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  • 1.
    Andersson, Patiyan
    et al.
    Division of Cell Biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kolaric, Aleksandra
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Windahl, Torgny
    Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kirrander, Peter
    Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Division of Cell Biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    PIK3CA, HRAS and KRAS gene mutations in human penile cancer2008In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 179, no 5, p. 2030-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The knowledge of somatic mutations that arise in penile cancer is limited. We examined the dysregulation of components in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ras pathways.

    Materials and Methods: Using single stranded conformational analysis and direct sequencing we performed mutational analysis of the PIK3CA, PTEN, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in 28 penile tumors.

    Results: We identified somatic missense mutations in 11 of the 28 penile cancer samples (39%). In the PIK3CA gene 8 mutations (29%) were identified that were E542K or E545K. In the HRAS gene a G12S and a Q61L mutation were found (7%). The KRAS gene contained 1 mutation (3%), that is a G12S change. PIK3CA mutations were found in all grades and stages, whereas HRAS and KRAS mutations were found in larger and more advanced tumors. The mutations were mutually exclusive, suggesting that dysregulation of either pathway is sufficient for the development and progression of penile carcinoma.

    Conclusions: The high frequency of mutations in the PIK3CA, HRAS and KRAS genes leads us to believe that dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Ras pathway is significant for the development and progression of penile carcinoma.

  • 2.
    Bekele, Maheteme
    et al.
    St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Jibril, Aisha
    St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Seifu, Daniel
    Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Abebe, Markos
    Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Bekele, Abebe
    Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu
    Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Bokretsion, Yonas
    Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Martini, Rachel
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York NY, USA.
    Elemento, Olivier
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York NY, USA.
    Yates, Clayton
    Tuskegee University, Tuskegee AL, USA.
    Ginter, Paula
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York NY, USA.
    Newman, Lisa
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York NY, USA.
    Davis, Melissa
    Weill Cornell Medical College, New York NY, USA.
    Gebregzabher, Endale Hadgu
    St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Tumor and immune cell profiling in breast cancer using highly multiplexed imaging mass cytometry single-cell technology demonstrates tumor heterogeneity and immune phenotypic abnormality in Ethiopian women2020In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 80, no 21 Suppl., article id PO-087Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tumor heterogeneity represents a complex challenge to cancer treatment, disease recurrence, and patient survival. Imaging mass cytometry (IMC) is an emerging proteomic tool for cancer profiling in tumor tissue samples. IMC enables digital image analysis by multiplexed immunostaining of cells and proteins within tissue and preserves spatial relations within tumor environment. We have applied IMC based approach to study the heterogeneity of invasive breast carcinoma protein expression pattern in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues.

    Methods: A total of 10 region of interest (ROI) derived from 5 patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma representing three molecular subclasses (HR+/HER2-,HER2+/HR- and TNBC) were stained with a 30-marker IMC metal labeled antibody panel (α-SMA, EGFR, p53, CD33, CD16, CD163, CD11b, PDL1, CD31, CD45, D44,Vimentin, FoxP3, CD4, ECadherin, CD68, CD20, CD8a, Cytokeratin7, PD1, GranzymeB, Ki67, ColTypeI, CD3, CD45RO, HLADR, DARC & CD11c). Tissue imaging was done by quantifying the abundance of bound antibody with a Hyperion IMC. MCD Viewer was used for visualization purpose and to export raw 16-bit tiff images for segmentation on CellProfiler. Segmentation masks were combined with the individual tiff files to extract single-cell information from each individual image. HistoCAT was applied to perform unbiased clustering of cell populations using the PhenoGraph algorithm and clustered cell populations was overlaid on t-SNE plot. The relative marker expression was used to generate heat-maps and each cluster was manually assigned a phenotype based on its expression profile.

    Results: The t-SNE generated from each ROI revealed different distinct cell populations and we report the presence of diverse tumor and immune cell populations in our samples. The (min, max) number of PhenoGraph clustered tumor cell populations in HR+/HER2-, HER2+ and TNBC Cases were (5,8) (7,9) and (5,7) respectively. Similarly, the (min, max) number of PhenoGraph clustered immune cell populations in HR+/HER2-, HER2+ and TNBC Cases were (5,8) (7,9) and (5,7) respectively. We also document the presence of inter and intra-tumor heterogeniety in expression of PD1 and PDL1 in all the tumor subtypes studied. Additionally, we report a phenotypic abnormality in the immune cell populations identified with dual or triple markers expression of the canonical CD antigens of T-Cells, B-Cells and macrophages.

    Conclusion: The current study demonstrates high-dimensional visualization with the simultaneous analysis of epithelial, immune, and stromal components using IMC can be used to explore cell populations in tumor tissue to quantify tumor heterogeneity or identification of novel clustering patterns that has potential for translational research and clinical practice. Significance: This study presents the potential of Imaging Mass Cytometry and single cell analysis algorithms in multiplex high throughput tumor tissue studies.

  • 3.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Women’s Health.
    Kaliff, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Comparison between professional sampling and self-sampling for HPV-based cervical cancer screening among postmenopausal women2018In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 142, no 3, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-sampling is as reliable as professional sampling for HPV testing and genotype detection among postmenopausal women.

    METHODS: In the present prospective cross-sectional study, women in Örebro County, Sweden, who had high-risk HPV (hrHPV) and normal cytology results in exit screening tests conducted in between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, were invited to follow-up screenings between February 24, 2015 and May 15, 2015, that included professional sampling and self-sampling. HPV genotypes were identified by a DNA-based assay that could detect 35 HPV genotypes. Findings between the different sampling methods were compared.

    RESULTS: Of 143 women who participated, 119 returned a self-sample. Completely concordant results were observed in 67 of these samples when both hrHPV and low-risk HPV genotypes were analyzed. Overall, 99 (83.2%) women had the same clinically relevant finding from both sampling methods. Twenty women had discordant hrHPV results (hrHPV detected in 10 self-samples vs 10 professionally collected samples; Cohen κ 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.80). There was no significant difference between the two sampling methods for clinically significant infections (P>0.99) or extended genotyping (P=0.827).

    CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women could be offered self-sampling devices to increase screening-program coverage while maintaining test quality.

  • 4.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Deparment of Women's Health.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Deparment of Laboratory Medicine.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Deparment of Laboratory Medicine.
    Prevalence of HPV and pathological changes among women 70 years of age, 10 years after exclusion from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program2020In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Örebro County introduced an updated screening program 2016 with primary HPV test for women over 30 years and prolonged screening, increasing the cut-off age from 56-60 to 64-70. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes and their correlation to histological changes in women, 10 years after exclusion from the screening program, due to an eventual implementation of a catch-up program including all women aged 60-70.

    METHODS: All women in Örebro County, born 1,946 (n = 1,968), were invited to a liquid-based cell sample with primary HPV screening. Samples were analyzed for hrHPV mRNA and positive samples were genotyped. hrHPV positive women were offered to do a conization.

    RESULTS: Out of 809 participants, 31 (3.8%) were hrHPV positive, of these 22 did a conization. Histologically, 5/22 (23%) had LSIL and 5/22 (23%) had HSIL. Normal histology was found in 12/22 (55%). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 33, 52, 56, and 68. Of the women with HSIL, one case of cervical cancer was confirmed in a recone biopsy after 4 months.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed considerable prevalence of hrHPV and histologically confirmed LSIL/HSIL. These data led to catch-up screening for women between 60 and 70 years when overlapping two screening strategies.

  • 5.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Dept. of Women's Health.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Dept. of Laboratory Medicine.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Dept. of Laboratory Medicine.
    HPV-based screening for cervical cancer among women 55-59 years of age2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, article id e0217108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Many cervical cancers occurs among women over 65 and prevalence of HPV genotypes in this age cohort is sparingly studied. One aim of this study was to study the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in women 55-59 years, with normal cytology when exiting the screening program. Secondly, HPV clearance as well as the value of HPV genotyping and/or liquid based cytology as triage tests for identifying histological dysplasia among women with persistent HPV was studied.

    METHODS: Women that exited the screening program with normal cytology, between the years 2012-2014, in Örebro County, Sweden, were invited to this study. A total of 2946 samples were analyzed with a broad-spectrum assay to detect both hrHPV and lrHPV in order to investigate the distribution of genotypes. In the consent group, women with a positive hrHPV test were offered a follow-up test and a cone biopsy for histological confirmation, and a follow up sample 6 months post cone.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 7.4% and 59% of them remained hrHPV positive in a follow-up test after 12 months. A total of 99 women had a cone biopsy done, where 19% showed histological dysplasia. HPV 53 was the most common genotype, and among women with histology confirmed LSIL or HSIL, HPV 31 was most common. A positive hrHPV result showed a PPV of 25% for LSIL+ and 12.5%for HSIL+. Using detection of HPV 16/18 genotypes as a triage test for hrHPV positive tests, indicated FNR for histological LSIL+ and HSIL+ of 94% and 87.5% respectively, whilst triage based on cervical cytology had a FNR of 69% for LSIL+ and 37.5% for HSIL+.

    CONCLUSION: The most common hrHPV genotypes among women 55-59 years of age were non HPV16/18 genotypes, and in this population, these genotypes represented most of the histological verified HSIL lesions. This result does not support the proposition of a HPV 16/18 triaging test after a positive hrHPV test as a marker of histological HSIL+ cervical lesions in women over 55 years of age. Similarly, cytological triage after a positive hrHPV showed no additional benefit in this population. Specific triaging tests should be validated to follow post-menopausal women with a positive hrHPV test.

  • 6.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Women’s health.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department Laboratory Medicine.
    Kaliff, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department Laboratory Medicine.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department Laboratory Medicine.
    Concordance between self sampling and professionally taken cervical hpv test-result from population based cohort study2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Ryen, Linda
    University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Flodström, Clelia
    Department of Women´s health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fadl, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Udumyan, Ruzan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Effectiveness and costs of implemented primary HPV cervical screening: a populationbased cohort studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Ryen, Linda
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Flodström, Clelia
    Department of Women's Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fadl, Helena
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Udumyen, Ruzan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Effectiveness and costs of an implemented primary HPV cervical screening programme in Sweden: A population based cohort study2022In: Preventive Medicine Reports, E-ISSN 2211-3355, Vol. 25, article id 101675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish guidelines recommend cervical screening with primary HPV for women ≥ 30 years of age. The aim of this study was to compare an implemented HPV cervical screening programme in the Region of Örebro County from September 1, 2016, with the former cytology-based screening programme.

    The clinical effectiveness by means of number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and cervical cancer cases detected in histology within 12 months after the screening test, together with cost implications were the main outcomes. Data were retrieved from the Swedish National Cervical Screening Registry between the years 2014-2015 (cytology based screening) and 2017-2018(HPV based screening), including screening information such as invitations and cytology and histology diagnoses.

    The detection rate of HSIL + among women ≥ 30 years of age was 1.2 times higher with HPV screening, but data revealed an increase in direct colposcopy referral rate by 54% and a higher percentage of irrelevant findings (≤LSIL). Screening based on HPV for women ≥ 30 has increased yearly cost from 1 to 1.3 million EUR, while increasing the number of HSIL + identified. Two thirds of the total costs are from visits for screening samples in the programme.

    HPV screening detected more cases of HSIL + compared to cytology screening among women ≥ 30 although high colposcopy rate, high rate of clinical irrelevant findings and higher costs were shown in the HPV-based screening programme, which implies that alterations in the screening programme in the future are important to consider.

  • 9.
    Botling, Johan
    et al.
    Departments of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Departments of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lohr, Miriam
    Department of Statistics, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Hellwig, Birte
    Department of Statistics, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Dept. Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Regional Cancer Center Uppsala Örebro, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden; Division of Cancer Studies, King's College Medical School, London, United Kingdom.
    Lambe, Mats G.
    Regional Cancer Center Uppsala Örebro, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglund, Anders
    Regional Cancer Center Uppsala Örebro, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekman, Simon
    Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Section of Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Section of Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Departments of 1Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    König, André
    Department of Statistics, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Fernandes, Oswaldo
    Cardiothoracic Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University Hospital. Laboratory Medicine.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University Hospital. Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Rahnenfuehrer, Jörg
    Department of Statistics, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
    Hengstler, Jan G.
    Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund, Germany.
    Micke, Patrick
    Departments of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Biomarker Discovery in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Integrating Gene Expression Profiling, Meta-analysis, and Tissue Microarray Validation2013In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 194-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Global gene expression profiling has been widely used in lung cancer research to identify clinically relevant molecular subtypes as well as to predict prognosis and therapy response. So far, the value of these multigene signatures in clinical practice is unclear, and the biologic importance of individual genes is difficult to assess, as the published signatures virtually do not overlap.

    Experimental Design: Here, we describe a novel single institute cohort, including 196 non-small lung cancers (NSCLC) with clinical information and long-term follow-up. Gene expression array data were used as a training set to screen for single genes with prognostic impact. The top 450 probe sets identified using a univariate Cox regression model (significance level P < 0.01) were tested in a meta-analysis including five publicly available independent lung cancer cohorts (n = 860).

    Results: The meta-analysis revealed 14 genes that were significantly associated with survival (P < 0.001) with a false discovery rate < 1%. The prognostic impact of one of these genes, the cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), was confirmed by use of immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays from 2 independent NSCLC cohorts, altogether including 617 NSCLC samples. Low CADM1 protein expression was significantly associated with shorter survival, with particular influence in the adenocarcinoma patient subgroup.

    Conclusions: Using a novel NSCLC cohort together with a meta-analysis validation approach, we have identified a set of single genes with independent prognostic impact. One of these genes, CADM1, was further established as an immunohistochemical marker with a potential application in clinical diagnostics. Clin Cancer Res; 19(1); 194-204. (c) 2012 AACR.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Davidsson, Sabina
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lubovac, Zelmina
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andrén, Ove
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    A miRNA expression signature that separates between normal and malignant prostate tissues2011In: Cancer Cell International, E-ISSN 1475-2867, no 11, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate genes involved in several key biological processes and thus are involved in various diseases, including cancer. In this study we aimed to identify a miRNA expression signature that could be used to separate between normal and malignant prostate tissues.

    Results

    Nine miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (p <0.00001). With the exception of two samples, this expression signature could be used to separate between the normal and malignant tissues. A cross-validation procedure confirmed the generality of this expression signature. We also identified 16 miRNAs that possibly could be used as a complement to current methods for grading of prostate tumor tissues.

    Conclusions

    We found an expression signature based on nine differentially expressed miRNAs that with high accuracy (85%) could classify the normal and malignant prostate tissues in patients from the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort. The results show that there are significant differences in miRNA expression between normal and malignant prostate tissue, indicating that these small RNA molecules might be important in the biogenesis of prostate cancer and potentially useful for clinical diagnosis of the disease.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andrén, Ove
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    Systems Biology Research Centre, Tumor Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Centre, Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Differences in microRNA expression during tumor development in the transition and peripheral zones of the prostate2013In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 13, article id 362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prostate is divided into three glandular zones, the peripheral zone (PZ), the transition zone (TZ), and the central zone. Most prostate tumors arise in the peripheral zone (70-75%) and in the transition zone (20-25%) while only 10% arise in the central zone. The aim of this study was to investigate if differences in miRNA expression could be a possible explanation for the difference in propensity of tumors in the zones of the prostate.

    Methods: Patients with prostate cancer were included in the study if they had a tumor with Gleason grade 3 in the PZ, the TZ, or both (n=16). Normal prostate tissue was collected from men undergoing cystoprostatectomy (n=20). The expression of 667 unique miRNAs was investigated using TaqMan low density arrays for miRNAs. Student's t-test was used in order to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, followed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) to study the separation of the tissues. The ADtree algorithm was used to identify markers for classification of tissues and a cross-validation procedure was used to test the generality of the identified miRNA-based classifiers.

    Results: The t-tests revealed that the major differences in miRNA expression are found between normal and malignant tissues. Hierarchical clustering and PCA based on differentially expressed miRNAs between normal and malignant tissues showed perfect separation between samples, while the corresponding analyses based on differentially expressed miRNAs between the two zones showed several misplaced samples. A classification and cross-validation procedure confirmed these results and several potential miRNA markers were identified.

    Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the major differences in the transcription program are those arising during tumor development, rather than during normal tissue development. In addition, tumors arising in the TZ have more unique differentially expressed miRNAs compared to the PZ. The results also indicate that separate miRNA expression signatures for diagnosis might be needed for tumors arising in the different zones. MicroRNA signatures that are specific for PZ and TZ tumors could also lead to more accurate prognoses, since tumors arising in the PZ tend to be more aggressive than tumors arising in the TZ.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Univ Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lubovac, Zelmina
    Syst Biol Res Ctr Bioinfomat, Univ Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andrén, Ove
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    Syst Biol Res Ctr Bioinfomat, Univ Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    Syst Biol Res Ctr Tumor Biol, Dept Life Sci, Univ Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Validation of suitable endogenous control genes for expression studies of miRNA in prostate cancer tissues2010In: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, ISSN 0165-4608, E-ISSN 1873-4456, Vol. 202, no 2, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, there is a need for correction of technical variation between experiments. This correction is most commonly performed by using endogenous control genes, which are stably expressed across samples, as reference genes for normal expression in a specific tissue. In microRNA (miRNA) studies, two types of control genes are commonly used: small nuclear RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. In this study, six different endogenous control genes for miRNA studies were investigated in prostate tissue material from the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort. The stability of the controls was investigated using two different software applications, NormFinder and BestKeeper. RNU24 was the most suitable endogenous control gene for miRNA studies in prostate tissue materials. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Manuscript before referee
  • 13.
    Dahmoun, Marju
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mid Sweden Research and Development Center, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Odmark, Inga-Stina
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Risberg, Björn
    Department of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsson, Mats G
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pavlenko, Tatjana
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mid Sweden Research and Development Center, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Apoptosis, proliferation, and sex steroid receptors in postmenopausal endometrium before and during HRT2004In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 114-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Endometrial homeostasis, indicated as the balance between apoptosis and proliferation, was studied with regard to endometrial safety and bleeding disturbances.

    Materials and Methods: The quantitatively sufficient endometrial biopsies of 92 postmenopausal women enrolled in the study were investigated. The participants were divided into two groups, each receiving a continuous combined HRT regimen with either conjugated estrogen (CE) 0.625 mg + 5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (=CE/MPA) or 17-beta-estradiol (E2) 2 mg + 1 mg norethisterone acetate (NETA) (=E2/NETA). These were evaluated according to apoptotic index (Ai) and proliferation marker Ki-67 index. Estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were also monitored, as well as endometrial thickness. Quantitative in situ techniques were used.

    Results: Ai and Ki-67 index were unchanged in epithelial glands of endometrium from baseline to second biopsy obtained after 1 year of combined continuous HRT. In stromal tissue, Ki-67 index was increased, while Ai was on the same level. PR expression in both epithelium and stroma was unchanged. Endometrial thickness was unaffected during therapy, and the histopathological evaluation showed no development of hyperplasia or carcinoma.

    Conclusions: The unaffected homeostasis in endometrial epithelium contributes to endometrial safety and is in accordance with the histopathological findings of no hyperplasia. The homeostasis of stroma was transformed to be more proliferative. Increased stromal proliferation may be of importance for stromal support of the veins and for decreasing breakthrough bleeding during HRT. The increased stromal proliferation, as well as the decreased ER expression both in epithelium and stroma, could be an effect of progesterone.

  • 14.
    Davidsson, Sabina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; A Member of the Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership (TopCaP), Örebro, Sweden .
    Mölling, Paula
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rider, Jennifer R.
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; A Member of the Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership (TopCaP), Örebro, Sweden.
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; A Member of the Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership (TopCaP), Örebro, Sweden.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Söderquist, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Andrén, Ove
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; A Member of the Transdisciplinary Prostate Cancer Partnership (TopCaP), Örebro, Sweden.
    Erratum to: Frequency and typing of Propionibacterium acnes in prostate tissue obtained from men with and without prostate cancer2016In: Infectious Agents and Cancer, ISSN 1750-9378, E-ISSN 1750-9378, Vol. 11, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Davidsson, Sabina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mölling, Paula
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rider, Jennifer R.
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden .
    Andersson, Swen-Olof
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Söderquist, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Andrén, Ove
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Frequency and typing of Propionibacterium acnes in prostate tissue obtained from men with and without prostate cancer2016In: Infectious Agents and Cancer, ISSN 1750-9378, E-ISSN 1750-9378, Vol. 11, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Western countries but the exact pathogenic mechanism of the disease is still largely unknown. An infectious etiology and infection-induced inflammation has been suggested to play a role in prostate carcinogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes has been reported as the most prevalent microorganism in prostatic tissue. We investigated the frequency and types of P. acnes isolated from prostate tissue samples from men with prostate cancer and from control patients without the disease.

    Methods: We included 100 cases and 50 controls in this study. Cases were men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and controls were men undergoing surgery for bladder cancer without any histological findings of prostate cancer. Six biopsies taken from each patient's prostate gland at the time of surgery were used for cultivation and further characterization of P. acnes.

    Results: The results revealed that P. acnes was more common in men with prostate carcinoma than in controls, with the bacteria cultured in 60 % of the cases vs. 26 % of the controls (p = 0.001). In multivariable analyses, men with P. acnes had a 4-fold increase in odds of a prostate cancer diagnosis after adjustment for age, calendar year of surgery and smoking status (OR: 4.46; 95 % CI: 1.93-11.26). To further support the biologic plausibility for a P. acnes infection as a contributing factor in prostate cancer development, we subsequently conducted cell-based experiments. P. acnes- isolates were co-cultured with the prostate cell line PNT1A. An increased cell proliferation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in infected cells was observed.

    Conclusion: The present study provides further evidence for a role of P. acnes in prostate cancer development.

  • 16.
    Davidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Departments of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Danielsen, Arild
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Viale, Guiseppe
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan, Italy.
    Olofsson, Jan
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Dell'Orto, Patrizia
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Caterina
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan, Italy.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Departments of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hellquist, Henrik B.
    Department of Pathology II, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Positive identification in situ of mRNA expression of IL-6, and IL-12, and the chemotactic cytokine RANTES in patients with chronic sinusitis and polypoid disease. Clinical relevance and relation to allergy1996In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 116, no 4, p. 604-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 12 (IL-12), and the chemoattractant chemokine RANTES were studied in ethmoidal mucosa, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The 49 patients had chronic sinusitis or nasal/paranasal polyposis, and some also allergy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates RANTES and IL-12 on mRNA level in human sinonasal mucosa in situ. mRNA for IL-6, IL-12 and RANTES were detected in 2, 8 and 6 patients with chronic sinusitis, respectively, and in mucosa from patients with polyposis a positive expression was observed in 4, 14 and 10 cases. There were no statistically significant differences. Analysing the entire group of 49 patients, disregarding type of mucosal disease, the number of patients with positive RANTES was significantly higher than that for IL-6. Similarly, IL-12 positivity was more frequently expressed than IL-6. mRNA for IL-6 was expressed in only 2 of the allergic patients. The cytokine production studied thus seems to be unrelated to the clinically defined entities. There is thus a local production in human diseased sinonasal mucosa of RANTES, as well as of IL-6 and IL-12. The local production of RANTES is an important prerequisite for recruitment and migration of inflammatory cells into the tissue. IL-12 is a co-stimulator of antigen-specific responses of established T helper 1 (Th1) clones, and regulates the responsiveness of the clones to a number of T cell growth factors. The study supports a shift towards Th1 cells in these disease entities.

  • 17.
    Davidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden .
    Hellquist, H. B.
    Allergen-induced changes of B-cell phenotypes in patients with allergic rhinitis1994In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 184-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated sub-populations of B-lymphocytes in nasal mucosa and peripheral blood of 17 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (birch pollen) and 10 controls. The study included provocation with allergen during the non-pollen season, during which no participant used medication. Samples were also taken during the pollen season. Subsets of B-cells as expressed by different CD antigens were investigated by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections and by flow cytometry of peripheral blood. Nasal CD23+ B-cells decreased in allergic patients during provocation, indicating that mature virgin CD23+ B-cells switch into a memory B-cell phenotype with loss of CD23 expression. This indicates differentiation towards cells that can represent a local source for IgE synthesis. No decrease was observed during the pollen season when the patients used medication. Serum IgE was significantly higher in allergic patients on all occasions. The observed up-regulation of CD40 expression on peripheral blood B-cells in allergic patients during the pollen season clearly indicate B-cell activation. Furthermore, a relative increase of CD19+ B-cells was observed in peripheral blood during provocation. Upregulation (by IL-4) of CD40 on B-cells which then may be stimulated by gp39 (CD40 ligand) can constitute an early and important event in the IgE-mediated allergic reaction.

  • 18.
    Dorofte, L
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Davidsson, S
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, G
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, M
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Reliability of histological subtyping of penile squamous cell carcinoma in assessing HPV tumour status2022In: Virchows Archiv, ISSN 0945-6317, E-ISSN 1432-2307, Vol. 481, no Suppl. 1, p. S168-S168, article id PS-26-003Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & objectives: HPV-positive penile tumours have been associated with higher survival rates. However, HPV analysis is unavailable in many low-income countries. We investigated if histological assessment of penile squamous cell carcinoma subtypes can replace HPV testing in determining HPV-related/non-HPV-related tumour status.

    Methods: We reviewed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue from 345 penile cancer patients, surgically treated between 2009 and 2018 at Örebro University Hospital, Sweden. The histological subtype of squamous cell carcinoma was assessed according to the WHO criteria and ISUP recommendations. HPV-DNA genotyping was performed using the PCR method Anyplex II HPV28. Concordance was assessed by calculating Cohen’s kappa (κ).

    Results: A good concordance was found between histological subtype of squamous cell carcinoma and HPV tumour-status with a Cohen’s kappa (κ) of 0,72 corresponding to 86,6% agreement. Of the 46 discordant cases, five had HPV-related histology (mixed subtypes) but were HPV-negative. The remaining 41 cases had non-HPV- related histology (85% usual subtype, 15% mixed subtypes) but were HPV-positive. Noteworthy is that in 21 of the cases with non-HPV-related histology, foci of undifferentiated PeIN was found. In addition, four cases with both undifferentiated PeIN and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in the tumour margin, 14 cases with both differentiated PeIN and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and two cases without preneoplastic lesion were identified.

    Conclusion: Good concordance between histological subtype of penile squamous cell carcinoma and HPV genotyping shows that when necessary, histological assessment is a good alternative, at least in less resourceful settings, to PCR-based HPV analysis in determining if penile tumours are HPV or non-HPV-related. Discordant cases most likely depend on subjectivity in histological assessment but can also suggest a HPV infection in a non-HPV-related tumour.

  • 19.
    Dorofte, Luiza
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Grélaud, Diane
    Department of Clinical Genetics and Pathology, Skåne University Hospital and Regional Laboratories, Malmö, Sweden.
    Fiorentino, Michelangelo
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Giunchi, Francesca
    Pathology, Istituto Di Ricovero E Cure a Carattere Scientifico, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico Sant'Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.
    Ricci, Costantino
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Pathology Unit, Maggiore Hospital, AUSL Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschini, Tania
    Pathology Unit, Maggiore Hospital, AUSL Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Riefolo, Mattia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Pathology Unit, Maggiore Hospital, AUSL Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Davidsson, Sabina
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Urology.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Urology.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Low level of interobserver concordance in assessing histological subtype and tumor grade in patients with penile cancer may impair patient care2022In: Virchows Archiv, ISSN 0945-6317, E-ISSN 1432-2307, Vol. 480, no 4, p. 879-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation between penile squamous cell carcinoma patients who can benefit from limited organ-sparing surgery and those at significant risk of lymph node metastasis is based on histopathological prognostic factors including histological grade and tumor histological subtype. We examined levels of interobserver and intraobserver agreement in assessment of histological subtype and grade in 207 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. The cases were assessed by seven pathologists from three hospitals located in Sweden and Italy. There was poor to moderate concordance in assessing both histological subtype and grade, with Fleiss kappas of 0.25 (range: 0.02-0.48) and 0.23 (range: 0.07-0.55), respectively. When choosing HPV-associated and non-HPV-associated subtypes, interobserver concordance ranged from poor to good, with a Fleiss kappa value of 0.36 (range: 0.02-0.79). A re-review of the slides by two of the pathologists showed very good intraobserver concordance in assessing histological grade and subtype, with Cohen's kappa values of 0.94 and 0.91 for grade and 0.95 and 0.84 for subtype. Low interobserver concordance could lead to undertreatment and overtreatment of many patients with penile cancer, and brings into question the utility of tumor histological subtype and tumor grade in determining patient treatment in pT1 tumors. 

  • 20.
    Dreifaldt, Mats
    et al.
    Departments of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Souza, Domingos S. R.
    Departments of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Loesch, Andrzej
    Departments of Inflammation, UCL Medical School, London, United Kingdom.
    Muddle, John R.
    UCL Medical School, London, United Kingdom.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Filbey, Derek
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Norgren, Lars
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Dashwood, Michael R.
    UCL Medical School, London, United Kingdom.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The ‘‘no-touch’’ harvesting technique for vein grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery preserves an intact vasa vasorum2011In: The Internet Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, ISSN 1524-0274, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the impact of vein graft harvesting technique on structure and function of vasa vasorum.

    Methods: Paired segments of great saphenous veins harvested either with conventional harvesting technique or no-touch technique were obtained from 9 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Quantitative measurements, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry, were performed. Ultrastructural analyses of vasa vasorum were performed with electron microscopy. Video footage of superficial vasa vasorum in an implanted saphenous vein graft harvested with the no-touch technique was captured during a coronary bypass operation and is presented for online viewing.

    Results: The total area of vasa vasorum in vein grafts harvested with the conventional technique was significantly reduced both in the media (P¼.007) and in the adventitia (P¼.014) compared with vein grafts harvested with the no-touch technique. Ultrastructural findings indicated that the no-touch technique preserved an intact vasa vasorum whereas the conventional technique did not. Video footage showed retrograde flow in the vasa vasorum in vein graft harvested with the no-touch technique.

    Conclusions: These findings showthat the no-touch technique for saphenous vein graft harvesting for coronary bypass grafting preserves an intact vasa vasorum. This could represent one of the mechanisms underlying the improved patency of saphenous vein grafts harvested with this technique.

  • 21.
    Falck, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sandra
    Carlsson, Jessica
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    Loss of glutathione peroxidase 3 expression is correlated with epigenetic mechanisms in endometrial adenocarcinoma2010In: Cancer Cell International, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 10, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) is one of the key enzymes in the cellular defense against oxidative stress and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, (MET) has been suggested to be influenced by the GPX3 gene expression. In a previous microarray study performed by our group, Gpx3 was identified as a potential biomarker for rat endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC), since the expression was highly downregulated in rat EAC tumors. Herein, we have investigated the mRNA expression and Gpx3 and Met in rat EAC by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the methylation status of Gpx3. In addition we have examined the expression of GPX3 and MET in 30 human EACs of different FIGO grades and 20 benign endometrial tissues. We found that the expression of GPX3 was uniformly down regulated in both rat and human EAC, regardless of tumor grade or histopathological subtype, implying that the down-regulation is an early event in EAC. The rate of Gpx3 promoter methylation reaches 91%, where biallelic methylation was present in 90% of the methylated tumors. The expression of the Met oncogene was slightly upregulated in EACs that showed loss of expression of Gpx3, but no tumor suppressor activity of Gpx3/GPX3 was detected. Preliminary results also suggest that the production of H2O2 is higher in rat endometrial tumors with down-regulated Gpx3 expression. A likely consequence of loss of GPX3 protein function would be a higher amount of ROS in the cancer cell environment. Thus, the results suggest important clinical implications of the GPX3 expression in EAC, both as a molecular biomarker for EAC and as a potential target for therapeutic interventions.

  • 22.
    Fergedal, May
    et al.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Åström, Maria
    Department of Internal Medicine, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tidefelt, Ulf
    Department of Internal Medicine, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Differences in CD14 and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase positivity and relation to prognosis in AML1998In: Leukemia research: a Forum for Studies on Leukemia and Normal Hemopoiesis, ISSN 0145-2126, E-ISSN 1873-5835, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) and CD14 expression, used for determination of monocytic cells, were compared and related to prognosis in 65 AML patients. Bone marrow aspiration material from AML patients has been used for the cytochemistry as well as flow cytometry. All non-erythroid cells have been included in the evaluation in both methods. 17/65 cases showed at least 15% difference between the proportion CD14 and ANAE positive cells. Cases with 20% or more CD14 positivity had poorer prognosis. For FAB classes M0-M3, presence of 10% or more CD14 was negative for overall survival (P = 0.01). ANAE did not show significant prognostic influence.

  • 23.
    Fernandes, Oswaldo J. C. B.
    et al.
    Departments of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Almgren, Stig-Olof
    Departments of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Thaning, Lars
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Filbey, Derek
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helsing, Martin
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Anders
    Centre for Clinical Research, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Souza, Domingos
    Departments of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Prognostic factors for the survival of surgically treated patients for non-small cell lung cancer2003In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 338-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival and outcome rates of 284 patients who underwent surgical treatment for non-small cell lung cancer were assessed retrospectively. Resectability rate was 94.1%, hospital mortality 3.9% (n = 11) and the mortality rates in patients who underwent pneumonectomy or lobectomy were 8.9% and 0.6%, respectively. The overall 5-year survival was 43.6%. Female gender, earlier stages of disease and a complete resection were strongly predictive for a long-term survival. Women in stage IA disease had a 5-year survival rate of 92.7%. The 5-year survival rate for patients in stages IIIA and N2 disease who underwent a complete resection was 21.9%, and 9% for those who did not undergo a complete resection. It is concluded that the best surgical results were observed in women who were operated on at an early stage of disease. A complete resection also contributed to a better outcome, even for patients in stage IIIA and N2 disease.

  • 24.
    Gebregzabher, Endale
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry, St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ethiopia.
    Seifu, Daniel
    Department of Biochemistry, Division of Basic Sciences, University of Global Health Equity, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu
    Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Bokretsion, Yonas
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Bekele, Abebe
    Deputy Vice Chancellor, University of Global Health Equity, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Abebe, Markos
    Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Detection of High- and Low-Risk HPV DNA in Archived Breast Carcinoma Tissues from Ethiopian Women2021In: International Journal of Breast Cancer, ISSN 2090-3170, E-ISSN 2090-3189, Vol. 2021, article id 2140151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is involved in the development of cancer of the cervix, mouth and throat, anus, penis, vulva, or vagina, but it has not been much considered as a cause of breast cancer. Recently, a number of investigations have linked breast cancer to viral infections. High-risk HPV types, predominantly HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59, are established as carcinogens in humans. In this study we aimed to detect 19 high-risk and 9 low-risk HPVs from archived breast tumor tissue among Ethiopian women.

    Methods: In this study, 75 breast cancer patients from Tikur Anbassa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) were included. HPV detection and genotyping were done using the novel Anyplex™ II HPV28 Detection Assay at the Orebro University Hospital, Sweden. The Anyplex™ II PCR System detects 19 high-risk HPV types (16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 69, 73, and 82) and 9 low-risk HPV types (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, and 70). IHC for p16 was done using an automated system, the Dako Autostainer Link.

    Results: Out of the 75 valid tests, two were found to be positive (2.7%) for HPV. One of the cases was positive for the high-risk HPV16 genotype while the other was positive both for the high-risk HPV39 and the low-risk HPV6. The cell cycle protein p16 was highly expressed in the case positive for the high-risk HPV16, but it was not expressed in the case positive for HPV39.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of HPV is low in Ethiopian breast cancer patients, but the role played by HPV in breast carcinogenesis among Ethiopian breast cancer patients cannot be commented based on these observations.

  • 25.
    Graflund, M.
    et al.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sigurdardóttir, S.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    HPV-DNA, vascular space invasion, and their impact on the clinical outcome in early-stage cervical carcinomas2014In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 896-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was designed to analyze the relationship of human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA, microvessel density, and their impact on clinical outcome in early cervical carcinoma. HPV-DNA was evaluated in 171 cases of cervical carcinoma treated from 1965 to 1990. In 110 cases, the analyses could be performed. A polymerase chain reaction technique was used on paraffin-embedded specimens obtained before the start of therapy. HPV-DNA of any type was detected in 78% (86/110) of all evaluable tumors. HPV16 was the predominant type and was detected in 56% (62/110), HPV18 in 8% (9/110), and HPV35 in 21% (23/110). Patients with tumors containing HPV16 or HPV18 were significantly (P = 0.011) younger than patients with tumors not containing either of these two subtypes. Vascular space invasion and lymph node metastases were observed more frequently in tumors expressing HPV16 and HPV18 (P = 0.002, P = 0.047) than in tumors negative for these HPV strains. Tumors containing HPV16 and HPV18 were significantly (P = 0.012) larger and more frequently (P = 0.005) associated with higher FIGO stages. The cancer-specific survival rate was lower for patients with HPV16- and HPV18-positive tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant. The microvessel density was a non-significant prognostic factor. The overall 5-year survival rate of the complete series was 91%. It was concluded that HPV-DNA was a prognostic factor in early-stage cervical cancer and was associated with the age of the patient, vascular space invasion, lymph node metastases, tumor size, and FIGO stage.

  • 26.
    Graflund, M.
    et al.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sigurdardóttir, S.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Relation between HPV-DNA and expression of p53, bcl-2, p21WAF-1, MIB-1, HER-2/neu and DNA ploidy in early cervical carcinoma: correlation with clinical outcome2004In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 169-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relation between the expression of p53, bcl-2, p21WAF1, MIB-1, HER-2/neu, DNA ploidy and HPV16 or 18 infections with clinical parameters. HPV-DNA was evaluated in 171 early cervical carcinomas treated from 1965 to 1990 and detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) on paraffin specimens obtained before therapy was started. HPV-DNA of any type was detected in 78% (86/110) of all tumors, HPV16 was the predominant type and was seen in 56% (62/110), HPV18 in 8% (9/110) and HPV35 in 21% (23/110). Patients with HPV16 or 18 were significantly (P=0.011) younger than patients with tumors not containing these two HPV subtypes. Lymph node metastases were seen more frequently (P=0.047) in tumors expressing HPV16 or 18. Tumor size was associated with the HPV-type. The frequency of DNA aneuploidy was lower in high-risk HPV tumors than in tumors with other HPV subtypes (P=0.014). MIB-1 expression was highly significantly (P=0.00007) associated with presence of HPV16 or 18. The cancer-specific survival rate was lower for patients with HPV16 and 18 positive tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant. The overall 5-year survival rate of the complete series was 91%. In conclusion, the HPV DNA subtype was a prognostic factor in early stage cervical cancer and it was associated with age, positive lymph nodes, tumor size, DNA ploidy and the proliferation marker MIB-1.

  • 27.
    Graflund, Marianne
    et al.
    Departments of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Departments of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bryne, M.
    Department of Pathology, Institute of Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The prognostic value of a histologic grading system, DNA profile, and MIB-1 expression in early stages of cervical squamous cell carcinomas2002In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 149-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the prognostic importance of a new grading system focusing on the invasive tumor front, DNA profile, and the proliferation marker MIB-1. A complete geographic series of 172 women treated with radical hysterectomy (Wertheim-Meigs) for FIGO stage I-II cervical carcinomas was the target population. The analyses were performed on 141 (82%) squamous cell carcinomas of the complete series. During the period of observation (mean 222 months), 17 recurrences (12.1%) were encountered. Prognostic factors for disease-free survival were lymph node status (P < 0.000001), radical surgical margins (P = 0.00004), and tumor size (P = 0.002). The complete score of the invasive front grading system (IFG), and the individual scores of two variables-pattern of invasion and host response-were all significantly (P = 0.002, P = 0.007, P = 0.0001) associated with pelvic lymph node metastases. Host response was the single most important factor in the IFG system, and it was superior to the complete score in predicting lymph node metastases. The total IFG score was also a significant (P = 0.003) prognostic factor for disease-free survival. DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction, and MIB-1 expression were nonsignificant factors in predicting pelvic lymph node metastases and disease-free survival of the patient. The IFG in the original or modified versions could predict low- and high-risk groups of tumors and therefore be of value in treatment planning for these patients.

  • 28.
    Graflund, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden .
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hussein, A.
    Department of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bryne, M.
    Department of Pathology, Institute of Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The prognostic value of histopathologic grading parameters and microvessel density in patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix2002In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic importance of clinical and histopathologic factors, including malignancy grading systems (MGS), partial index (PI), invasive front grading (IFG), and microvessel density. A complete geographic series of 172 early stage (FIGO I-II) cervical carcinomas treated by Wertheim-Meigs surgery during the period 1965-1990 was studied. The patients were followed up for at least 10 years. Significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival were lymph node status (P < 0.0000001), radical surgical margins (P = 0.00003), and tumor size (P = 0.008). In a multivariate Cox analysis it was shown that lymph node status was the single most important prognostic factor with regard to disease-free survival. The total MGS and the PI scores were highly significantly (P = 0.0001) associated with pelvic lymph node metastases and disease-free survival rate in squamous cell carcinomas. The MGS and the PI systems were superior to the IFG system in predicting lymph node metastases. The total IFG score was also a statistically highly significant (P = 0.003) prognostic factor with regard to disease-free survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Microvessel density was a nonsignificant prognostic factor. There was a highly significant (P = 0.002) association between vascular space invasion of tumor cells and the presence of lymph node metastases. In conclusion, histopathologic malignancy grading systems provide valuable prognostic information in patients with early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix.

  • 29.
    Graflund, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Immunohistochemical expression of p53, bcl-2, and p21(WAF1/CIP1) in early cervical carcinoma: correlation with clinical outcome2002In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of p53, bcl-2, and p21(WAF1/CIP1) immunoreactivity as predictors of pelvic lymph node metastases (LNM), recurrences, and death due to the disease in early stage (FIGO I-II) cervical carcinomas. FIGO stage, type of histopathology, and tumor grade were also evaluated in this series of patients treated by radical hysterectomy (Wertheim-Meigs) between 1965 and 1990. A total of 172 patients were included. A tumor was regarded as positive when more than 30% of the neoplastic cells exhibited immunoreactivity. Positive immunostaining was found in 8.9% for p53, in 43.5% for bcl-2, and in 25.0% for p21(WAF1/CIP1). None of them was able to predict LNM or clinical outcome. Presence of LNM, tumor recurrence, and death from disease were significantly associated with the FIGO stage (P = 0.014, P = 0.009, and P = 0.001, respectively). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 91.6% and the overall survival rate was 90.5%. It was concluded that immunohistochemically detected p53, bcl-2, and p21(WAF1/CIP1) appeared to be of no predictive value with regard to LNM, tumor recurrences, or long-term survival in early cervical carcinomas.

  • 30.
    Graflund, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    MIB-1, p53, bcl-2, and WAF-1 expression in pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumors in early stage cervical carcinomas: correlation with clinical outcome2002In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, E-ISSN 1791-2423, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 1041-1047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A complete series of 40 cervical carcinomas with pelvic lymph node metastases were analysed immunohistochemically for prognostic markers. The aims of this study were to examine whether the detection of MIB-1, p53, bcl-2, and WAF-1 could be used as a prognostic marker for tumor recurrence and survival rate. During the period of observation (mean 222, range 72-360 months) 22 (55%) recurrences were encountered and 20 patients died of the disease. There were 35 squamous cell carcinomas (87.5%), 2 adenosquamous carcinomas (5.0%), and 3 pure adenocarcinomas (7.5%). One tumor (2.5%) was well differentiated, 12 tumors (30%) were moderately differentiated, and 27 tumors (67.5%) were poorly differentiated. The primary tumor grade (P=0.037) and radicality of the surgical margins (P=0.021) were significant prognostic factors with regard to tumor recurrence. The site and number of lymph nodes with metastases had no prognostic value. P53, bcl-2, and WAF-1 were not predictive factors for recurrences or the cancer-specific survival rate. The concordant expression of WAF-1 in the primary tumor and in lymph node metastases was lower than for p53 and bcl-2. The proliferative activity (MIB-1) seemed to be lower in tumor cells metastasized to the pelvic lymph nodes than in cells of the primary tumor. Expression of MIB-1 in lymph nodes was predictive of disease-free survival in both univariate and multivariate proportional hazard Cox analyses.

  • 31.
    Hadgu, Endale
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Seifu, Daniel
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu
    Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Bokretsion, Yonas
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Bekele, Abebe
    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Abebe, Markos
    Armauer Hansen research Institute (AHRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Sollie, Thomas
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Distribution and characteristics of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer among women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A cross sectional study2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 5, article id e0232519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the role of androgen receptor (AR) in the biology of breast cancer is an emerging area of research. There are compelling evidences that AR expression may be used to further refine breast cancer molecular subtyping with prognostic and therapeutic implications. Many studies indicated co-expression of AR with the hormonal receptors in breast cancer has a favorable prognosis. AR is also investigated by many researchers as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of breast cancer. Studies on the frequency and distribution of AR in breast cancer among Africans is barely available. Given the heightened interest to understand its role in breast cancer, we determined AR expression and assessed its association with clinicopathological parameters among Ethiopian women. In this study, 112 newly diagnosed patient with invasive breast cancer at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital were enrolled. Immunohistochemical assessment of AR, ER, PR, Ki67 and HER2 were performed using tissue microarrays (TMA) constructed from their primary tumor block. Out of the 112 participants, 91 (81%) were positive for AR expression and the remaining 21 participants (19%) were negative for AR expression. Expression of AR in ER+, HER2+ and TNBC cases were 93%, 83% and 48% respectively. Our study reveals AR is expressed in a significant number of breast cancers patients and this may indicate that breast cancers cases in Ethiopia have favorable prognosis and could benefit from progresses in AR targeted treatments. Since AR expression has important consequences on the prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, further studies with an increased number of participants is necessary to confirm our reports.

  • 32.
    Hadgu, Endale
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Seifu, Daniel
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu
    Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Bokretsion, Yonas
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Bekele, Abebe
    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Abebe, Markos
    Armauer Hansen research Institute (AHRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Sollie, Thomas
    Dept of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Merajver, Sofia D.
    University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor MI, USA.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa2018In: BMC Women's Health, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several morphological and molecular subtypes. Widely accepted molecular classification system uses assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation marker Ki67. Few studies have been conducted on the incidence and molecular types of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies mainly from Western and Central Africa, showed breast cancer to occur at younger ages and to present with aggressive features, such as high-grade, advanced stage and triple-negative phenotype (negative for ER, PR and HER2). Limited data from East Africa including Ethiopia however shows hormone receptor negative tumors to account for a lower proportion of all breast cancers than has been reported from elsewhere in Africa.

    METHODS: In this study from Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, 114 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 were enrolled. ER, PR, Ki67 and HER2 receptor status were assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays. FISH was used for assessment of gene amplification in all equivocal tumor samples and for confirmation in HER2-enriched cases.

    RESULTS: The distribution of molecular subtypes was: Luminal A: 40%; Luminal B: 26%; HER2-enriched: 10%; TNBC: 23%. ER were positive in 65% of all tumors and 43% the cases were positive for PR. There was statistically significant difference in median age at diagnosis between the molecular subtypes (P < 0.05). There was a bimodal distribution of molecular subtypes in different age ranges with Luminal B subtype being more common at younger ages (median = 36) and Luminal A subtype more prevalent at older ages (median = 42). There were no statistically significant differences in tumor grade, histology, and stage between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    CONCLUSION: The present study detected Luminal A breast cancer to be the most common subtype and reveals a relatively low rate of hormone receptor negative and TNBC. Our findings and results from other East African studies suggest geographic variability in the distribution of the molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Africa and hence have important clinical and policy implications for breast cancer control and treatment in Ethiopia.

  • 33.
    Helenius, Gisela
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kaliff, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Preliminary data from a Swedish self-sampling study in postmenopausal women2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An updated screening algorithm was introduced in Sweden 2015. Primary HPV test for women >30 years old and a prolonged screening with the last test after 64 years of age were some of the changes. In the region of Örebro County, the previous cut-off age was 60 years and with a screening interval of 5 years, women left their last sample when they were 55-59 years old. In the shift between two screening programs, a group of women, 60-64 years old, that left the program 5-10 years ago were now included in the new screening. For re-inclusion, a two year long program was formed to catch-up this group of women and screen them according to the new screening algorithm. At the same time a research project investigating self-sampling was launched. At the same time as the women were invited for a last screening sample they were also asked to participate in a study where they should take a vaginal self-test up to one week after their ordinary screening sample was taken by a midwife.

    Method: Postmenopausal women between 64-70 years was included in the study. HPV status in samples from midwife sampling (MS) was compared to self-sampling (SS) samples. HPV was analyzed using HPV Aptima and all HPV positive samples, independent of sampling method, was triaged with cytology and followed-up according to national guidelines.

    Results: So far, 585 women with paired samples have been included in the study. In the MS, 4% of the women are positive for hrHPV compared to 11% in the SS group. In 486/585 women, the results of the two samples are concordant. Among the non-concordant samples (13%), 62% were positive in SS and negative in MS. The opposite, negative in SS and positive in MS were seen in 4% of the samples. Among the MS negative samples, 32% were invalid in SS. Cytology was used as a triage test for HPV positive women, both for MS and SS. Of 23 hrHPV positive, 18 had normal cytology, 2 ASCUS, 1 LSIL and 1 HSIL. In the samples with abnormal cytology, 4/5 were hrHPV positive in both SS and MS. One sample was positive in SS but negative in MS.

    Discussion: In this age group, more women are hrHPV positive in SS compared to MS. This is in line with what other have seen. Among the very few hrHPV positive samples with abnormal cytology, the majority was hrHPV positive in both MS and SS. But since cytology is a poor triage marker in this age group clinical follow-up is needed before the effectiveness of the both sampling methods can be concluded.

  • 34.
    Helenius, Gisela
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ottestig, Elin
    Kaliff, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Distribution of HPV-genotypes in a Swedish screening population2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hellman, Urban
    et al.
    Public Health and Clinical Medicin, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Engström-Laurent, Anna
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cajander, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Infectious diseases.
    Dorofte, Luiza
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Laurent, Claude
    Department of Clinical Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Presence of hyaluronan in lung alveoli in severe Covid-19: an opening for new treatment options?2020In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 295, no 45, p. 15418-15422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe corona virus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is characterized by inflammation of the lungs with increasing respiratory impairment. In fatal Covid-19, lungs at autopsy have been filled with a clear liquid jelly. However, the nature of this finding has not yet been determined.The aim of the study was to demonstrate if the lungs of fatal Covid-19 contain hyaluronan as it is associated with inflammation and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may have the appearance of liquid jelly.Lung tissue obtained at autopsy from three deceased Covid-19 patients was processed for hyaluronan histochemistry using a direct staining method and compared with staining in normal lung tissue.Stainings confirmed that hyaluronan is obstructing alveoli with presence in exudate and plugs, as well as in thickened perialveolar interstitium. In contrast, normal lungs only showed hyaluronan in intact alveolar walls and perivascular tissue. This is the first study to confirm prominent hyaluronan exudates in the alveolar spaces of Covid-19 lungs, supporting the notion that the macromolecule is involved in ARDS caused by SARS-CoV-2. The present finding may open up for new treatment options in severe Covid-19, aiming at reducing the presence and production of hyaluronan in the lungs.

  • 36.
    Hellquist, H. B.
    et al.
    Departments of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Pathology II, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahl, F.
    Departments of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Departments of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, C.
    Departments of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the palate1994In: Histopathology, ISSN 0309-0167, E-ISSN 1365-2559, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 178-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hellquist, H. B.
    et al.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nasal memory T lymphocytes capable of producing IL-4 in the allergic reaction1992In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 47, no 4 Pt 1, p. 334-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the presence of memory T cells in the nasal mucosa of allergic patients. The demonstration of CD4+/CD29+ (CD4+/CD45RO+) T lymphocytes, which are capable of interleukin-4 production, can indicate a complementary cell-mediated regulatory mechanism for mast cell proliferation and IgE synthesis in human nasal allergy. No substantial IgE production can be obtained in the absence of IL-4. Therefore, the existence of IL-4 producing cells on site in the nasal mucosa of allergic subjects probably implies a complementary interaction between cytokines and different immunocompetent nasal cells in the regulation of B cells and IgE synthesis.

  • 38.
    Hellquist, H. B.
    et al.
    Department of Pathology II, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Department of Pathology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Viale, G.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan, Italy.
    Dell'Orto, P.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan, Italy.
    Davidsson, Åke
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olofsson, J.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway .
    Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in salivary gland neoplasms is unrelated to the expression of mRNA for natural killer cell stimulatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-121996In: Virchows Archiv, ISSN 0945-6317, E-ISSN 1432-2307, Vol. 429, no 2-3, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certain cytokines are involved in the generation of natural killer (NK) cells and participate in the regulation of the proto-oncogene bcl-2. We aimed to study the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-5, the composition of the tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and the expression of bcl-2 in 14 benign and malignant human parotid tumours. T IL were predominantly composed of T lymphocytes and NK cells. We found evidence for the homing of T cells, and for generation of NK cells in the vicinity of the tumours. mRNA for IL-2 and IL-12, were identified but IL-4 mRNA was not found. The cytokine profiles and the composition of TIL of the two tumour categories were indistinguishable, suggesting that these host-response variables do not explain the differences in biological behaviour of these particular tumours. The results support a shift towards Th 1 (T helper 1) cells and interferon-gamma production, and that IL-12 also in vivo may play an important role in the regulatory interaction between innate resistance and adaptive immunity in tumour diseases. Most infiltrating lymphocytes showed strong expression of bcl-2; an interesting observation with regard to lymphocytic apoptosis in neoplastic diseases. The immunoreactivity for the bcl-2 protein varied considerably between and within tumours, and almost all benign tumours showed strong bcl-2 positively whereas several of the malignant tumours showed weak or absent staining. The variable expression of bcl-2 protein suggests a different susceptibility of tumour cells to apoptosis. The results also indicate that bcl-2 cannot pla a major role as protective agent in the specific apoptotic pathway induced by NK cells.

  • 39.
    Hellquist, H. B.
    et al.
    Örebro Medical Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro Medical Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rudblad, S.
    Ekedahl, C.
    Davidsson, Åke
    Örebro Medical Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Activated T cells in the nasal mucosa of patients with grass-pollen allergy. A pilot study1992In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six patients with grass-pollen allergy were provoked with water-soluble grass pollen until a pronounced allergic reaction occurred. This was performed outside the grass-pollen season, and the allergen was administered on the edge of the inferior turbinate. Biopsies were taken both before provocation and during the reaction, 15-30 minutes after provocation. The nasal population of immunohistochemically positive cells for HLA-DR, CD1, interleukin-2-receptor, IgE, CD4 and CD8 were studied. There was a marked increase of IL2-R-positive cells (activated T lymphocytes) in the nasal mucosa after provocation, whilst the other cell populations approximately remained unchanged (apart from a certain increase of IgE). The increase of activated T lymphocytes may imply that certain subsets of T cells play a role in the allergic response, and that the role of helper T cells very likely is much more complex than the regulation of mast cells and eosinophils. The concomitant presence of Langerhans' cells (CD1-positive) and activated T lymphocytes may indicate a possible association on site between an antigen-presenting cell and both effector as well as memory cells in allergic reactions.

  • 40.
    Hellquist, Henrik B.
    et al.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Örebro Medical Center Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Salivary duct carcinoma: a highly aggressive salivary gland tumour with overexpression of c-erbB-21994In: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 172, no 1, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinicopathological and immunocytochemical features of nine cases of salivary duct carcinoma are described. This relatively rare tumour, which only recently has been widely recognized as a separate entity, is highly malignant and caused the death in eight of the patients. The tumour cells are arranged in cribriform and solid growth patterns, where the solid tumour nests frequently have comedo necrosis, and a fibrous, often sclerotic, stroma is present. The infiltrating desmoplasmic component and the diffuse invasive growth into adjacent adipose parotid tissue have similarities to ductal breast carcinoma. Immunocytochemical investigation of salivary duct carcinoma showed constant overexpression of c-erbB-2 as detected by membrane accentuation, and high proliferative activity as detected by nuclear positivity for MIB 1 (Ki-67). Changes in the expression of p53 and retinoblastoma gene product do not constitute a constant event in salivary duct carcinoma. A few of the tumours showed scattered cells with distinct nuclear positivity for both progesterone and oestrogen receptors. We emphasize that this highly malignant salivary gland tumour has a characteristic morphology, may not be as rare as previously considered, and that prompt and aggressive therapy is needed.

  • 41.
    Jahnson, S.
    et al.
    Örebro Medical Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Risberg, B.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro Medical Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Westman, G.
    Bergström, R.
    Pedersen, J.
    p53 and Rb immunostaining in locally advanced bladder cancer: relation to prognostic variables and predictive value for the local response to radical radiotherapy1995In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, E-ISSN 1873-7560, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between known prognostic variables and altered immunostaining for the nuclear proteins retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 was studied in a homogeneous series of locally advanced bladder cancer. The predictive value of this immunostaining for the local response to intended radical radiotherapy was investigated. Among 262 patients treated with intended radical radiotherapy between 1967 and 1986, a total of 154 patients were evaluable with respect to local response to treatment. The paraffin-embedded specimen from the tumour prior to irradiation was immunostained with the monoclonal antibodies PMG3-245 for Rb and 1801 for p53 nuclear proteins after heating in a microwave oven for 40 min at 650 W. An altered expression of Rb and p53 was observed in 18 and 42% of the tumours, respectively. p53 overexpression was associated with higher tumour grade. However, the results of the p53 and Rb immunostaining procedures had no predictive value for tumor response to radiation treatment, local control or cancer-specific mortality.

  • 42.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Department of Urology, Örebro Medical Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Predictive value of p53 and pRb immunostaining in locally advanced bladder cancer treated with cystectomy1998In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 160, no 4, p. 1291-1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We elucidate the association between altered immunostaining for retinoblastoma gene protein (pRb) and p53 nuclear proteins, and cancer specific death in patients treated with cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer.

    Materials and Methods: The hospital records of 173 patients treated with cystectomy for advanced urothelial bladder cancer between 1967 and 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. Representative biopsies obtained before treatment were sectioned and stained using the standard immunohistochemical technique with antibody DO-7 (p53) and antibody PMG3-245 (pRb). A tumor was considered to have an altered p53 expression if 20% or more of tumor cells exhibited nuclear staining. Similarly, if no tumor cell had nuclear immunostaining the tumor was considered to have an altered pRb expression.

    Results: An altered expression was observed for p53 in 98 tumors (57%) and for pRb in 60 (35%). In a proportional hazards analysis no association was found between an altered expression of pRb or p53 and cancer specific death. This finding was also true in another analysis when the results of immunostaining for pRb and p53 were combined.

    Conclusions: An altered expression for pRb and/or p53 was not correlated to cancer specific death. Thus, these parameters could not be used as predictors of treatment outcome after cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer.

  • 43.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    et al.
    Department of Urology, Örebro Medical Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro Medical Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tumor mapping of regional immunostaining for p21, p53, and mdm2 in locally advanced bladder carcinoma2000In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 619-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations among immunostaining for p53, p21, and mdm2; their respective expression within each tumor; and the value of these variables for predicting treatment outcome after cystectomy for patients with locally advanced bladder carcinoma.

    Methods: The hospital records from all 173 patients treated with cystectomy for locally advanced urothelial bladder carcinoma between 1967 and 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. Three consecutive sections from biopsies taken before any treatment were stained using the standard immunohistochemical technique for p53, p21, and mdm2, respectively. The cutoff limit was 20% or more for positive p53 expression and 10% or more for positive p21 and mdm2 expression.

    Results: Positive immunostaining was observed for p53 in 98 tumors (57%), for p21 in 89 tumors (51%), and for mdm2 in only 16 tumors (9%). The only association found between immunostaining for the three antibodies was that most mdm2-positive tumors had positive p21 expression. Tumor mapping of regional immunostaining showed no association between immunostaining for p53 and p21. In a proportional hazards analysis, no association was found between the results of immunostaining for the three antibodies and treatment outcome.

    Conclusions: Positive or negative expression of p53, p21, or mdm2, or combinations of these, was not associated with cancer specific mortality after cystectomy for bladder carcinoma. There was no association between immunostaining for p21 and p53, whereas positive immunostaining for mdm2 was observed in a minority of the tumors. These results indicate that, in addition to p21, p53, and mdm2, there are other oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins along the p53 pathway that are involved in tumor development and progression.

  • 44.
    Kaliff, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Women’s Health.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    DNA methylation analysis in HPV-positive screening samples from women 30-69 years in the cervical cancer-screening program in Örebro, Sweden: a pilot study2019In: EUROGIN 2019 ABSTRACTS: POSTERS, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Kaliff, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Bohr Mordhorst, Louise
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Droplet Digital PCR for type-specific detection and quantification of nine different HPV genotypes in cervical carcinomasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Kaliff, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Ekman, Maria
    Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ottestig, Elin
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Women's Health.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Research and Development.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Full genotyping and FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation analysis in high-risk HPV-positive samples from women over 30 years participating in cervical cancer screening in Örebro, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Kaliff, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bohr Mordhorst, Louise
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    HPV-negative Tumors in a Swedish Cohort of Cervical Cancer2020In: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology, ISSN 0277-1691, E-ISSN 1538-7151, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 279-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common perception that the human papilloma virus (HPV) is a requirement for the development of cervical cancer (CC), a considerable number of CCs test HPV negative. Presently, many countries are shifting to HPV primary CC screening, and it is of importance to increase the knowledge about the group of CCs that test HPV negative. The aim of this study was to reinvestigate a proportion of cervical tumors with a primary negative or invalid test result. Reinvestigation with repeated genotyping (targeting L1) was followed by analysis with an alternative target method (targeting E6/E7) on existing or additional tumor material. Consistently negative tumors were histologically evaluated, and cases with low or lacking tumor cell content, consistent invalid test results, or with suspicion of other than cervical origin were excluded. HPV-negative cases were thereafter subjected to immunohistochemistry (Cytokeratin 5, pan cytokeratin, protein 63, P16, and P53). The HPV-negative proportion could after reinvestigation be reduced by one-half (14%-7%). Additional positive samples were often detected in late polymerase chain reaction cycles, with an alternative (E6/E7) or the same (L1) target, or with a method using shorter amplicon lengths. Confirmed HPV negativity was significantly associated with worse prognosis, high patient age, longer storage time, and adenocarcinoma histology. Some of the HPV-negative cases showed strong/diffuse p16 immunoreactivity, indicating some remaining false-negative cases. False HPV negativity in this cohort was mainly linked to methodological limitations in the analysis of stored CC material. The small proportion of presumably true HPV-negative adenocarcinomas is not a reason for hesitation in revision to CC screening with primary HPV testing.

  • 48.
    Kaliff, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Research and Development.
    Bergengren, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Women's Health.
    Full genotyping and FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation analysis in high-risk human papillomavirus-positive samples from women over 30 years participating in cervical cancer screening in Örebro, Sweden2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 9, article id e0274825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, cervical cancer prevention is undergoing comprehensive development regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening. In Sweden and many other countries, high coverage vaccinated cohorts are entering screening within the next few years. This entails demands for baseline HPV genotype data across the screening age range for surveillance and a basis for screening program adjustment. In 2016, Örebro County, Sweden, changed to primary HPV screening using HPV mRNA testing followed by cytology triage. An alternative triage method to cytology could allow for a fully molecular screening algorithm and be implemented in a screening program where self-sampling is included. Hypermethylation analysis of the human genes FAM19A4/miR124-2 has been suggested as a promising triage method. HPV mRNA-positive screening samples (n = 529) were included and subjected to genotyping targeting a broad range of both low-risk and high-risk genotypes in addition to hypermethylation analysis of the two human genes FAM19A4/miR124-2. Data were connected to cytological and histological status and age. The most commonly detected genotypes were HPV31, 16, and 52. In addition, HPV18 was one of the most common genotypes in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) samples. In relation to available vaccines, 26% of the women with histological HSIL or cancer (≥HSIL) tested positive for only hrHPV included in the quadrivalent vaccine and 77% of the genotypes in the nonavalent vaccine. According to these figures, a relatively large proportion of the HSILs will probably remain, even after age cohorts vaccinated with the quadrivalent vaccine enter the screening program. Hypermethylation positivity was associated with increasing age, but no HPV-related independently predictive factors were found. Accordingly, age needs to be considered in development of future screening algorithms including triage with hypermethylation methodology.

  • 49.
    Kaliff, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Louise, Bohr Mordhorst
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Optimization of droplet digital PCR assays for the type specific detection and quantification of five HPV genotypes, also including additional data on viral load of nine different HPV genotypes in cervical carcinomas2021In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 294, article id 114193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) system enables high-sensitivity detection of nucleic acids and direct absolute quantification of the targets. The aim of this research was to evaluate this system for viral load (VL) analysis of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes HPV31, 35, 39, 51 and 56 measured in number of viral particles per cell. The sample types used for the optimization of the ddPCR assay were formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and cervical liquid cytology samples. The presently optimized ddPCR assays, together with assays optimized previously for HPV16, 18, 33 and 45, with the same ddPCR method, were used for the VL analysis of cervical tumor samples. Results published previously on the present study cohort showed that women with a cervical tumor containing multiple high-risk HPV genotypes had a worse prognosis compared to women with single-genotype-infected tumors. The VL was therefore analyzed in this study for the same cohort, as a possible explanatory factor to the prognostic differences. The results of the optimization part of the study, with analysis of VL using ddPCR in DNA from varying sample types (FFPE and liquid cytology samples), showed that each of the five assays demonstrated good inter- and intra-assay means with a coefficient of variation (CV) under 8% and 6% respectably. The cohort results showed no difference in VL between tumors with multiple and single HPV infections, and therefore did most likely not constitute a contributing factor for prognostic differences observed previously. However, tumors from women aged 60 years or older or containing certain HPV genotypes and genotype genera were associated with a higher VL.

  • 50.
    Kaliff, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Sorbe, Bengt
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mordhorst, Louise Bohr
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Findings of multiple HPV genotypes in cervical carcinoma are associated with poor cancer-specific survival in a Swedish cohort of cervical cancer primarily treated with radiotherapy2018In: Oncotarget, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 9, no 27, p. 18786-18796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common cancers in women and virtually all cases of CC are a result of a persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). For disease detected in early stages there is curing treatment but when diagnosed late with recurring disease and metastasis there are limited possibilities. Here we evaluate HPV impact on treatment resistance and metastatic disease progression. Prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in a Swedish CC patient cohort (n=209) was evaluated, as well as HPV influence on patient prognosis. Tumor samples suitable for analysis (n=204) were genotyped using two different real-time PCR methods. HPV16 variant analysis was made using pyrosequencing. Results showed that HPV prevalence in the total series was 93%. Of the HPV-positive samples, 13% contained multiple infections, typically with two high-risk HPV together. Primary cure rate for the complete series was 95%. Recurrence rate of the complete series was 28% and distant recurrences were most frequent (20%). Patients with tumors containing multiple HPV-strains and particularly HPV genotypes belonging to the alpha 7 and 9 species together had a significantly higher rate of distant tumor recurrences and worse cancer-specific survival rate.

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