been used to extract and identify known and unknown PFAS in human serum associated with AFFF-exposed firefighters. Two target sulfonic acids [PFOS and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)], three non-target acids [perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorononanesulfonic acid (PFNS)], and four unknown sulfonic acids (Cl-PFOS, ketone-PFOS, ether-PFHxS, and Cl-PFHxS) were exclusively or significantly more frequently detected at higher levels in firefighters compared to controls. The application of this strategy has allowed for identification of previously unreported fluorinated chemicals in a timely and cost-efficient way.

  • 46.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Riget, Frank
    University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Atli Auounsson, Guojon
    Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Innovation Center Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Marine Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    FRAM Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsö, Norway.
    Bloch, Dorete
    Museum of Natural History, Torshavn, Faroe Islands.
    Dam, Maria
    Environment Agency, Argir, Faroe Islands.
    Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-20092012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 278-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale liver was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) with time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

  • 47.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Rigét, Frank
    Atli Audunsson, Gudjón
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Bloch, Dorete
    Dam, Maria
    Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and North West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale livers was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) over time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

  • 48.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ganna, Andrea
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Broad Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    Broeckling, Corey D.
    Proteomics and Metabolomics Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Prenni, Jessica E.
    Proteomics and Metabolomics Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Identification of metabolic profiles associated with human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances2018In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be associated with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic phenotypes. To gain further insights regarding PFASs exposure in humans, we here aimed to characterize the associations between different PFASs and the metabolome. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 965 individuals from Sweden (all aged 70 years, 50% women) sampled in 2001-2004. PFASs were analyzed in plasma using isotope-dilution ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Non-target metabolomics profiling was performed in plasma using UPLC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS) operated in positive electrospray mode. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between circulating levels of PFASs and metabolites. In total, 15 metabolites, predominantly from lipid pathways, were associated with levels of PFASs following adjustment for sex, smoking, exercise habits, education, energy, and alcohol intake, after correction for multiple testing. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were strongly associated with multiple glycerophosphocholines and fatty acids including docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We also found that the different PFASs evaluated were associated with distinctive metabolic profiles, suggesting potentially different biochemical pathways in humans.

  • 49.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS)2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 82, no Sept 2015, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001–2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70 year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women.

  • 50.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    2Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    3Acute and Internal Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A rapid method for analysis of PFAS including structural PFOS isomers in human serum using 96-well plate column-switching UPLC-S/MSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate high-throughput analysis suitable for large epidemiological studies we developed an automated column-switching ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs; C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12, and C13), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8, and C10), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and five groups of structural perfluorooctane sulfonic acids (PFOS) isomers in human serum or plasma. The analytical procedure involves rapid protein precipitation using 96-well plates followed by a fully automated sample clean-up using an on-line trap column removing many potentially interfering sample components while through the mobile phase gradient the target analytes are eluted onto the analytical column for further separation and subsequent mass detection. The method showed good linearity (R2 < 0.995) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 60 ngmL-1 and low method detection limits (MDLs) ranging between 0.01-0.17 ngmL-1 depending on the analyte. The precision of the developed method was good, with within-run (n=7) and between-run (n=103) coefficients of variation between 2% and 20% for most compounds including PFOS (2%, 8%) and its structural isomers (2-6% and 4-8%). The method showed good conformity with a standard reference material (n=56). The columnswitching UPLC method has been successfully applied for the determination of perflourinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), including structural PFOS isomers, and PFOSA in human plasma from an epidemiological study.

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